acetaldehyde

Summary

Summary: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.

Top Publications

  1. Brooks P, Zakhari S. Acetaldehyde and the genome: beyond nuclear DNA adducts and carcinogenesis. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014;55:77-91 pubmed publisher
    The designation of acetaldehyde associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has brought renewed attention to the ..
  2. March S, Abate P, Spear N, Molina J. The role of acetaldehyde in ethanol reinforcement assessed by Pavlovian conditioning in newborn rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;226:491-9 pubmed publisher
    Animal studies indicate that central acetaldehyde, dependent on catalase metabolism of ethanol (EtOH), modulates ethanol reinforcement...
  3. Yokoyama A, Tsutsumi E, Imazeki H, Suwa Y, Nakamura C, Yokoyama T. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1246-56 pubmed publisher
  4. Vinci S, Ibba F, Longoni R, Spina L, Spiga S, Acquas E. Acetaldehyde elicits ERK phosphorylation in the rat nucleus accumbens and extended amygdala. Synapse. 2010;64:916-27 pubmed publisher
    Recent advances suggest that acetaldehyde mediates some of the neurobiological properties of ethanol...
  5. Balbo S, Meng L, Bliss R, Jensen J, Hatsukami D, Hecht S. Kinetics of DNA adduct formation in the oral cavity after drinking alcohol. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Acetaldehyde, the major metabolite of ethanol, reacts with DNA to produce adducts, which are critical in the carcinogenic ..
  6. Holmuhamedov E, Czerny C, Beeson C, Lemasters J. Ethanol suppresses ureagenesis in rat hepatocytes: role of acetaldehyde. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..extensive mitochondrial metabolite exchange, we characterized the effect of ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde (AcAld), on total and ureagenic respiration in cultured rat hepatocytes...
  7. Yao Z, Zhang C, Lu F, Bie X, Lu Z. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1999-2009 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde is a known mutagen and carcinogen. Active aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) represents an important mechanism for acetaldehyde detoxification...
  8. Vehkala L, Ukkola O, Kesaniemi Y, Kahonen M, Nieminen M, Salomaa V, et al. Plasma IgA antibody levels to malondialdehyde acetaldehyde-adducts are associated with inflammatory mediators, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ann Med. 2013;45:501-10 pubmed publisher
    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) associate with increased oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts have been suggested to be one of the antigenic epitopes in MDA-LDL responsible for the antibody recognition...
  9. Nieminen M, Novak Frazer L, Collins R, Dawsey S, Dawsey S, Abnet C, et al. Alcohol and acetaldehyde in African fermented milk mursik--a possible etiologic factor for high incidence of esophageal cancer in western Kenya. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Among Kenyans consumption of fermented milk is an old tradition. Our hypothesis is that alcohol and acetaldehyde are produced during the fermentation process and that their carcinogenic potential contributes to the high ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zhang L, Zhou M, Dong S. A self-powered acetaldehyde sensor based on biofuel cell. Anal Chem. 2012;84:10345-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde is recognized as a type of organic environmental pollutant all over the world, which makes the sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost detection of acetaldehyde urgent and significant...
  2. Vandevoort C, Hill D, Chaffin C, Conley A. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and estradiol affect growth and differentiation of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Because embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from blastocyst stage embryos, they are used as a model for early embryo development...
  3. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani P, Cho W, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb D. Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:28-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes...
  4. Pautassi R, Nizhnikov M, Fabio M, Spear N. An acetaldehyde-sequestering agent inhibits appetitive reinforcement and behavioral stimulation induced by ethanol in preweanling rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;97:462-9 pubmed publisher
    Ethanol's motivational consequences have been related to the actions of acetaldehyde, a metabolic product of ethanol oxidation. The present study assessed the role of acetaldehyde in the motivational effects of ethanol on preweanling rats...
  5. Yu H, Oyama T, Isse T, Kitagawa K, Pham T, Tanaka M, et al. Formation of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts due to alcohol exposure. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..mainly oxidized by the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1), and catalase to form acetaldehyde, which is subsequently oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) to produce acetate...
  6. Liu Z, Byun H, Bittman R. Asymmetric synthesis of D-ribo-phytosphingosine from 1-tetradecyne and (4-methoxyphenoxy)acetaldehyde. J Org Chem. 2010;75:4356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..An alkynyl azide analogue of 1, which may be useful as a glycosyl acceptor in the synthesis of alpha-galactosylceramide derivatives, was also readily prepared by this route...
  7. Duryee M, Klassen L, Schaffert C, Tuma D, Hunter C, Garvin R, et al. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct is the dominant epitope after MDA modification of proteins in atherosclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1480-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies have shown that excess MDA can be degraded to acetaldehyde, which combines with proteins to from a stable dihydropyridine adduct...
  8. Elamin E, Jonkers D, Juuti Uusitalo K, van Ijzendoorn S, Troost F, Duimel H, et al. Effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on tight junction integrity: in vitro study in a three dimensional intestinal epithelial cell culture model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35008 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde at relatively high concentrations have been shown to disrupt intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the ..
  9. Stagos D, Chen Y, Brocker C, Donald E, Jackson B, Orlicky D, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1: molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mitochondrial acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1679-87 pubmed publisher
    Ethanol-induced damage is largely attributed to its toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde. Clearance of acetaldehyde is achieved by its oxidation, primarily catalyzed by the mitochondrial class II aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)...
  10. Correa M, Salamone J, Segovia K, Pardo M, Longoni R, Spina L, et al. Piecing together the puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:404-30 pubmed publisher
    Mainly known for its more famous parent compound, ethanol, acetaldehyde was first studied in the 1940s, but then research interest in this compound waned...
  11. Deehan G, Engleman E, Ding Z, McBride W, Rodd Z. Microinjections of acetaldehyde or salsolinol into the posterior ventral tegmental area increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:722-9 pubmed publisher
    Published findings indicate that acetaldehyde (ACD; the first metabolite of ethanol [EtOH]) and salsolinol (SAL; formed through the nonenzymatic condensation of ACD and dopamine [DA]) can be formed following EtOH consumption...
  12. Veneskoski M, Turunen S, Kummu O, Nissinen A, Rannikko S, Levonen A, et al. Specific recognition of malondialdehyde and malondialdehyde acetaldehyde adducts on oxidized LDL and apoptotic cells by complement anaphylatoxin C3a. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..to low-density lipoprotein and bovine serum albumin modified with malondialdehyde (MDA) and malondialdehyde acetaldehyde (MAA) in chemiluminescence immunoassays...
  13. Hayashi N, George J, Takeuchi M, Fukumura A, Toshikuni N, Arisawa T, et al. Acetaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products promote alcoholic liver disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70034 pubmed publisher
    Chronic ingestion of ethanol increases acetaldehyde and leads to the production of acetaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products (AA-AGE)...
  14. Guo R, Ren J. Alcohol and acetaldehyde in public health: from marvel to menace. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:1285-301 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications...
  15. Linderborg K, Marvola T, Marvola M, Salaspuro M, Farkkila M, Väkeväinen S. Reducing carcinogenic acetaldehyde exposure in the achlorhydric stomach with cysteine. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:516-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde, associated with alcohol consumption, has recently been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans. Achlorhydric atrophic gastritis is a well-known risk factor for gastric cancer...
  16. DUNAGAN M, Chaudhry K, Samak G, Rao R. Acetaldehyde disrupts tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers by a protein phosphatase 2A-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;303:G1356-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde is accumulated at high concentrations in the colonic lumen following ethanol administration...
  17. Matsufuji Y, Nakagawa T, Fujimura S, Tani A, Nakagawa J. Transcription factor Stb5p is essential for acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Basic Microbiol. 2010;50:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..multidrug resistance gene regulators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was shown here to play an essential role in acetaldehyde tolerance...
  18. Thomes P, Ehlers R, Trambly C, Clemens D, Fox H, Tuma D, et al. Multilevel regulation of autophagosome content by ethanol oxidation in HepG2 cells. Autophagy. 2013;9:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, regardless of their ethanol-metabolizing capacity, direct exposure of cells to acetaldehyde enhanced LC3-II content...
  19. Haas S, Ye W, Löhr J. Alcohol consumption and digestive tract cancer. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012;15:457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicating that alcohol is an important factor increasing the risk to develop gastrointestinal cancer are consolidating. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence...
  20. Guo Y, Wu X, Zhang C, Liao Z, Wu Y, Wang H. Protective effect of sodium ferulate on acetaldehyde-treated precision-cut rat liver slices. J Med Food. 2012;15:557-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury...
  21. Shi J, Zhao W, Chen Y, Guo L, Yang L. A replaceable dual-enzyme capillary microreactor using magnetic beads and its application for simultaneous detection of acetaldehyde and pyruvate. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:2145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent K(m) values for acetaldehyde with ADH-catalyzed reaction and for pyruvate with LDH-catalyzed reaction were determined...
  22. Singh R, Gromadzinska J, Mistry Y, Cordell R, Juren T, Segerbäck D, et al. Detection of acetaldehyde derived N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following alcohol consumption. Mutat Res. 2012;737:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..consumption on the levels and persistence of N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) formed by acetaldehyde, the oxidative metabolite of ethanol, in human leukocyte DNA was investigated...
  23. Gainza Cirauqui M, Nieminen M, Novak Frazer L, Aguirre Urizar J, Moragues M, Rautemaa R. Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42:243-9 pubmed publisher
    Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida has been suggested to contribute to epithelial dysplasia and oral carcinogenesis...
  24. Marttila E, Bowyer P, Sanglard D, Uittamo J, Kaihovaara P, Salaspuro M, et al. Fermentative 2-carbon metabolism produces carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde in Candida albicans. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2013;28:281-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism in microbes associated with cancers of the upper digestive tract...
  25. D Addario C, Johansson S, Candeletti S, Romualdi P, Ogren S, Terenius L, et al. Ethanol and acetaldehyde exposure induces specific epigenetic modifications in the prodynorphin gene promoter in a human neuroblastoma cell line. FASEB J. 2011;25:1069-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that ethanol and acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, affect transcription of opioid system genes in human SH-SY5Y ..
  26. Liu Y, Brymora J, Zhang H, Smith B, Ramezani Moghadam M, George J, et al. Leptin and acetaldehyde synergistically promotes ?SMA expression in hepatic stellate cells by an interleukin 6-dependent mechanism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:921-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to assess whether leptin contributes to alcoholic liver fibrosis by in vitro studies in hepatic stellate cells (HSC)...
  27. Linderborg K, Salaspuro M, Väkeväinen S. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2103-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde...
  28. Tokuda K, Izumi Y, Zorumski C. Locally-generated acetaldehyde is involved in ethanol-mediated LTP inhibition in the hippocampus. Neurosci Lett. 2013;537:40-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To account for this, we hypothesized that local metabolism to acetaldehyde may contribute to the effects of high ethanol on synaptic function...
  29. Hoffman A, Evans S. Abuse potential of non-nicotine tobacco smoke components: acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15:622-32 pubmed publisher
    This review identified published animal studies evaluating the possible abuse potential of acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine based on five commonly used paradigms...
  30. Uittamo J, Nieminen M, Kaihovaara P, Bowyer P, Salaspuro M, Rautemaa R. Xylitol inhibits carcinogenic acetaldehyde production by Candida species. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:2038-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde is a highly toxic and mutagenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism which has been classified as a Class I carcinogen for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation (..
  31. Yokoyama A, Omori T, Yokoyama T. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and a new strategy for prevention and screening for cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract in East Asians. Keio J Med. 2010;59:115-30 pubmed
    The ethanol in alcoholic beverages and the acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption are Group 1 human carcinogens (WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer)...
  32. Salaspuro M. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer. J Dig Dis. 2011;12:51-9 pubmed publisher
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being ..
  33. Ayhan P, Şimşek İ, Çifçi B, Demir A. Benzaldehyde lyase catalyzed enantioselective self and cross condensation reactions of acetaldehyde derivatives. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:2602-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Flexible protected 1,3,4-trihydroxy-2-butanone is synthesized in high enantiomeric excesses by using asymmetric homo- and cross- acyloin coupling of aliphatic aldehydes catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase...
  34. Peana A, Muggironi G, Fois G, Zinellu M, Vinci S, Acquas E. Effect of opioid receptor blockade on acetaldehyde self-administration and ERK phosphorylation in the rat nucleus accumbens. Alcohol. 2011;45:773-83 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol, regulates its motivational properties and possesses reinforcing effects by itself...
  35. Cacace S, Plescia F, Barberi I, Cannizzaro C. Acetaldehyde oral self-administration: evidence from the operant-conflict paradigm. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36:1278-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde (ACD), ethanol's first metabolite, has been reported to interact with the dopaminergic reward system, and with the neural circuits involved in stress response...
  36. Szuster Ciesielska A, Plewka K, Kandefer Szerszeń M. Betulin, betulinic acid and butein are inhibitors of acetaldehyde-induced activation of liver stellate cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:1109-23 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted in rat stellate cells (HSCs) that were treated with acetaldehyde, which is the most reactive product of ethanol metabolism...
  37. Wang C, Turunen S, Kummu O, Veneskoski M, Lehtimäki J, Nissinen A, et al. Natural antibodies of newborns recognize oxidative stress-related malondialdehyde acetaldehyde adducts on apoptotic cells and atherosclerotic plaques. Int Immunol. 2013;25:575-87 pubmed publisher
    Malondialdehyde acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts are generated under oxidative stress and shown to be highly immunogenic...
  38. Marttila E, Uittamo J, Rusanen P, Lindqvist C, Salaspuro M, Rautemaa R. Acetaldehyde production and microbial colonization in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral lichenoid disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;116:61-8 pubmed publisher
    The main aim of this prospective study was to explore the ability of the oral microbiome to produce acetaldehyde in ethanol incubation.
  39. Wang J, Shen N, Yin H, Liu C, Li Y, Li Q. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;169:1016-25 pubmed publisher
    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast...
  40. Setshedi M, Wands J, Monte S. Acetaldehyde adducts in alcoholic liver disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2010;3:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of ..
  41. Hori K, Miyamoto S, Yukawa Y, Muto M, Chiba T, Matsuda T. Stability of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adduct in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:642-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetaldehyde (AA) derived from alcoholic beverages is a confirmed carcinogen for esophageal and head and neck cancers. AA forms various DNA adducts and is thought to play a crucial role in carcinogenesis...
  42. Moazzez R, Thompson H, Palmer R, Wilson R, Proctor G, Wade W. Effect of rinsing with ethanol-containing mouthrinses on the production of salivary acetaldehyde. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119:441-6 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses could lead to the presence of acetaldehyde in saliva...
  43. Escrig M, Pardo M, Aragon C, Correa M. Anxiogenic and stress-inducing effects of peripherally administered acetaldehyde in mice: similarities with the disulfiram-ethanol reaction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;100:404-12 pubmed publisher
    Peripheral accumulation of acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, produces autonomic responses in humans called "flushing"...
  44. Wyatt T, Kharbanda K, McCaskill M, Tuma D, Yanov D, Devasure J, et al. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducted protein inhalation causes lung injury. Alcohol. 2012;46:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of cigarette smoke and alcohol exposure results in the formation of a very stable hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA)-adducted protein in the lung...
  45. Boffetta P, Kaihovaara P, Rudnai P, Znaor A, Lissowska J, Swiatkowska B, et al. Acetaldehyde level in spirits from central European countries. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20:526-9 pubmed publisher
    Intake of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages, in central Europe, might explain the high rate of alcohol-related diseases in these countries...
  46. Samak G, Aggarwal S, Rao R. ERK is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions, but not adherens junctions, in acetaldehyde-treated Caco-2 cell monolayers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G50-9 pubmed publisher
    The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the mechanism of EGF-mediated prevention of acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption was evaluated in Caco-2 cell monolayers...
  47. Deehan G, Brodie M, Rodd Z. What is in that drink: the biological actions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and salsolinol. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2013;13:163-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter is intended to provide a historical perspective of the role of acetaldehyde (the first metabolite of alcohol) in alcohol reinforcement as well as review the basic research literature on ..
  48. Bruinen de Bruin Y, Koistinen K, Kephalopoulos S, Geiss O, Tirendi S, Kotzias D. Characterisation of urban inhalation exposures to benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the European Union: comparison of measured and modelled exposure data. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2008;15:417-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, the current paper compares inhalation exposures to three health-based EU priority substances, i.e. benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
  49. Hietala J, Koivisto H, Latvala J, Anttila P, Niemela O. IgAs against acetaldehyde-modified red cell protein as a marker of ethanol consumption in male alcoholic subjects, moderate drinkers, and abstainers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:1693-8 pubmed
    Alcohol abuse has been shown to result in the production of antibodies against acetaldehyde-modified epitopes in proteins...
  50. Arizzi Lafrance M, Correa M, Aragon C, Salamone J. Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:997-1008 pubmed
    ..was conducted to investigate the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)...
  51. Cho Y, Wang H, Kozekov I, Kurtz A, Jacob J, Voehler M, et al. Stereospecific formation of interstrand carbinolamine DNA cross-links by crotonaldehyde- and acetaldehyde-derived alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in the 5'-CpG-3' sequence. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006;19:195-208 pubmed
    The crotonaldehyde- and acetaldehyde-derived R- and S-alpha-CH3-gamma-OH-1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts were monitored in single-stranded and duplex oligodeoxynucleotides using NMR spectroscopy...
  52. Isse T, Matsuno K, Oyama T, Kitagawa K, Kawamoto T. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene targeting mouse lacking enzyme activity shows high acetaldehyde level in blood, brain, and liver after ethanol gavages. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:1959-64 pubmed
    ..In addition, after a free-choice drinking test, no difference in the acetaldehyde level was observed between the Aldh2-/- and wild type (Aldh2+/+) mice...
  53. Zhang S, Villalta P, Wang M, Hecht S. Analysis of crotonaldehyde- and acetaldehyde-derived 1,n(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts in DNA from human tissues using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006;19:1386-92 pubmed
    ..They can also be formed through the consecutive reaction of two acetaldehyde molecules with dGuo. Cro-dGuo adducts inhibit DNA synthesis and induce miscoding in human cells...