Summary: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.

Top Publications

  1. Al Hussein A, Gieseler H. The effect of mannitol crystallization in mannitol-sucrose systems on LDH stability during freeze-drying. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:2534-44 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of mannitol crystallization and the effect of annealing on the stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during freeze-drying...
  2. Anderson W, Lipworth B. Relationship of mannitol challenge to methacholine challenge and inflammatory markers in persistent asthmatics receiving inhaled corticosteroids. Lung. 2012;190:513-21 pubmed
    b>Mannitol is a novel osmotic indirect bronchial challenge agent used to aid asthma diagnosis and management and is thought to reflect underlying inflammatory processes in asthma...
  3. Cao W, Xie Y, Krishnan S, Lin H, Ricci M. Influence of process conditions on the crystallization and transition of metastable mannitol forms in protein formulations during lyophilization. Pharm Res. 2013;30:131-9 pubmed publisher
    To study the impact of different process conditions and formulation compositions on metastable mannitol forms in protein formulations during lyophilization.
  4. Marko N. Hypertonic saline, not mannitol, should be considered gold-standard medical therapy for intracranial hypertension. Crit Care. 2012;16:113 pubmed publisher
    Hyperosmolar therapy is the principal medical management strategy for elevated intracranial pressure. Mannitol has been the primary hyperosmolar agent for nearly a century and remains the de facto gold standard for medical management of ..
  5. Seeliger E, Ladwig M, Sargsyan L, Cantow K, Persson P, Flemming B. Proof of principle: hydration by low-osmolar mannitol-glucose solution alleviates undesirable renal effects of an iso-osmolar contrast medium in rats. Invest Radiol. 2012;47:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Osmodiuretics have a stronger diuretic effect than saline, yet previous trials indicate that osmodiuretic mannitol tends to promote rather than to prevent CM-induced acute kidney injury...
  6. Gjoerup J, Hilberg O, Bendstrup E. Inhaled mannitol in the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults. Respirology. 2012;17:927-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the evidence base for the efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis...
  7. Son H, Lee J, Lee Y. Mannitol induces the conversion of conidia to chlamydospore-like structures that confer enhanced tolerance to heat, drought, and UV in Gibberella zeae. Microbiol Res. 2012;167:608-15 pubmed publisher
    Fungi use mannitol to store carbon, balance redox, and mannitol serves as an antioxidant. Several fungi also increase stress tolerance by accumulating mannitol...
  8. Tomaszewska L, Rywińska A, Gładkowski W. Production of erythritol and mannitol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in media containing glycerol. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;39:1333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents an alternative means of crude glycerol valorization through the production of erythritol and mannitol. In a shake-flasks experiment in a buffered medium, nine Yarrowia lipolytica strains were examined for polyols ..
  9. Sequeira I, Lentle R, Kruger M, Hurst R. The effect of aspirin and smoking on urinary excretion profiles of lactulose and mannitol in young women: toward a dynamic, aspirin augmented, test of gut mucosal permeability. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:e401-11 pubmed publisher
    We explored the temporal dynamics of the lactulose mannitol test and the influence of a single dose of aspirin.

More Information


  1. Price N, Manitchotpisit P, Vermillion K, Bowman M, Leathers T. Structural characterization of novel extracellular liamocins (mannitol oils) produced by Aureobasidium pullulans strain NRRL 50380. Carbohydr Res. 2013;370:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed that the liamocins are composed of a single mannitol headgroup partially O-acylated with three (for liamocin A1 and A2) or four (for liamocin B1 and B2) 3,5-..
  2. Decourcey D, Steil G, Wypij D, Agus M. Increasing use of hypertonic saline over mannitol in the treatment of symptomatic cerebral edema in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis: an 11-year retrospective analysis of mortality*. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14:694-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This entity has traditionally been treated with mannitol, but use of 3% hypertonic saline has become an accepted alternative...
  3. Bilton D, Daviskas E, Anderson S, Kolbe J, King G, Stirling R, et al. Phase 3 randomized study of the efficacy and safety of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the symptomatic treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Chest. 2013;144:215-225 pubmed publisher
    Inhaled dry powder mannitol enhanced mucus clearance and improved quality of life over 2 weeks in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. This study's objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of dry powder mannitol over 12 weeks.
  4. Lavilla C, Alla A, Martínez de Ilarduya A, Muñoz Guerra S. High T(g) bio-based aliphatic polyesters from bicyclic D-mannitol. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:781-93 pubmed publisher
    The carbohydrate-based diol 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol (Manx) has been used to obtain aliphatic polyesters. Manx is a symmetric bicyclic compound consisting of two fused 1,3-dioxane rings and bearing two primary hydroxyl groups...
  5. D Addio S, Chan J, Kwok P, Benson B, Prud homme R, Chan H. Aerosol delivery of nanoparticles in uniform mannitol carriers formulated by ultrasonic spray freeze drying. Pharm Res. 2013;30:2891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a successful dry powder formulation which is capable of delivering nanoparticles to the lungs with good aerosolization properties, high loadings of nanoparticles, and limited irreversible aggregation...
  6. Bouraoui H, Ventroux M, Noirot Gros M, Deutscher J, Joyet P. Membrane sequestration by the EIIB domain of the mannitol permease MtlA activates the Bacillus subtilis mtl operon regulator MtlR. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:789-801 pubmed publisher
    In most firmicutes expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by MtlR...
  7. Bilton D, Bellon G, Charlton B, Cooper P, De Boeck K, Flume P, et al. Pooled analysis of two large randomised phase III inhaled mannitol studies in cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2013;12:367-76 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate safety and efficacy of inhaled mannitol treatment in subgroups of a large global CF population.
  8. Nishino Y, Kubota A, Kanazawa T, Takashima Y, Ozeki T, Okada H. Improved intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble oral drug using mannitol microparticles containing a nanosolid drug dispersion. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:4191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..and intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, we used probucol (PBL) as a poorly water-soluble drug, mannitol (MAN) as a water-soluble carrier for the microparticles, and EUDRAGIT (EUD) as a polymer vehicle for the solid ..
  9. Fink M. Osmotherapy for intracranial hypertension: mannitol versus hypertonic saline. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:640-54 pubmed publisher
    ..brain edema and intracranial hypertension, but controversy exists regarding the use of the most common agents, mannitol, and hypertonic saline...
  10. Wessells K, Hess S, Rouamba N, Ouédraogo Z, Kellogg M, Goto R, et al. Associations between intestinal mucosal function and changes in plasma zinc concentration following zinc supplementation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the relation between intestinal mucosal function (measured by the lactulose:mannitol permeability test and plasma citrulline concentration), and zinc (Zn) absorption, as estimated by the change in ..
  11. Tao W, Zeng X, Liu T, Wang Z, Xiong Q, Ouyang C, et al. Docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles based on star-shaped mannitol-core PLGA-TPGS diblock copolymer for breast cancer therapy. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:8910-20 pubmed publisher
    A star-shaped biodegradable polymer, mannitol-core poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (M-PLGA-TPGS), was synthesized in order to provide a novel nanoformulation for breast cancer chemotherapy...
  12. Chen K, Wei V, Yen L, Poon K, Liu Y, Cheng K, et al. Intravenous mannitol does not increase blood-brain barrier permeability to inert dyes in the adult rat forebrain. Neuroreport. 2013;24:303-7 pubmed publisher
    Intravenous mannitol (IV-M) is widely administered in the clinic to lower intracranial pressure in patients with brain trauma and stroke...
  13. Demir B, Ozerkan K, Ozbek S, Yıldırım Eryılmaz N, Ocakoglu G. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and mannitol in treatment of eclamptic women with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286:287-93 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) and mannitol in the treatment of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in eclamptic women.
  14. Power N, Maschino A, Savage C, Silberstein J, Thorner D, Tarin T, et al. Intraoperative mannitol use does not improve long-term renal function outcomes after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy. Urology. 2012;79:821-5 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate intravenous mannitol during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) by comparing the renal function outcomes of the patients who received it versus those who did not.
  15. Kenny J, Moran J, Kolar S, Ulanov A, Li Z, Shaw L, et al. Mannitol utilisation is required for protection of Staphylococcus aureus from human skin antimicrobial fatty acids. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67698 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol (Mtl) fermentation, with the subsequent production of acid, is a species signature of Staphylococcus aureus, and discriminates it from most other members of the genus...
  16. Placidi E, Marciani L, Hoad C, Napolitano A, Garsed K, Pritchard S, et al. The effects of loperamide, or loperamide plus simethicone, on the distribution of gut water as assessed by MRI in a mannitol model of secretory diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;36:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel MRI techniques to assess small bowel water content (SBWC) have shown that mannitol solutions markedly increase SBWC and can be used as a model of diarrhoea.
  17. Soh J, Grachet M, Whitlock M, Lukas T. Characterization, optimisation and process robustness of a co-processed mannitol for the development of orally disintegrating tablets. Pharm Dev Technol. 2013;18:172-85 pubmed publisher
    This is a study to fully assess a commercially available co-processed mannitol for its usefulness as an off-the-shelf excipient for developing orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by direct compression on a pilot scale (up to 4 kg)...
  18. Shaltiel Karyo R, Frenkel Pinter M, Rockenstein E, Patrick C, Levy Sakin M, Schiller A, et al. A blood-brain barrier (BBB) disrupter is also a potent ?-synuclein (?-syn) aggregation inhibitor: a novel dual mechanism of mannitol for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17579-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the ability of mannitol to interfere with the aggregation process of ?-synuclein in vitro and in vivo in addition to its blood-brain ..
  19. Burness C, Keating G. Mannitol dry powder for inhalation: in patients with cystic fibrosis. Drugs. 2012;72:1411-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol dry powder for inhalation has been developed for the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis...
  20. Quentin C, Charbonneau S, Moumdjian R, Lallo A, Bouthilier A, Fournier Gosselin M, et al. A comparison of two doses of mannitol on brain relaxation during supratentorial brain tumor craniotomy: a randomized trial. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:862-8 pubmed publisher
    Twenty percent mannitol is widely used to reduce brain bulk and facilitate the surgical approach in intracranial surgery. However, a dose-response relationship has not yet been established. In this study, we compared the effects of 0...
  21. Ota A, Kawai S, Oda H, Iohara K, Murata K. Production of ethanol from mannitol by the yeast strain Saccharomyces paradoxus NBRC 0259. J Biosci Bioeng. 2013;116:327-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol is a promising marine macroalgal carbon source...
  22. Wang Z, Lu J, Feng M. Primary roles of two dehydrogenases in the mannitol metabolism and multi-stress tolerance of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:2139-50 pubmed publisher
    Knockout and complement mutants of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPD) and mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) were constructed to probe the roles of both enzymes in the mannitol metabolism and multi-stress tolerances of entomopathogenic ..
  23. Yokoyama T, Saito T, Ohbuchi T, Hashimoto H, Suzuki H, Otsubo H, et al. TRPV1 gene deficiency attenuates miniature EPSC potentiation induced by mannitol and angiotensin II in supraoptic magnocellular neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:876-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of mannitol and angiotensin II on miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) in the supraoptic MNCs using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in ..
  24. Redfors B, Swärd K, Sellgren J, Ricksten S. Effects of mannitol alone and mannitol plus furosemide on renal oxygen consumption, blood flow and glomerular filtration after cardiac surgery. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of mannitol for prophylaxis/treatment of clinical ischaemic ARF is controversial and the effect of mannitol on renal ..
  25. Majumdar S, Kjellstrand C, Tymchak W, Hervas Malo M, Taylor D, Teo K. Forced euvolemic diuresis with mannitol and furosemide for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with CKD undergoing coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:602-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, forced euvolemic diuresis with mannitol and furosemide ought to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy...
  26. Daviskas E, Anderson S, Young I. Effect of mannitol and repetitive coughing on the sputum properties in bronchiectasis. Respir Med. 2010;104:371-7 pubmed publisher
    Mucociliary clearance increases with increasing doses of mannitol and clearance is enhanced when mannitol inhalation is followed by repetitive voluntary coughing...
  27. Wu Y, Ellis R, Shaffer D, Fontes E, Malkin E, Mahanty S, et al. Phase 1 trial of malaria transmission blocking vaccine candidates Pfs25 and Pvs25 formulated with montanide ISA 51. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2636 pubmed publisher
    ..This single blinded, dose escalating, controlled Phase 1 study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant Pfs25 and Pvs25 formulated with Montanide ISA 51, a water-in-oil emulsion...
  28. Madonna R, Montebello E, Lazzerini G, Zurro M, De Caterina R. NA+/H+ exchanger 1- and aquaporin-1-dependent hyperosmolarity changes decrease nitric oxide production and induce VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:755-65 pubmed
    ..5 mmol/L glucose (normoglycemia, basal), high glucose (25 and 45 mmol/L, HG), or a hyperosmolar control (mannitol 25 and 45 mmol/L, HM), in the presence or absence of the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) inhibitor dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ..
  29. Simoes E, Pego Fernandes P, Cardoso P, Pazetti R, Werebe E, de Oliveira Braga K, et al. Comparing the performance of rat lungs preserved for 6 or 12 hours after perfusion with low-potassium dextran or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:1520-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to compare the lung performance of rats after reperfusion after presentation with 3 solutions at 2 ischemia times...
  30. Barben J, Kuehni C, Strippoli M, Schiller B, Hammer J, Trachsel D. Mannitol dry powder challenge in comparison with exercise testing in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011;46:842-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol dry powder (MDP) challenge is an indirect bronchial provocation test, which is well studied in adults but not established for children.
  31. Goksin I, Adali F, Enli Y, Akbulut M, Teke Z, Sackan G, et al. The effect of phlebotomy and mannitol on acute renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion of lower limbs in rats. Ann Vasc Surg. 2011;25:1118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Venous blood volume exclusion from the inferior vena cava (phlebotomy) or/and mannitol are used as a treatment for I/R injury of kidney in humans, despite the fact that the effectiveness of these ..
  32. Saha B, Racine F. Biotechnological production of mannitol and its applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:879-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol (sugar alcohol), is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medical, and chemical industries...
  33. Matsuura H, Kiyotaka U, Ishibashi Y, Kubo Y, Yamaguchi M, Hirata K, et al. A short period of mannitol stress but not LiCl stress led to global translational repression in plants. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:2110-2 pubmed
    ..In this study, we found that treatment with mannitol, but not lithium stress, led to rapid global translational repression, suggesting that a rapid response at the ..
  34. Hossain M, Nahar B, Hamadani J, Ahmed T, Roy A, Brown K. Intestinal mucosal permeability of severely underweight and nonmalnourished Bangladeshi children and effects of nutritional rehabilitation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;51:638-44 pubmed publisher
    Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) intestinal permeability tests were completed to compare the intestinal function of severely underweight children recovering from diarrhea and other illnesses and of nonmalnourished children from the same ..
  35. Song H, Zhao R, Fan P, Wang X, Chen X, Li Y. Overexpression of AtHsp90.2, AtHsp90.5 and AtHsp90.7 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhances plant sensitivity to salt and drought stresses. Planta. 2009;229:955-64 pubmed publisher
  36. Ulanov A, Widholm J. Metabolic profiling to determine the cause of the increased triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction in mannitol-treated maize callus. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:1423-31 pubmed publisher
    When Zea mays callus cultures of two different genotypes were treated with the osmoticum mannitol (0...
  37. da Silva J, de Lima F, Valenca M, de Azevedo Filho H. Hypertonic saline more efficacious than mannitol in lethal intracranial hypertension model. Neurol Res. 2010;32:139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mannitol is the mainstay of hyperosmolar therapy, hypertonic saline (HS) is emerging as an effective alternative to ..
  38. Gaspar P, Neves A, Gasson M, Shearman C, Santos H. High yields of 2,3-butanediol and mannitol in Lactococcus lactis through engineering of NAD? cofactor recycling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The three lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutants were selected as a background for the production of mannitol and 2,3-butanediol...
  39. Porsbjerg C, Lund T, Pedersen L, Backer V. Inflammatory subtypes in asthma are related to airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol and exhaled NO. J Asthma. 2009;46:606-12 pubmed publisher non-smoking asthmatics, (18-65 yr) not taking inhaled steroids, sputum induction, bronchial challenge with mannitol and measurement of exhaled NO (eNO) were performed...
  40. Song S, Vieille C. Recent advances in the biological production of mannitol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;84:55-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol is a fructose-derived, 6-carbon sugar alcohol that is widely found in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants...
  41. Daviskas E, Anderson S, Jaques A, Charlton B. Inhaled mannitol improves the hydration and surface properties of sputum in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 2010;137:861-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhaled mannitol improves mucus clearance and, when administered over 2 weeks, it improves lung function in CF (Jaques et al...
  42. Ichai C, Armando G, Orban J, Berthier F, Rami L, Samat Long C, et al. Sodium lactate versus mannitol in the treatment of intracranial hypertensive episodes in severe traumatic brain-injured patients. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of a new hyperosmolar solution based on sodium lactate in controlling raised intracranial pressure (ICP)...
  43. Minasian C, Wallis C, Metcalfe C, Bush A. Bronchial provocation testing with dry powder mannitol in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:1078-1084 pubmed publisher
    There has been recent interest in dry powder inhaled mannitol as a therapeutic agent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is has been shown to increase mucociliary clearance (MCC) by rehydrating the airway...
  44. Bayir A, Kiresi D, Kara H, Cengiz S, Kocak S, Ozdinç S, et al. The effects of mannitol and melatonin on MRI findings in an animal model of traumatic brain edema. Acta Neurol Belg. 2008;108:149-54 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mannitol and melatonin on brain edema secondary to trauma using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  45. Drake S, Whitney B, Levine J, DePaola A, Jaykus L. Correlation of mannitol fermentation with virulence-associated genotypic characteristics in Vibrio vulnificus isolates from oysters and water samples in the Gulf of Mexico. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:97-101 pubmed publisher
    ..d-Mannitol fermentation was also predictive of genotype, with an 86% agreement between 16S rRNA genotype and mannitol ..
  46. Mohanty S, Mishra S, Patnaik R, Dutt A, Pradhan S, Das B, et al. Brain swelling and mannitol therapy in adult cerebral malaria: a randomized trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:349-55 pubmed publisher
    Coma is a frequent presentation of severe malaria in adults and an important cause of death. The role of cerebral swelling in its pathogenesis, and the possible benefit of intravenous mannitol therapy to treat this, is uncertain.
  47. Kim J, Park Y, Chang Y, Byon H, Kim H, Kim C, et al. The effect of cardioplegic solution-induced sodium concentration fluctuation on postoperative seizure in pediatric cardiac patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:1943-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the relationship between the cardioplegic solution, the fluctuation of sodium concentration, and the incidence of postoperative seizure in pediatric cardiac patients...
  48. Rousvoal S, Groisillier A, Dittami S, Michel G, Boyen C, Tonon T. Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Ectocarpus siliculosus, a key role for mannitol synthesis in brown algae. Planta. 2011;233:261-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol represents a major end product of photosynthesis in brown algae (Phaeophyceae), and is, with the ?-1,3-glucan laminarin, the main form of carbon storage for these organisms...
  49. Hays A, Lazaridis C, Neyens R, Nicholas J, Gay S, Chalela J. Osmotherapy: use among neurointensivists. Neurocrit Care. 2011;14:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Osmotherapy, typically using mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS), has become one of the first-line interventions...
  50. Sabharwal N, Rao G, Ali Z, Radhakrishnan M. Hemodynamic changes after administration of mannitol measured by a noninvasive cardiac output monitor. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2009;21:248-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Mannitol is the most commonly used hyperosmotic agent in neurosurgery...
  51. Wang J, He Q, Liu Y, Hahn R. Pulmonary edema in the transurethral resection syndrome induced with mannitol 5%. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:1094-6 pubmed publisher
    Two patients developed the transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome after having absorbed mannitol 5% during TUR of the prostate...
  52. Guimarães A, Frases S, Cordero R, Nimrichter L, Casadevall A, Nosanchuk J. Cryptococcus neoformans responds to mannitol by increasing capsule size in vitro and in vivo. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:740-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we determined the effects of mannitol and glucose on the capsule and exopolysaccharide production...
  53. Klimacek M, Nidetzky B. From alcohol dehydrogenase to a "one-way" carbonyl reductase by active-site redesign: a mechanistic study of mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from pseudomonas fluorescens. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:30644-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanistic basis underpinning this discrimination is weak. In mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, stabilization of (partial) negative charge on the substrate ..