dithiothreitol

Summary

Summary: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.

Top Publications

  1. Fregin A, Czogalla K, Gansler J, Rost S, Taverna M, Watzka M, et al. A new cell culture-based assay quantifies vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 function and reveals warfarin resistance phenotypes not shown by the dithiothreitol-driven VKOR assay. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:872-80 pubmed publisher
    ..VKORC1 function has historically been assessed in vitro using a dithiothreitol (DTT)-driven vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) assay...
  2. Tsai C, Chang N, Tsai R, Wang R, Hsu C, Lin S, et al. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide plus dithiothreitol on mice oral cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3655-60 pubmed
    ..The results showed that 10-20 ?M dithiothreitol enhanced the cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide to 43.3~62...
  3. Tsai D, Shelton M, DelRio F, Elzey S, Guha S, Zachariah M, et al. Quantifying dithiothreitol displacement of functional ligands from gold nanoparticles. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;404:3015-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Dithiothreitol (DTT)-based displacement is widely utilized for separating ligands from their gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates, a critical step for differentiating and quantifying surface-bound functional ligands and therefore the ..
  4. Goemann I, Gereben B, Harney J, Zhu B, Maia A, Larsen P. Substitution of serine for proline in the active center of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase substantially alters its in vitro biochemical properties with dithiothreitol but not its function in intact cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:821-9 pubmed publisher
    ..show that despite an approximately 2000-fold higher Michaelis constant (K(m); T(4)) for D1 than for D2 using dithiothreitol (DTT) as cofactor, D1 expressed in intact cells produces T(3) at free T(4) concentrations many orders of ..
  5. Tsiang M, Jones G, Hung M, Samuel D, Novikov N, Mukund S, et al. Dithiothreitol causes HIV-1 integrase dimer dissociation while agents interacting with the integrase dimer interface promote dimer formation. Biochemistry. 2011;50:1567-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we found that dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing agent essential for in vitro enzymatic activity of IN, weakened the interaction between IN ..
  6. Castorena Gonzalez J, Staiculescu M, Foote C, Polo Parada L, Martinez Lemus L. The obligatory role of the actin cytoskeleton on inward remodeling induced by dithiothreitol activation of endogenous transglutaminase in isolated arterioles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;306:H485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, isolated and cannulated rat cremaster arterioles were exposed to dithiothreitol (DTT) to activate endogenous transglutaminases...
  7. Bumagina Z, Gurvits B, Artemova N, Muranov K, Yudin I, Kurganov B. Mechanism of suppression of dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of bovine alpha-lactalbumin by alpha-crystallin. Biophys Chem. 2010;146:108-17 pubmed publisher
    The kinetics of dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of alpha-lactalbumin from bovine milk has been studied using dynamic light-scattering technique...
  8. Pan Y, Chen Y, Wang D, Wei C, Guo J, Lu D, et al. Redox/pH dual stimuli-responsive biodegradable nanohydrogels with varying responses to dithiothreitol and glutathione for controlled drug release. Biomaterials. 2012;33:6570-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1) in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) or glutathione (GSH)...
  9. Ye X, Chen S, Wang L, Zhao Y, Lv X, Liu M, et al. Caffeine and dithiothreitol delay ovine oocyte ageing. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2010;22:1254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..somatic cell nuclear transfer and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the presence or absence of caffeine or dithiothreitol (DTT) were examined...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Rutkevich L, Williams D. Vitamin K epoxide reductase contributes to protein disulfide formation and redox homeostasis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, no involvement of QSOX1 in ER oxidative processes could be detected. These findings establish VKOR as a significant contributor to disulfide bond formation within the ER...
  2. Bumagina Z, Gurvits B, Artemova N, Muranov K, Kurganov B. Paradoxical acceleration of dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of insulin in the presence of a chaperone. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11:4556-79 pubmed publisher
    The kinetics of dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of human recombinant insulin and the effect of ?-crystallin, a representative of the family of small heat shock proteins, on the aggregation process have been studied using dynamic ..
  3. Mukerjea R, Gray A, Robyt J. Significant increases in potato Starch-Synthase and Starch-Branching-Enzyme activities by dilution with buffer containing dithiothreitol and polyvinyl alcohol 50 K. Carbohydr Res. 2013;367:25-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5), containing 1.0mM dithiothreitol (DTT) and 0...
  4. Nakai M, Kashiwazaki N, Takizawa A, Maedomari N, Ozawa M, Noguchi J, et al. Morphologic changes in boar sperm nuclei with reduced disulfide bonds in electrostimulated porcine oocytes. Reproduction. 2006;131:603-11 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of pretreating sperm heads with Triton X-100 (TX-100) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and of electrical stimulation of oocytes after sperm head injection on time-dependent morphologic ..
  5. Srinivas V, Raman B, Rao K, Ramakrishna T, Rao C. Arginine hydrochloride enhances the dynamics of subunit assembly and the chaperone-like activity of alpha-crystallin. Mol Vis. 2005;11:249-55 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study is to get an insight into the mechanism of the arginine induced enhancement of chaperone-like activity of alpha-crystallin...
  6. Chakravarthi S, Jessop C, Willer M, Stirling C, Bulleid N. Intracellular catalysis of disulfide bond formation by the human sulfhydryl oxidase, QSOX1. Biochem J. 2007;404:403-11 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of hQSOX1a suppresses the lethality of a complete deletion of ERO1 (endoplasmic reticulum oxidase 1) in yeast and restores disulfide bond formation, as assayed by the folding of the secretory protein carboxypeptidase Y...
  7. Paul M, Kumar R, Mukhopadhyay A. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;226:140-52 pubmed
    ..b>Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO...
  8. Liebeskind S, Korth H, de Groot H, Kirsch M. Dependence of product formation from decomposition of nitroso-dithiols on the degree of nitrosation. Evidence that dinitroso-dithiothreitol acts solely as an nitric oxide releasing compound. Org Biomol Chem. 2008;6:2560-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we demonstrate that nitrosated dl-dithiothreitol (DTT) decays via two independent pathways, that is, one producing exclusively nitric oxide and one producing (..
  9. Watanabe H, Fukui Y. Effects of dithiothreitol and boar on pronuclear formation and embryonic development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection in pigs. Theriogenology. 2006;65:528-39 pubmed
    ..fertilization, male pronuclear formation and embryonic development following intracytoplasmic injection of dithiothreitol (DTT)-treated boar spermatozoa...
  10. Braga T, Ringvall M, Tveit H, Abrink M, Pejler G. Reduction with dithiothreitol causes serglycin-specific defects in secretory granule integrity of bone marrow derived mast cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interference with such motifs of neuroendocrine cells with dithiothreitol (DTT) has previously been shown to cause cellular missorting...
  11. de Castro e Paula L, Hansen P. Modification of actions of heat shock on development and apoptosis of cultured preimplantation bovine embryos by oxygen concentration and dithiothreitol. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1338-50 pubmed publisher
    ..low oxygen environment (5% oxygen) and (2) that these effects would be reversed by addition of the antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT)...
  12. Ahmad M, Raman B, Ramakrishna T, Rao C. Effect of phosphorylation on alpha B-crystallin: differences in stability, subunit exchange and chaperone activity of homo and mixed oligomers of alpha B-crystallin and its phosphorylation-mimicking mutant. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:1040-51 pubmed
    ..We propose that the degree of phosphorylation of the alpha B-crystallin oligomers and temperature are key modulators to achieve a wide range of chaperone capabilities of the small heat shock protein, alpha -crystallin...
  13. Rausell F, Pertusa J, Gómez Piquer V, Hermenegildo C, García Pérez M, Cano A, et al. Beneficial effects of dithiothreitol on relative levels of glutathione S-transferase activity and thiols in oocytes, and cell number, DNA fragmentation and allocation at the blastocyst stage in the mouse. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:860-9 pubmed
    We analyzed the effect of in vitro aging of mouse oocytes in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on relative levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and thiols in oocytes, and cell number, DNA fragmentation and cellular ..
  14. Chen R, Wei H, Hill E, Chen L, Jiang L, Han D, et al. Direct evidence that two cysteines in the dopamine transporter form a disulfide bond. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;298:41-8 pubmed
    ..Our results and previous results are consistent with the notion that the disulfide bond between EL2 cysteines is required for DAT biosynthesis and/or its delivery to the cell surface...
  15. Tajima H, Iwata Y, Iwano M, Takayama S, Koizumi N. Identification of an Arabidopsis transmembrane bZIP transcription factor involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions, GFP fluorescence localization almost overlapped with an ER marker; however, tunicamycin and dithiothreitol treatment clearly increased GFP fluorescence in the nucleus suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of ..
  16. Azarkan M, Dibiani R, Goormaghtigh E, Raussens V, Baeyens Volant D. The papaya Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor is a highly stable beta-sheet glycoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1063-72 pubmed
    ..Exposure to 2.5 mM dithiothreitol for 120 min caused a 33% loss of the inhibitory activity, while a loss of 75% was obtained in the presence of ..
  17. Lundgren A, Björefors F, Olofsson L, Elwing H. Self-arrangement among charge-stabilized gold nanoparticles on a dithiothreitol reactivated octanedithiol monolayer. Nano Lett. 2008;8:3989-92 pubmed publisher
    Gold surfaces and structures modified with octanedithiol were reacted with dithiothreitol prior to immersion in buffered solutions of charge stabilized gold nanoparticles...
  18. MacKenzie D, Guillemette T, Al Sheikh H, Watson A, Jeenes D, Wongwathanarat P, et al. UPR-independent dithiothreitol stress-induced genes in Aspergillus niger. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;274:410-8 pubmed
    A subtraction library was prepared from cultures of Aspergillus niger that had or had not been exposed to dithiothreitol (DTT), in order to identify genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) or in the response to reductive ..
  19. Dasgupta B, Antharavally B, Tepp W, Evenson M. Botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E: fragmentations by autoproteolysis and other mechanisms including by O-phenanthroline-dithiothreitol, and association of the dinucleotides NAD(+)/NADH with the heavy chain of the three neurotoxins. Protein J. 2005;24:337-68 pubmed
    ..The metal chelator O-phenanthroline (above critical miceller concentration) in the presence of dithiothreitol cleaved type E NT at limited sites generating discrete 114-, 87-, 49-, 42-, and 31-kDa fragments but degraded ..
  20. Thaxton C, Hill H, Georganopoulou D, Stoeva S, Mirkin C. A bio-bar-code assay based upon dithiothreitol-induced oligonucleotide release. Anal Chem. 2005;77:8174-8 pubmed
    ..on the ability to liberate the adsorbed thiolated oligonucleotides from the gold nanoparticle surface with dithiothreitol (DTT), which simplifies the assay and increases its quantitative capabilities...
  21. Tian J, Wu Z, Liu L, Cai Y, Zeng S, Zhu S, et al. Effects of oocyte activation and sperm preparation on the development of porcine embryos derived from in vitro-matured oocytes and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Theriogenology. 2006;66:439-48 pubmed
    ..freeze-thaw cycles (without cryoprotectant) on oocyte activation and the effects of sperm pre-incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT) or Triton X-100 on early embryo development were also examined...
  22. Papagianni M, Avramidis N, Filioussis G. High efficiency electrotransformation of Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis cells pretreated with lithium acetate and dithiothreitol. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:15 pubmed
    ..In the present study, treatment with lithium acetate (LiAc) and dithiothreitol (DTT) in various combinations was applied to L. lactis spp...
  23. Cheung A, Ng T. Isolation and characterization of a trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor from the seeds of green lentil (Lens culinaris). Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14:859-64 pubmed
    ..The trypsin inhibitory activity of the inhibitor was sensitive to the reducing agent dithiothreitol. It was completely abrogated after treatment with 10 mM dithiothreitol for 20 minutes...
  24. Hollien J, Weissman J. Decay of endoplasmic reticulum-localized mRNAs during the unfolded protein response. Science. 2006;313:104-7 pubmed
    ..This response is well suited to complement other UPR mechanisms because it could selectively halt production of proteins that challenge the ER and clear the translocation and folding machinery for the subsequent remodeling process...
  25. Moopanar T, Allen D. The activity-induced reduction of myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity in mouse skeletal muscle is reversed by dithiothreitol. J Physiol. 2006;571:191-200 pubmed
    ..ii) If the membrane-permeant thiol-specific reducing agent dithiothreitol (0...
  26. Matos R, Barbas A, Arraiano C. Comparison of EMSA and SPR for the characterization of RNA-RNase II complexes. Protein J. 2010;29:394-7 pubmed publisher
    ..coli RNase II as a model to compare two different techniques for the characterization and interpretation of the stability of RNA-protein complexes: Surface Plasmon Resonance and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay...
  27. Siurkus J, Neubauer P. Reducing conditions are the key for efficient production of active ribonuclease inhibitor in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:31 pubmed publisher
    ..The members of this group are difficult to produce in E. coli and other recombinant hosts due to their high aggregation tendency...
  28. Klootwijk W, Friesema E, Visser T. A nonselenoprotein from amphioxus deiodinates triac but not T3: is triac the primordial bioactive thyroid hormone?. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..properties of bfDy in transfected COS1 cells by HPLC analysis of reactions with (125)I-labeled substrates and dithiothreitol as cofactor...
  29. Lin B, Lu G, Zheng Y, Xie W, Li S, Hu Z. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of a neoagarotetraose-producing ?-agarase from the marine bacterium Agarivorans sp. HZ105. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Beta-mercaptoethanol (90 mM) and dithiothreitol (9 mM) increased the agarase activity of rHZ2 by 72.9% and 17...
  30. Wang F, He B. The effect of dithiothreitol on chemotactic factors in induced sputum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Respiration. 2009;78:217-22 pubmed publisher
    Induced sputum analysis has been widely used to assay airway inflammation. However, the mucolytic agent dithiothreitol (DTT) may affect the detection of some soluble mediators.
  31. Borzova V, Markossian K, Kara D, Chebotareva N, Makeeva V, Poliansky N, et al. Quantification of anti-aggregation activity of chaperones: a test-system based on dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of bovine serum albumin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74367 pubmed publisher
    ..The applicability of this methodology was demonstrated using a test-system based on dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of bovine serum albumin at 45°C as an example...
  32. O Cualain R, Sims P, Carr C. Structural analysis of alpha-helical proteins from wool using cysteine labelling and mass spectrometry. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;49:323-30 pubmed publisher
  33. Seo A, Jackson J, Schuster J, Vardar Ulu D. Using UV-absorbance of intrinsic dithiothreitol (DTT) during RP-HPLC as a measure of experimental redox potential in vitro. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:6379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..performed to study the response of thiol-containing proteins to changes in environmental redox potentials use dithiothreitol (DTT) to maintain a preset redox environment throughout the experiments...
  34. Lee J, Prineas R, Eaton J. Heritability of erythrocyte sodium permeability: a possible genetic marker for hypertension. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2009;39:241-50 pubmed
    ..001); and diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg): 89 +/- 2 vs 69 +/- 2 (p <0.001). These results may help to identify inherited factors involved in salt sensitive hypertension...
  35. Bodhinathan K, Kumar A, Foster T. Redox sensitive calcium stores underlie enhanced after hyperpolarization of aged neurons: role for ryanodine receptor mediated calcium signaling. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:2586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..component of AHP (sAHP) in aged CA1 neurons (aged-sAHP) is decreased ?50% by application of the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT)...
  36. Carius A, Henkel M, Grammel H. A glutathione redox effect on photosynthetic membrane expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither the widely used reductant dithiothreitol nor oxidized glutathione caused the same response, suggesting that the effect was specific for reduced ..
  37. Park S, Koo O, Kwon D, Gomez M, Kang J, Atikuzzaman M, et al. Short-term treatment with 6-DMAP and demecolcine improves developmental competence of electrically or Thi/DTT-activated porcine parthenogenetic embryos. Zygote. 2011;19:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to find out whether short-term treatment with 6-DMAP and DE combined with electrical or thimerosal/dithiothreitol (Thi/DTT) activation had a beneficial effect on development of parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes...
  38. Itoh T, Saito T, Yamamoto Y, Ishida H, Yamamoto K. Gram scale synthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediator 17(S)-HDHA using lipoxygenase enhanced by water-soluble reducing agent TCEP. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:343-345 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated application of this strategy to the synthesis of other fatty acids and to gram scale synthesis of 17(S)-HDHA. ..
  39. Borisov V, Forte E, Davletshin A, Mastronicola D, Sarti P, Giuffrè A. Cytochrome bd oxidase from Escherichia coli displays high catalase activity: an additional defense against oxidative stress. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:2214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5?M) and azide. The activity, possibly associated with heme-b595, was also observed in catalase-deficient E. coli cells following cytochrome bd over-expression suggesting a protective role against oxidative stress in vivo...
  40. Yan X, Ma J, Zhang P. Modulation of K(ATP) currents in rat ventricular myocytes by hypoxia and a redox reaction. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1399-414 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated the possible regulatory mechanisms of redox agents and hypoxia on the K(ATP) current (I(KATP)) in acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes...
  41. Plowman J, Deb Choudhury S, Thomas A, Clerens S, Cornellison C, Grosvenor A, et al. Characterisation of low abundance wool proteins through novel differential extraction techniques. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:1937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These improvements have enabled the identification of low-abundance proteins in 2-D electrophoretic maps and represent a significant advance in our knowledge of the wool proteome...
  42. Silver D, Silva L, Issakidis Bourguet E, Glaring M, Schriemer D, Moorhead G. Insight into the redox regulation of the phosphoglucan phosphatase SEX4 involved in starch degradation. FEBS J. 2013;280:538-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Although only partial reactivation of SEX4 was achieved using artificial reductants (e.g. dithiothreitol), use of numerous chloroplastic thioredoxins recovered activity completely, suggesting that thioredoxins could ..
  43. Wong M, Leach J, Athanasiou K, Griffiths L. The role of protein solubilization in antigen removal from xenogeneic tissue for heart valve tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2011;32:8129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the importance of solubilizing protein antigens for their removal in the generation of xenogeneic scaffolds...
  44. Yamauchi Y, Riel J, Ward M. Paternal DNA damage resulting from various sperm treatments persists after fertilization and is similar before and after DNA replication. J Androl. 2012;33:229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..were either frozen without cryoprotection (FT) or treated with detergent Triton X-100 coupled with dithiothreitol (TX+DTT) to induce DNA damage. Fresh, untreated sperm served as control...
  45. Drago L, Romano C, Mattina R, Signori V, De Vecchi E. Does dithiothreitol improve bacterial detection from infected prostheses? A pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:2915-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Sonication and scraping of infected prostheses usually are used to improve diagnosis of prosthetic infections, reducing false negatives. Chemical methods that reduce biofilms also may allow higher levels of detection...
  46. Kot M, Olech Z. Influence of 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone on jack bean urease activity. Inhibitory effect, total reducing capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Acta Biochim Pol. 2011;58:627-33 pubmed
    ..053 (?M min)(-1). Thiols such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol (DTT) protected urease from inhibition by DCBQ but DCBQ-modified urease did not regain its activity after DTT ..
  47. Boycott H, Dallas M, Elíes J, Pettinger L, Boyle J, Scragg J, et al. Carbon monoxide inhibition of Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels reveals tonic modulation by thioredoxin. FASEB J. 2013;27:3395-407 pubmed publisher
    ..2 currents and their CO sensitivity by >50% but increased sensitivity to dithiothreitol ?3-fold. By contrast, Cav3.1 and Cav3...
  48. Ho Y, Hsieh H, Huang C. Biochemical characterization of allantoinase from Escherichia coli BL21. Protein J. 2011;30:384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of Mn(2+)-activated ALLase was increased by adding the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), but was decreased by treating with the sulfhydryl modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)...
  49. Park Y, Kim W, Kim A, Choi H, Choi J, Park N, et al. Normal prion protein in Drosophila enhances the toxicity of pathogenic polyglutamine proteins and alters susceptibility to oxidative and autophagy signaling modulators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:638-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Susceptibilities to H?O?, paraquat, and Dithiothreitol (DTT) were altered in Mo-PrP³(F)? flies...
  50. Hoefler B, Gollapalli D, Hedstrom L. Specific biotinylation of IMP dehydrogenase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:1363-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a biotin-linked reagent that selectively labels IMPDH and is released by dithiothreitol. This reagent will be invaluable in elucidating the moonlighting functions of IMPDH.
  51. Gill M, Vivithanaporn P, Swanson G. Glutamate binding and conformational flexibility of ligand-binding domains are critical early determinants of efficient kainate receptor biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamate receptor LBDs therefore must access multiple conformations for efficient biogenesis...
  52. Rosa J, Dafre A, Rodrigues A. Antidepressant-like responses in the forced swimming test elicited by glutathione and redox modulation. Behav Brain Res. 2013;253:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..c.v.), while the pretreatment (25-100mg/kg, i.p.) with the reducing agent DTT (dl-dithiothreitol) prevented the antidepressant-like effect of GSH (300nmol/site, i.c.v.). DTNB (0.1nmol/site, i.c.v...