propylene glycol

Summary

Summary: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.

Top Publications

  1. Zar T, Graeber C, Perazella M. Recognition, treatment, and prevention of propylene glycol toxicity. Semin Dial. 2007;20:217-9 pubmed
    b>Propylene glycol is a commonly used solvent for oral, intravenous, and topical pharmaceutical preparations. Although it is considered safe, large intravenous doses given over a short period of time can be toxic...
  2. Takahashi K, Komai M, Kinoshita N, Nakamura E, Hou X, Takatani Nakase T, et al. Application of hydrotropy to transdermal formulations: hydrotropic solubilization of polyol fatty acid monoesters in water and enhancement effect on skin permeation of 5-FU. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhancement effect was also compared with the hydrotropic formulation and the other formulations using ethanol, propylene glycol or mixed micelles.
  3. Zhao Y, Dai D, Lu C, Chen L, Lin M, Shen X, et al. Epirubicin loaded with propylene glycol liposomes significantly overcomes multidrug resistance in breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2013;330:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A newly reported liposome carrier, propylene glycol liposomes (EPI-PG-liposomes) were made to load epirubicin (EPI) which enhanced EPI absorption in MDR tumor ..
  4. Wu X, Desai K, Mallery S, Holpuch A, Phelps M, Schwendeman S. Mucoadhesive fenretinide patches for site-specific chemoprevention of oral cancer: enhancement of oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol and menthol. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:937-45 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to enhance oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol (PG) and menthol in fenretinide/Eudragit RL PO mucoadhesive patches...
  5. da Silva J, Andrade Junior C, Zaia A, Pessoa O. Microscopic cleanliness evaluation of the apical root canal after using calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine, propylene glycol, or antibiotic paste. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;111:260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2% chlorhexidine solution (Group 1), Ca(OH)2 with propylene glycol (Group 2), Ca(OH)2 with antibiotic paste (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole) and distilled water (Group 3), and Ca(..
  6. Wang S, Zhang Y, Liu H. Selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol on Cu-ZnO composite catalysts: structural requirements and reaction mechanism. Chem Asian J. 2010;5:1100-11 pubmed publisher
    ..4-2:1). The catalysts were examined in selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol. Although propylene glycol selectivities remained essentially constant (over 93%) on the different Cu-ZnO ..
  7. Zhu W, Guo C, Yu A, Gao Y, Cao F, Zhai G. Microemulsion-based hydrogel formulation of penciclovir for topical delivery. Int J Pharm. 2009;378:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that the MBH could be a promising vehicle for topical delivery of penciclovir...
  8. Parsons J, Dinesh S, Deery E, Leech H, Brindley A, Heldt D, et al. Biochemical and structural insights into bacterial organelle form and biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14366-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant model will facilitate future experiments establishing the structure and assembly of these multiprotein assemblages and their fate when the specific metabolic function is no longer required...
  9. Young A, Ho S. Drug release from injectable biodegradable polymeric adhesives for bone repair. J Control Release. 2008;127:162-72 pubmed publisher
    Fluid triblock ABA dimethacrylates with A blocks of 2, 4, or 8 lactic acid (LA) and B blocks of 7, 17 or 34 propylene glycol (PG) units were characterized using NMR and crosslinked polymer discs containing 2.5, 5 or 10 wt...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Somfai T, Nakai M, Tanihara F, Noguchi J, Kaneko H, Kashiwazaki N, et al. Comparison of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol for the vitrification of immature porcine oocytes. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:378-84 pubmed
    ..Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG...
  2. Clomburg J, Gonzalez R. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of 1,2-propanediol from glycerol. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The titer and yield achieved in this study were favorable to those obtained with the use of E. coli for the production of 1,2-PDO from common sugars...
  3. Klinkhammer K, Bockelmann J, Simitzis C, Brook G, Grafahrend D, Groll J, et al. Functionalization of electrospun fibers of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) with star shaped NCO-poly(ethylene glycol)-stat-poly(propylene glycol) for neuronal cell guidance. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21:2637-51 pubmed publisher
    ..range consisting of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and star shaped NCO-poly(ethylene glycol)-stat-poly(propylene glycol) (sPEG)...
  4. Zhang Z, Yang X, Meng L, Liu F, Shen C, Yang W. Enhanced amplification of GC-rich DNA with two organic reagents. Biotechniques. 2009;47:775-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Fromme H, Nitschke L, Boehmer S, Kiranoglu M, Goen T. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios. Chemosphere. 2013;90:2714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals ..
  6. Warren D, Chalmers D, Pouton C. Structure and dynamics of glyceride lipid formulations, with propylene glycol and water. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically we have investigated the internal structure of mixed glyceride formulations, with and without propylene glycol, in the anhydrous state and during dilution into water...
  7. Sinha S, Cheng S, Fan C, Bobik T. The PduM protein is a structural component of the microcompartments involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation by Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this protocol can be extended or modified for the purification of MCPs from diverse bacteria...
  8. Niimi S, Suzuki N, Inui M, Yukawa H. Metabolic engineering of 1,2-propanediol pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:1721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, simultaneous overexpression of mgs and cgR_2242, one of the genes annotated as AKRs, enhanced 1,2-PD production to 24 mM. This work establishes that 1,2-PD synthesis by C. glutamicum, previously unknown, is possible...
  9. Allegaert K, Vanhaesebrouck S, Kulo A, Cosaert K, Verbesselt R, Debeer A, et al. Prospective assessment of short-term propylene glycol tolerance in neonates. Arch Dis Child. 2010;95:1054-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Propylene glycol (PG) is an unintentional frequently administered solvent in neonates despite the fact that PG accumulation potentially results in hyperosmolarity, lactic acidosis and renal/hepatic toxicity.
  10. Jung J, Yun H, Lee J, Oh M. Production of 1,2-propanediol from glycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:846-53 pubmed
    ..19 g 1,2- propanediol/l titer was achieved in 1% (v/v) glycerolcontaining YEPD medium in engineered S. cerevisiae...
  11. Emtestam L, Svensson A, Rensfeldt K. Treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp with a topical solution of urea, lactic acid, and propylene glycol (K301): results of two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies. Mycoses. 2012;55:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Treatment-related adverse events were generally mild and included some smarting or burning upon application. The K301 was well tolerated and associated with clinically meaningful improvements in seborrhoeic dermatitis endpoints...
  12. Iltis I, Marjańska M, Du F, Koski D, Zhu X, Ugurbil K, et al. (1)H MRS in the rat brain under pentobarbital anesthesia: accurate quantification of in vivo spectra in the presence of propylene glycol. Magn Reson Med. 2008;59:631-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemical shifts and J-coupling values reported here can be used to simulate the spectrum of PG at any field strength, with various pulse sequences...
  13. Shehab N, Lewis C, Streetman D, Donn S. Exposure to the pharmaceutical excipients benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol among critically ill neonates. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10:256-9 pubmed publisher
    To document neonatal exposures to the potentially harmful pharmaceutical excipients benzyl alcohol (BA) and propylene glycol (PG) present in parenteral medications routinely administered in the intensive care unit.
  14. Gaworski C, Oldham M, Coggins C. Toxicological considerations on the use of propylene glycol as a humectant in cigarettes. Toxicology. 2010;269:54-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Propylene glycol (PG) is a humectant commonly used in cigarettes. Previous toxicological examinations of the effects on the addition of PG to tobacco used mixtures with several other flavoring agents...
  15. Kristensen N, Raun B. Ruminal and intermediary metabolism of propylene glycol in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:4707-17 pubmed
    ..vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)...
  16. THACKABERRY E, Kopytek S, Sherratt P, Trouba K, McIntyre B. Comprehensive investigation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin for use in general toxicology studies. Toxicol Sci. 2010;117:485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..to assess the safety and tolerability of the alternative formulation vehicles polysorbate 80 (PS80), propylene glycol (PG), and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) in general toxicology studies in the mouse, rat, dog, and ..
  17. Taniguchi M, Arikawa R, Kaedei Y, Tanihara F, Namula Z, Viet V, et al. Effects of cryoprotectant agents and equilibration methods on developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Cryo Letters. 2011;32:410-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that cryoprotectants and equilibration methods affect the developmental competence of porcine oocytes and that EG may be a superior cryoprotectant for vitrification of these cells...
  18. Duarte M, Alves de Aguiar K, Zeferino M, Vivan R, Ordinola Zapata R, Tanomaru Filho M, et al. Evaluation of the propylene glycol association on some physical and chemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate. Int Endod J. 2012;45:565-70 pubmed
    To evaluate the influence of propylene glycol (PG) on the flowability, setting time, pH and calcium ion release of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).
  19. Trabue S, Scoggin K, Tjandrakusuma S, Rasmussen M, Reilly P. Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:7043-51 pubmed
    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h, all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized...
  20. Aye M, Di Giorgio C, De Mo M, Botta A, Perrin J, Courbiere B. Assessment of the genotoxicity of three cryoprotectants used for human oocyte vitrification: dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1905-12 pubmed publisher
    ..extensively used for oocyte vitrification: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PROH)...
  21. Kliescikova J, Kulda J, Nohynkova E. Propylene glycol and contact-lens solutions containing this diol induce pseudocyst formation in acanthamoebae. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:326-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Propylene glycol used as an ophthalmic demulcent in certain contact-lens care systems has been included recently among factors responsible for increasing Acanthamoeba keratitis...
  22. Jouyban A, Soltanpour S. Solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride in binary mixtures of polyethylene glycol 400 with ethanol, propylene glycol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and water at 25 degrees C. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:1132-5 pubmed
    ..hydrochloride in binary mixtures of polyethylene glycol 400 with ethanol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, propylene glycol, and water at 25 degrees C are reported...
  23. Nelsen J, Haas C, Habtemariam B, Kaufman D, Partridge A, Welle S, et al. A prospective evaluation of propylene glycol clearance and accumulation during continuous-infusion lorazepam in critically ill patients. J Intensive Care Med. 2008;23:184-94 pubmed
    b>Propylene glycol is a commonly used diluent in several pharmaceutical preparations, including the sedative lorazepam...
  24. Yahwak J, Riker R, Fraser G, Subak Sharpe S. Determination of a lorazepam dose threshold for using the osmol gap to monitor for propylene glycol toxicity. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28:984-91 pubmed publisher
    To determine a threshold dose for parenteral lorazepam when screening for propylene glycol toxicity with the osmol gap, and to characterize which osmol gap values are more predictive of toxic propylene glycol concentrations and resultant ..
  25. Kweka E, Munga S, Mahande A, Msangi S, Mazigo H, Adrias A, et al. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:189 pubmed
    ..This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08), Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET),..
  26. Parsons J, Lawrence A, McLean K, Munro A, Rigby S, Warren M. Characterisation of PduS, the pdu metabolosome corrin reductase, and evidence of substructural organisation within the bacterial microcompartment. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14009 pubmed publisher
    ..PduS is shown to act as a corrin reductase and its interaction with a shell protein could allow for electron passage out of the bacterial microcompartment...
  27. Sampson E, Bobik T. Microcompartments for B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation provide protection from DNA and cellular damage by a reactive metabolic intermediate. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2966-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a primary function of the MCPs involved in 1,2-PD degradation is the mitigation of toxicity and DNA damage by propionaldehyde...
  28. Cheng S, Sinha S, Fan C, Liu Y, Bobik T. Genetic analysis of the protein shell of the microcompartments involved in coenzyme B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation by Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a pduK deletion caused MCP aggregation, suggesting a role in the spatial organization of MCP within the cytoplasm or perhaps in segregation at cell division...
  29. Wusteman M, Simmonds J, Vaughan D, Pegg D. Vitrification of rabbit tissues with propylene glycol and trehalose. Cryobiology. 2008;56:62-71 pubmed
  30. Liu Y, Leal N, Sampson E, Johnson C, Havemann G, Bobik T. PduL is an evolutionarily distinct phosphotransacylase involved in B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation by Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1589-96 pubmed
    ..97 mM, respectively. Sequence analyses showed that PduL is unrelated in amino acid sequence to known PTAC enzymes and that PduL homologues are distributed among at least 49 bacterial species but are absent from the Archaea and Eukarya...
  31. Panchagnula R, Salve P, Thomas N, Jain A, Ramarao P. Transdermal delivery of naloxone: effect of water, propylene glycol, ethanol and their binary combinations on permeation through rat skin. Int J Pharm. 2001;219:95-105 pubmed
    The effect of the solvent systems water, ethanol (EtOH), propylene glycol (PG) and their binary combinations was studied on the ex vivo permeation profile of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, through rat skin...
  32. Herai H, Gratieri T, Thomazine J, Bentley M, Lopez R. Doxorubicin skin penetration from monoolein-containing propylene glycol formulations. Int J Pharm. 2007;329:88-93 pubmed
    ..DXR was incorporated in a propylene glycol preparation containing 0-20% of MO...
  33. Mbah C. Physicochemical properties of valsartan and the effect of ethyl alcohol, propylene glycol and pH on its solubility. Pharmazie. 2005;60:849-50 pubmed
    ..The effect of ethyl alcohol, propylene glycol and pH on its solubility was also investigated...
  34. Mirochnick M, Clarke D, McNamara E, Cabral H. Bioequivalence of a propylene glycol-based liquid dapsone preparation and dapsone tablets. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57:1775-7 pubmed
    ..Each subject received an initial 100-mg dose of a propylene glycol-based liquid preparation of dapsone and, two weeks later, a 100-mg dapsone tablet (both from Jacobus ..
  35. Brooks D, Wallace K. Acute propylene glycol ingestion. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40:513-6 pubmed
    We describe a case of acute propylene glycol toxicity following ingestion of ethanol and propylene glycol-containing antifreeze in which blood lactate, serum propylene glycol, ethanol, and CO2 concentrations were serially measured.
  36. Altaras N, Cameron D. Metabolic engineering of a 1,2-propanediol pathway in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:1180-5 pubmed
    ..coli activity. We expect that R-1,2-PD production can be significantly improved through further metabolic and bioprocess engineering...
  37. Bobik T, Xu Y, Jeter R, Otto K, Roth J. Propanediol utilization genes (pdu) of Salmonella typhimurium: three genes for the propanediol dehydratase. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6633-9 pubmed
    ..DNA sequence analyses also supported previous studies indicating that the pdu operon was inherited along with the adjacent cobalamin biosynthesis operon by a single horizontal gene transfer...
  38. Chen P, Andersson D, Roth J. The control region of the pdu/cob regulon in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:5474-82 pubmed
    ..Evidence that each mutation is a deletion creating a new promoter near the normal promoter site of the cob operon is presented...
  39. Lessmann H, Schnuch A, Geier J, Uter W. Skin-sensitizing and irritant properties of propylene glycol. Contact Dermatitis. 2005;53:247-59 pubmed
    In the several publications reviewed in this article, propylene glycol (PG; 1,2-propylene glycol) is described as a very weak contact sensitizer, if at all...
  40. Leal N, Havemann G, Bobik T. PduP is a coenzyme-a-acylating propionaldehyde dehydrogenase associated with the polyhedral bodies involved in B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Arch Microbiol. 2003;180:353-61 pubmed
    ..enterica on 1,2-propanediol...
  41. Ivany J, Anderson D. Propylene glycol toxicosis in a llama. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:243-4 pubmed
    b>Propylene glycol toxicosis in llamas can result from overzealous administration of propylene glycol-containing gels formulated and labeled for use in cattle...
  42. Havemann G, Sampson E, Bobik T. PduA is a shell protein of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent degradation of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1253-61 pubmed
    ..enterica during growth on 1,2-propanediol are not involved in the concentration of 1,2-propanediol or coenzyme B(12), but are consistent with the hypothesis that these organelles moderate aldehyde production to minimize toxicity...
  43. Bobik T, Havemann G, Busch R, Williams D, Aldrich H. The propanediol utilization (pdu) operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 includes genes necessary for formation of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent 1, 2-propanediol degradation. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5967-75 pubmed
    ..The specific function of these unusual polyhedral bodies was not determined, but some possibilities are discussed...
  44. Vaddi H, Ho P, Chan S. Terpenes in propylene glycol as skin-penetration enhancers: permeation and partition of haloperidol, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. J Pharm Sci. 2002;91:1639-51 pubmed
    The respective alcoholic terpenes carvacrol, linalool, and alpha-terpineol were used at 5% w/v in propylene glycol (PG) to increase the in vitro permeation of haloperidol (HP) through human skin...
  45. Bowen J, Heard C. Film drying and complexation effects in the simultaneous skin permeation of ketoprofen and propylene glycol from simple gel formulations. Int J Pharm. 2006;307:251-7 pubmed
    This work investigated the simultaneous permeation of ketoprofen and propylene glycol (PG) across pig ear skin from simple gel formulations administered under simulated in-use conditions...
  46. Shingfield K, Salo Väänänen P, Pahkala E, Toivonen V, Jaakkola S, Piironen V, et al. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk. J Dairy Res. 2005;72:349-61 pubmed
    ..of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content...
  47. Farrar C, Bell H, King C. Allergic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol in Efudix cream. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;48:345 pubmed
  48. Pickett M, Piepenbrink M, Overton T. Effects of propylene glycol or fat drench on plasma metabolites, liver composition, and production of dairy cows during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2113-21 pubmed
    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of short-term oral drenches of propylene glycol (PG) and Ca-soaps of palm oil fatty acids (fat) on plasma concentrations of key metabolites, liver composition, and milk ..
  49. Kristensen N, Danfaer A, Røjen B, Raun B, Weisbjerg M, Hvelplund T. Metabolism of propionate and 1,2-propanediol absorbed from the washed reticulorumen of lactating cows. J Anim Sci. 2002;80:2168-75 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that PPD has a low rate of metabolism in cows without a normal functioning rumen, although about 10% of the absorbed PPD was metabolized into lactate...
  50. Al Khafaji A, Dewhirst W, Manning H. Propylene glycol toxicity associated with lorazepam infusion in a patient receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with dialysis. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:1583-5, table of contents pubmed
    We report a case of toxicity from the drug solvent propylene glycol resulting from prolonged, large-dose lorazepam infusion...
  51. Cruz E, Kota K, Huque J, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Penetration of propylene glycol into dentine. Int Endod J. 2002;35:330-6 pubmed
    This study aimed to evaluate penetration of propylene glycol into root dentine.
  52. Zhang T, Isayeva A, Adams S, Rawson D. Studies on membrane permeability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes in the presence of different cryoprotectants. Cryobiology. 2005;50:285-93 pubmed
    ..Oocytes were exposed to 2 M dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and methanol for 40 min at 22 degrees C. Stage III oocytes were also exposed to 2 M DMSO at 0 degrees C...
  53. Lamb S, Ardley H, Wilkinson S. Contact allergy to propylene glycol in brassiere padding inserts. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;48:224-5 pubmed