thiamphenicol

Summary

Summary: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.

Top Publications

  1. Ye Y, Kim H, Suh C, Nahm D, Park H. Three cases of occupational asthma induced by thiamphenicol: detection of serum-specific IgE. Allergy. 2006;61:394-5 pubmed
  2. Neu H, Fu K. In vitro activity of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol analogs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980;18:311-6 pubmed
    ..hydroxyl group at position 3 had been replaced with a fluorine was compared with that of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. Compound SCH 24893 was the most active agent against staphylococci and Bacteroides strains, and compound SCH ..
  3. Macchi A, Ardito F, Marchese A, Schito G, Fadda G. Efficacy of N-acetyl-cysteine in combination with thiamphenicol in sequential (intramuscular/aerosol) therapy of upper respiratory tract infections even when sustained by bacterial biofilms. J Chemother. 2006;18:507-13 pubmed
    ..Therapy was then started and on day 1 each patient received two intramuscular injections of thiamphenicol glycinate acetylcysteinate (TGA)...
  4. Singer R, Patterson S, Meier A, Gibson J, Lee H, Maddox C. Relationship between phenotypic and genotypic florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4047-9 pubmed
    ..The flo gene was detected in 164 isolates, all of which expressed resistance to florfenicol at MICs of >/=256 microg/ml. The florfenicol MICs for all isolates that lacked flo were </=16 microg/ml...
  5. Doublet B, Carattoli A, Whichard J, White D, Baucheron S, Chaslus Dancla E, et al. Plasmid-mediated florfenicol and ceftriaxone resistance encoded by the floR and bla(CMY-2) genes in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport isolated in the United States. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:301-5 pubmed
  6. Turton J, Andrews C, Havard A, Robinson S, York M, Williams T, et al. Haemotoxicity of thiamphenicol in the BALB/c mouse and Wistar Hanover rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1849-61 pubmed
    ..Second, a rarer aplastic anaemia (AA), developing after treatment, is irreversible, and often fatal. Thiamphenicol (TAP) was developed as a replacement for CAP; however, there are no toxicological investigations in the mouse ..
  7. Welch T, Evenhuis J, White D, McDermott P, Harbottle H, Miller R, et al. IncA/C plasmid-mediated florfenicol resistance in the catfish pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:845-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Cloeckaert A, Baucheron S, Flaujac G, Schwarz S, Kehrenberg C, Martel J, et al. Plasmid-mediated florfenicol resistance encoded by the floR gene in Escherichia coli isolated from cattle. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:2858-60 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the floR gene flanking regions of one of the plasmids showed that they were different from those encountered in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104...
  9. White D, Hudson C, Maurer J, Ayers S, Zhao S, Lee M, et al. Characterization of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli associated with bovine diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4593-8 pubmed
    Florfenicol, a veterinary fluorinated analog of thiamphenicol, is approved for treatment of bovine respiratory pathogens in the United States...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Switała M, Hrynyk R, Smutkiewicz A, Jaworski K, Pawlowski P, Okoniewski P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol, thiamphenicol, and chloramphenicol in turkeys. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007;30:145-50 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF), thiamphenicol (TP) and chloramphenicol (CP) after single intravenous (i.v.) or oral (p.o.) administration was studied in an independent cross-over study in broiler turkeys...
  2. Du X, Xia C, Shen J, Wu B, Shen Z. Characterization of florfenicol resistance among calf pathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;236:183-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the florfenicol resistance mediated by the floR gene involves active efflux of florfenicol...
  3. Blickwede M, Schwarz S. Molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from pigs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..coli isolates from cattle. Variations in the RFLPs of chromosomal EcoRI fragments carrying floR in isolates that had the same macrorestriction pattern might suggest variable chromosomal integration sites...
  4. Shen J, Hu D, Wu X, Coats J. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in broiler chickens. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2003;26:337-41 pubmed
    ..The i.m. bioavailability and the oral bioavailability of florfenicol were 95, 98 and 96, 94%, respectively, indicating that florfenicol was almost absorbed completely after i.m. and oral administrations of 15 and 30 mg/kg b.w...
  5. Cloeckaert A, Sidi Boumedine K, Flaujac G, Imberechts H, D hooghe I, Chaslus Dancla E. Occurrence of a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104-like antibiotic resistance gene cluster including the floR gene in S. enterica serovar agona. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:1359-61 pubmed
    ..Evidence is provided that Salmonella enterica serovar Agona strains isolated from poultry harbor a similar gene cluster including the newly described floR gene, conferring cross-resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol...
  6. Lai H, Hou J, Su C, Chen C. Effects of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and thiamphenicol on growth of algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Isochrysis galbana, and Tetraselmis chui. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:329-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Different dose levels of chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF), and thiamphenicol (TAP) were added to cultures of one freshwater green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and two marine algae, ..
  7. Syriopoulou V, Harding A, Goldmann D, Smith A. In vitro antibacterial activity of fluorinated analogs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981;19:294-7 pubmed
    ..antimicrobial activity of Sch 24893, Sch 25298, and Sch 25393, three novel analogs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. All of the analogs had minimal inhibitory concentrations of less than or equal to 10 micrograms/ml for 18 ..
  8. Kowalski P. Capillary electrophoretic determination of thiamphenicol in turkeys serum and its pharmacokinetic application. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:222-7 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol were investigated in 12 healthy turkeys of both sexes, following intravenous (i.v.) and intragastric (p.o.) administration of a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight (bw)...
  9. Kehrenberg C, Schwarz S. Plasmid-borne florfenicol resistance in Pasteurella multocida. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:773-5 pubmed
    ..A florfenicol-resistant Pasteurella multocida isolate from a calf was investigated for the genetic basis of florfenicol resistance and the location of the resistance gene...
  10. Pham M, Schideman L, Sharma B, Zhang Y, Chen W. Effects of hydrothermal liquefaction on the fate of bioactive contaminants in manure and algal feedstocks. Bioresour Technol. 2013;149:126-35 pubmed publisher
  11. Doublet B, Chu C, Chiu C, Fan Y, Cloeckaert A. Truncated tni module adjacent to the complex integron of salmonella genomic island 1 in Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:824-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The 5-bp target duplication flanking the complex integron suggests that its insertion in ORF S023 was by transposition...
  12. Koc F, Uney K, Ozturk M, Kadioglu Y, Atila A. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the plasma of Japanese quail. N Z Vet J. 2009;57:388-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of florfenicol in the plasma of healthy Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)...
  13. Marciniec B, Stawny M, Danikiewicz W, Spólnik G, Jaroszkiewicz E, Needham M. Identification of radiolysis products of solid thiamphenicol. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;53:826-32 pubmed publisher
    ..methods (HPLC, HPLC-MS, NMR) were used to observe, separate and identify products of radiolysis of thiamphenicol (TF), irradiated in the solid state at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with an electron beam from a ..
  14. Gaikowski M, Wolf J, Endris R, Gingerich W. Safety of Aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type A medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:689-97 pubmed
    ..Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish...
  15. Del Pozo Sacristán R, Thiry J, Vranckx K, Lopez Rodriguez A, Chiers K, Haesebrouck F, et al. Efficacy of florfenicol injection in the treatment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induced respiratory disease in pigs. Vet J. 2012;194:420-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality and lung lesions were improved in the TG compared to the PCG, but the differences were not statistically significant...
  16. Schunicht O, Booker C, Guichon P, Jim G, Wildman B, Pittman T, et al. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in Nebraska. Can Vet J. 2007;48:600-6 pubmed
    ..50 USD/animal in the TULA group due to lower first UF relapse and overall mortality rates, even though the occurrence of yield grade USDA-4 carcasses increased and the initial UF treatment cost was higher...
  17. Bonfiglio G, Lanzafame A, Santini L, Mattina R. In vitro activity of thiamphenicol, erythromycin and fluoroquinolones against Legionella pneumophila. J Chemother. 2004;16:502-3 pubmed
  18. Arcangioli M, Leroy Sétrin S, Martel J, Chaslus Dancla E. A new chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance gene flanked by two integron structures in Salmonella typhimurium DT104. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;174:327-32 pubmed
    ..5 kb. Its particular organization and chromosomal location could be involved in the antibioresistance pattern stability of the DT104 Salmonella typhimurium strains...
  19. Liu J, Zhao Z, Orfe L, Subbiah M, Call D. Soil-borne reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are established following therapeutic treatment of dairy calves. Environ Microbiol. 2016;18:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..83 CFU g(-1)), consistent with a soil-borne reservoir emerging after antibiotic treatment that can contribute to the long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in animal agriculture...
  20. Nanjiani I, McKelvie J, Benchaoui H, Godinho K, Sherington J, Sunderland S, et al. Evaluation of the therapeutic activity of tulathromycin against swine respiratory disease on farms in Europe. Vet Ther. 2005;6:203-13 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences (P > .05) between treatments in average daily weight gain. Tulathromycin was found to be safe and highly effective in the treatment of natural outbreaks of SRD...
  21. Macchi A, Castelnuovo P. Aerosol antibiotic therapy in children with chronic upper airway infections: a potential alternative to surgery. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:303-10 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of the combination of thiamphenicol glycinate acetylcysteinate plus beclomethasone, administered as aerosol, in children awaiting tonsillectomy ..
  22. Rayamajhi N, Cha S, Kang M, Lee S, Lee H, Yoo H. Inter- and intraspecies plasmid-mediated transfer of florfenicol resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from swine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:5700-3 pubmed publisher
  23. Hayes J. Determination of florfenicol in fish feeds at high inclusion rates by HPLC-UV. J AOAC Int. 2013;96:7-11 pubmed
    ..Proof of performance was conducted by replicate analysis of samples taken from commercial scale batches of salmonid and catfish feeds medicated at 4 g/kg and 6 g/kg...
  24. Abd El Aty A, Goudah A, Abo El Sooud K, El Zorba H, Shimoda M, Zhou H. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of florfenicol following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administrations in rabbits. Vet Res Commun. 2004;28:515-24 pubmed
    ..5 h following i.m. and oral dosing, respectively. The absolute systemic availabilities were 88.25% and 50.79%, respectively, and the extent of plasma protein binding percent was 11.65%...
  25. Rezende D, Filho N, Rocha G. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and florfenicol in liquid milk, milk powder and bovine muscle by LC-MS/MS. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2012;29:559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was shown to have good accuracy and precision for determining CAP residues at the level of 0.3-0.6 g kg(-1) and FF residues at the level of 5-15 µg kg(-1)...
  26. Blickwede M, Valentin Weigand P, Schwarz S. Subinhibitory concentrations of florfenicol enhance the adherence of florfenicol-susceptible and florfenicol-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:286-8 pubmed
  27. Samuelsen O, Bergh O, Ervik A. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in cod Gadus morhua and in vitro antibacterial activity against Vibrio anguillarum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;56:127-33 pubmed
    ..The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of florfenicol against 3 Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from diseased cod (A-21, HI-610, HI-618) were 0.5 microg ml(-1) for all 3 strains...
  28. De Craene B, Deprez P, D Haese E, Nelis H, Van den Bossche W, De Leenheer P. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of calves. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:1991-5 pubmed
    Florfenicol, a fluorinated analog of thiamphenicol, is of great value in veterinary infectious diseases that formerly responded favorably to chloramphenicol...
  29. Li J, Chen H, Chen H, Ye Y. Selective determination of trace thiamphenicol in milk and honey by molecularly imprinted polymer monolith microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2012;35:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..method based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith as the sorbent for the selective extraction of thiamphenicol (TAP) in milk and honey was developed...
  30. Alechaga E, Moyano E, Galceran M. Atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of the phenicol drug family. J Mass Spectrom. 2013;48:1241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of the veterinary drug family of phenicols, including chloramphenicol (CAP) and its related compounds thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and FF amine (FFA), was studied...
  31. Park B, Lim J, Kim M, Hwang Y, Yun H. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and its major metabolite, florfenicol amine, in rabbits. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007;30:32-6 pubmed
    ..38 +/- 0.97 microg/mL) were reached at 0.88 +/- 0.78 and 2.10 +/- 1.08 h respectively. Florfenicol amine was eliminated with an elimination half-life of 1.84 +/- 0.17 and 2.35 +/- 0.94 h after i.v. and p.o. administration respectively...
  32. Kobayashi H, Sonmez N, Morozumi T, Mitani K, Ito N, Shiono H, et al. In vitro susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis to antimicrobial agents. J Vet Med Sci. 1996;58:1107-11 pubmed
    ..tylosin, spiramycin, kitasamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin (LCM), kanamycin (KM), chloramphenicol (CP), thiamphenicol (TP), tiamulin (TML), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and enrofloxacin (ERFX)] by the agar ..
  33. Todisco T, Eslami A, Baglioni S, Todisco C. An open, comparative pilot study of thiamphenicol glycinate hydrochloride vs clarithromycin in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections due to Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Chemother. 2002;14:265-71 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of thiamphenicol glycinate hydrochloride (TGH) i.m. versus clarithromycin in acute lower respiratory infections due to Chlamydia pneumonia...
  34. Sachs B, Erdmann S, Al Masaoudi T, Merk H. Molecular features determining lymphocyte reactivity in allergic contact dermatitis to chloramphenicol and azidamphenicol. Allergy. 2001;56:69-72 pubmed
    ..The molecular features determining lymphocyte reactivity were explored because chloramphenicol, azidamphenicol, and thiamphenicol exhibit almost identical chemical structures.
  35. Wu Y, Lin Y, Liu H, Huang C, Feng A, Li J. Childhood psoriasis: a study of 137 cases from central China. World J Pediatr. 2010;6:260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical findings in children with psoriasis treated in a 9-year period and to compare the data with those from other studies...
  36. Sun Y, Dai Z, Xiong W, Luo X, Zou M. Fate of florfenicol in a simulated aquatic ecosystem and effects on sediment microflora. Water Environ Res. 2012;84:2054-9 pubmed
    ..42, 38.40, and 53.59 days. Further, the 50 and 150 mg/L florfenicol treatment groups inhibited alkaline protease activity; however, all treatment groups inhibited sediment microflora structural diversity...
  37. Alechaga E, Moyano E, Galceran M. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of phenicol drugs and florfenicol-amine in foods. Analyst. 2012;137:2486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatography (UHPLC) is proposed for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP), its related compounds, thiamphenicol (TAP) and florfenicol (FF), and the polar metabolite florfenicol-amine (FFA), in animal-derived foods (chicken ..
  38. Alcorn J, Dowling P, Woodbury M, Killeen R. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in North American elk (Cervus elaphus). J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2004;27:289-92 pubmed
    ..c. Nuflor. We recommend s.c. Nuflor be administered subcutaneously to elk every 24 h at a dose level of 40 mg/kg...
  39. Braibant M, Chevalier J, Chaslus Dancla E, Pages J, Cloeckaert A. Structural and functional study of the phenicol-specific efflux pump FloR belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2965-71 pubmed
    ..that FloR is a transporter specific for structurally associated phenicol drugs (chloramphenicol, florfenicol, thiamphenicol) which utilizes the proton motive force to energize an active efflux mechanism...
  40. Soehnlen M, KUNZE M, Karunathilake K, Henwood B, Kariyawasam S, Wolfgang D, et al. In vitro antimicrobial inhibition of Mycoplasma bovis isolates submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory using flow cytometry and a broth microdilution method. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:547-51 pubmed publisher
    ..4 µg/ml, 0.8 to >12.8 µg/ml, and <2-4 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry offers potential in clinical applications due to high-throughput capability, quick turnaround time, and the objective nature of interpreting results...
  41. Bowker J, Ostland V, Carty D, Bowman M. Effectiveness of aquaflor (50% florfenicol) to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in freshwater-reared subadult sunshine bass. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:254-65 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine as demonstrating the efficacy of Aquaflor to control mortality associated with S. iniae in cultured sunshine bass populations...
  42. Zhang D, Johnson M, Miller C, Pircher T, Geiger J, Wojchowski D. An optimized system for studies of EPO-dependent murine pro-erythroblast development. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:1278-88 pubmed
    ..Objectives were to develop new means to isolate useful numbers of primary progenitor cells and to quantitatively assay the stepwise maturation of erythroblasts...
  43. R zik S, Beguin Y. Serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration is an accurate estimate of the mass of tissue receptors. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:677-85 pubmed
  44. Fang W, Li G, Zhou S, Li X, Hu L, Zhou J. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of thiamphenicol and florfenicol in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in freshwater following oral administration. J Aquat Anim Health. 2013;25:83-9 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic disposition of thiamphenicol (THA) and florfenicol (FLR) after oral administration of each at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in freshwater ..
  45. Pentecost R, Niehaus A, Werle N, Lakritz J. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol after intravenous and intramuscular dosing in llamas. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:594-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 ?g/mL for 12h after i.m. administration. For susceptible pathogens, once daily dosing of 20mg/kg body weight appears appropriate...
  46. Sadeghi S, Jahani M, Belador F. The development of a new optical sensor based on the Mn doped ZnS quantum dots modified with the molecularly imprinted polymers for sensitive recognition of florfenicol. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2016;159:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed method was finally applied successfully to the determination of FF in different meat samples with satisfactory recoveries. ..
  47. Shuang G, Yu S, Weixiao G, Dacheng W, Zhichao Z, Jing L, et al. Immunosuppressive activity of florfenicol on the immune responses in mice. Immunol Invest. 2011;40:356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b titers in OVA-immunized mice were reduced by florfenicol. These results suggest that florfenicol could suppress humoral and cellular immune responses in mice...
  48. Hannon S, Perrett T, Wildman B, Schunicht O, Vogstad A, Fenton R, et al. Efficacy of a florfenicol-flunixin meglumine combination product versus tulathromycin or ceftiofur crystalline free acid for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves. Vet Ther. 2009;10:E1-18 pubmed
  49. Van Donkersgoed J, Berg J, Hendrick S. A comparison of florfenicol-flunixin meglumine versus tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in fall-placed feedlot calves. Vet Ther. 2009;10:78-85 pubmed
    ..12). Whether the new florfenicol-flunixin product is more cost-effective than tulathromycin for the treatment of UF in fall-placed feedlot calves will depend on how the new product is priced in the marketplace relative to tulathromycin...
  50. Arias C, Vallejo M, Reyes J, Panesso D, Moreno J, Castaneda E, et al. Clinical and microbiological aspects of linezolid resistance mediated by the cfr gene encoding a 23S rRNA methyltransferase. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:892-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of cfr-mediated linezolid resistance might be compromised by the use of the disk diffusion or Etest method...
  51. Drago L, De Vecchi E, Fassina M, Mombelli B, Tocalli L, Gismondo M. Comparative in vitro activity of thiamphenicol-glycinate and thiamphenicol-glycinate-acetylcysteinate and other antimicrobials against respiratory pathogens. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51:315-24 pubmed
    b>Thiamphenicol-glycinate-acetylcysteinate (TGA; CAS 20192-91-0) is widely used for the treatment of infections of varied aetiology...
  52. Palacios Arriaga J, Gutierrez Pabello J, Chavez Gris G, Hernandez Castro R. Efficacy of florphenicol premix in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2000;42:27-33 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that medication with feed containing 40 ppm of florfenicol blocked efficiently the signs and lesions caused by A. pleuropneumoniae and increased the daily body weight gain...
  53. Wang J, Wang B, Wei C, Yuan G, Zhang R, Liu H, et al. Determination of bergenin in human plasma after oral administration by HPLC-MS/MS method and its pharmacokinetic study. Biomed Chromatogr. 2009;23:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Bergenin and the internal standard (IS) thiamphenicol in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on a C(18 )reversed-phase column, eluted with mobile ..