chloramphenicol

Summary

Summary: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)

Top Publications

  1. Tao W, Lee M, Yoon M, Kim J, Malhotra S, Wu J, et al. Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:1203-10 pubmed
    ..EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in ..
  2. Yang X, Li N, Luo H. Post-chemiluminescence determination of chloramphenicol based on luminol-potassium periodate system. Luminescence. 2012;27:217-22 pubmed publisher
    A post-chemiluminescence (PCL) phenomenon was observed when chloramphenicol was injected into a mixture of luminol and potassium periodate after the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol-potassium periodate had finished...
  3. Yang K, Fang H, Gong J, Su L, Xu W. An overview of highly optically pure chloramphenicol bases: applications and modifications. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009;9:1329-41 pubmed
    b>Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used broad-spectrum antibiotic. As the precursor of CAP, chloramphenicol bases are stereochemically pure agents and could be used as resolution agents, chiral catalysts and so on...
  4. Berlina A, Taranova N, Zherdev A, Vengerov Y, Dzantiev B. Quantum dot-based lateral flow immunoassay for detection of chloramphenicol in milk. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:4997-5000 pubmed publisher
    A novel rapid (20 min) fluorescent lateral flow test for chloramphenicol (CAP) detection in milk was developed. The chosen format is a binding-inhibition assay...
  5. Byzova N, Zvereva E, Zherdev A, Eremin S, Dzantiev B. Rapid pretreatment-free immunochromatographic assay of chloramphenicol in milk. Talanta. 2010;81:843-8 pubmed publisher
    A pretreatment-free immunochromatographic assay for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk was developed...
  6. Yuan Z, Shi Y. Chloramphenicol induces abnormal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis in activated T cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4875-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for the treatment of many infectious diseases and has become one of the major seafood contaminants...
  7. Kao L, Ovchinnikov D, Wolvetang E. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;261:42-9 pubmed
    ..We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated ..
  8. Li C, Cheng Y, Liao P, Yang Y, Kang J. Chloramphenicol causes mitochondrial stress, decreases ATP biosynthesis, induces matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression, and solid-tumor cell invasion. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116:140-50 pubmed publisher
    Overuse and abuse of antibiotics can increase the risk of cancer. Chloramphenicol can inhibit both bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis, causing mitochondrial stress and decreased ATP biosynthesis...
  9. Kast R, Belda Iniesta C. Suppressing glioblastoma stem cell function by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition with chloramphenicol or disulfiram as a new treatment adjunct: an hypothesis. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2009;4:314-7 pubmed
    ..We have three old yet potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on the market- chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, and disulfiram- they should be investigated as adjuncts in glioblastoma chemotherapy...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yuan J, Addo J, Aguilar M, Wu Y. Surface plasmon resonance assay for chloramphenicol without surface regeneration. Anal Biochem. 2009;390:97-9 pubmed publisher
    ..plasmon resonance (SPR) assay without surface regeneration was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
  2. Berendsen B, Stolker L, de Jong J, Nielen M, Tserendorj E, Sodnomdarjaa R, et al. Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:1955-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins...
  3. Schirmer C, Meisel H. Molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;392:223-9 pubmed publisher
    A variety of bulk polymers for the selective separation of chloramphenicol were synthesised from 2-vinylpyridine, diethylaminoethyl methacrylate or methacrylic acid monomers...
  4. Gauri S, Mandal S, Pati B, Dey S. Purification and structural characterization of a novel antibacterial peptide from Bellamya bengalensis: activity against ampicillin and chloramphenicol resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Peptides. 2011;32:691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of this peptide on Staphylococcus epidermidis resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was investigated; the MIC and MBC values were 8 ?g/ml and 16 ?g/ml, respectively...
  5. Tao W, Lee M, Wu J, Kim N, Kim J, Chung E, et al. Inactivation of chloramphenicol and florfenicol by a novel chloramphenicol hydrolase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:6295-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloramphenicol and florfenicol are broad-spectrum antibiotics. Although the bacterial resistance mechanisms to these antibiotics have been well documented, hydrolysis of these antibiotics has not been reported in detail...
  6. Young S, Speare R, Berger L, Skerratt L. Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:330-7 pubmed
    ..caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient ..
  7. Siibak T, Peil L, Xiong L, Mankin A, Remme J, Tenson T. Erythromycin- and chloramphenicol-induced ribosomal assembly defects are secondary effects of protein synthesis inhibition. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that erythromycin and chloramphenicol, inhibitors of the large ribosomal subunit, affect the assembly of both the large and small subunits...
  8. Musa S, Basri M, Masoumi H, Karjiban R, Malek E, Basri H, et al. Formulation optimization of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion-loaded with chloramphenicol suitable for meningitis treatment. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;112:113-9 pubmed publisher
    Palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion-loaded with chloramphenicol was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), a multivariate statistical technique...
  9. Chevalier J, Mahamoud A, Baitiche M, Adam E, Viveiros M, Smarandache A, et al. Quinazoline derivatives are efficient chemosensitizers of antibiotic activity in Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant strains. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:164-8 pubmed publisher
    ..N-alkyl compounds induced an increase in the activity of chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, which are substrates of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps in ..
  10. Arjyal A, Basnyat B, Koirala S, Karkey A, Dongol S, Agrawaal K, et al. Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:445-54 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults.
  11. Manning L, Laman M, Greenhill A, Michael A, Siba P, Mueller I, et al. Increasing chloramphenicol resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Papua New Guinean children with acute bacterial meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:4454-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PNG) children with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), all Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates had a median chloramphenicol MIC of 3 ?g/ml, it was ?4 ?g/ml in ..
  12. Rajesh T, Sung C, Kim H, Song E, Park H, Jeon J, et al. Phosphorylation of chloramphenicol by a recombinant protein Yhr2 from Streptomyces avermitilis MA4680. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:3614-9 pubmed publisher
    Although phosphorylation of chloramphenicol has been shown to occur in the chloramphenicol producer, Streptomyces venezuelae, there are no reports on the existence of chloramphenicol phosphorylase in other Streptomyces species...
  13. Zhang C, Wang S, Fang G, Zhang Y, Jiang L. Competitive immunoassay by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence for the trace detection of chloramphenicol in animal-derived foods. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:3422-8 pubmed publisher
    A competitive immunoassay using CE with an LIF detector was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
  14. Chen Y, Tsao M, Lee S, Chou C, Tsai H. Prevalence and molecular characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in Riemerella anatipestifer isolated from ducks and geese in Taiwan. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, 40.5% of R. anatipestifer isolates were found to exhibit resistance to chloramphenicol, while 45.9% showed intermediate resistance and 13...
  15. Heal C, Buettner P, Cruickshank R, Graham D, Browning S, Pendergast J, et al. Does single application of topical chloramphenicol to high risk sutured wounds reduce incidence of wound infection after minor surgery? Prospective randomised placebo controlled double blind trial. BMJ. 2009;338:a2812 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effectiveness of a single application of topical chloramphenicol ointment in preventing wound infection after minor dermatological surgery.
  16. Fetar H, Gilmour C, Klinoski R, Daigle D, Dean C, Poole K. mexEF-oprN multidrug efflux operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: regulation by the MexT activator in response to nitrosative stress and chloramphenicol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:508-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In both instances, this GSNO-inducible expression was dependent upon MexT. Chloramphenicol, a nitroaromatic antimicrobial that is a substrate for MexEF-OprN, was shown to induce mexEF-oprN but not ..
  17. Yuan J, Oliver R, Aguilar M, Wu Y. Surface plasmon resonance assay for chloramphenicol. Anal Chem. 2008;80:8329-33 pubmed publisher
    We report a rapid and ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay of chloramphenicol (CAP) by using large gold nanoparticles (40 nm) for signal enhancement on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM) sensor surface...
  18. Biot F, Valade E, Garnotel E, Chevalier J, Villard C, Thibault F, et al. Involvement of the efflux pumps in chloramphenicol selected strains of Burkholderia thailandensis: proteomic and mechanistic evidence. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16892 pubmed publisher
    ..By sequentially plating B. thailandensis wild type strains on chloramphenicol we obtained several resistant variants...
  19. Li J, Shao B, Shen J, Wang S, Wu Y. Occurrence of chloramphenicol-resistance genes as environmental pollutants from swine feedlots. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:2892-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloramphenicol-resistance genes could be propagated to the surrounding environment via agricultural application of swine waste...
  20. Yan H, Wang D, Dong B, Tang F, Wang B, Fang H, et al. Dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities. Chemosphere. 2011;84:634-41 pubmed publisher
    The dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities were investigated...
  21. Hao J, Fang X, Zhou Y, Wang J, Guo F, Li F, et al. Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for ophthalmic delivery of chloramphenicol using a Box-Behnken design. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:683-92 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the present study was to optimize a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) of chloramphenicol by investigating the relationship between design factors and experimental data using response surface methodology...
  22. Páez P, Becerra M, Albesa I. Chloramphenicol-induced oxidative stress in human neutrophils. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;103:349-53 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of chloramphenicol in order to determine its potential toxic effects on human neutrophils, by using assays of reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination, nitrite measurement and ..
  23. Fernandez M, Conde S, De La Torre J, Molina Santiago C, Ramos J, Duque E. Mechanisms of resistance to chloramphenicol in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1001-9 pubmed publisher
    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a chloramphenicol-resistant bacterium that is able to grow in the presence of this antibiotic at a concentration of up to 25 ?g/ml...
  24. Wang L, Yang H, Zhang C, Mo Y, Lu X. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chloramphenicol antibiotics in animal feeds using subcritical water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;619:54-8 pubmed publisher
    A rapid analytical method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CAP) antibiotics in animal feeds has been developed based on subcritical water extraction (SWE) without further sample clean-..
  25. Guo L, Guan M, Zhao C, Zhang H. Molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of chloramphenicol in fish tissues coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography determination. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;392:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MSPD) sorbent, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the efficient determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in fish tissues are studied...
  26. Thongchai W, Liawruangath B, Liawruangrath S, Greenway G. A microflow chemiluminescence system for determination of chloramphenicol in honey with preconcentration using a molecularly imprinted polymer. Talanta. 2010;82:560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..incorporating a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) preconcentration step was used for the determination of chloramphenicol in honey samples...
  27. Gupta V, Kaur J, Kaistha N. Re-emerging chloramphenicol sensitivity and emerging low level ciprofloxacin resistance among Salmonella enterica serotype typhi isolates in North India. Trop Doct. 2009;39:28-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of typhoid fever with the emergence and worldwide spread of Salmonella enterica typhi strains resistant to chloramphenicol. However, the rampant use of ciprofloxacin gradually led to an increase in its minimum inhibitory ..
  28. Sala Mercado J, Wider J, Undyala V, Jahania S, Yoo W, Mentzer R, et al. Profound cardioprotection with chloramphenicol succinate in the swine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2010;122:S179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to test this paradigm in a clinically relevant, large animal model of acute myocardial infarction...
  29. Pilehvar S, Mehta J, Dardenne F, Robbens J, Blust R, De Wael K. Aptasensing of chloramphenicol in the presence of its analogues: reaching the maximum residue limit. Anal Chem. 2012;84:6753-8 pubmed publisher
    A novel, label-free folding induced aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the presence of its analogues has been developed...
  30. Sai N, Chen Y, Liu N, Yu G, Su P, Feng Y, et al. A sensitive immunoassay based on direct hapten coated format and biotin-streptavidin system for the detection of chloramphenicol. Talanta. 2010;82:1113-21 pubmed publisher
    A novel enzyme liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
  31. Mehta J, Van Dorst B, Rouah Martin E, Herrebout W, Scippo M, Blust R, et al. In vitro selection and characterization of DNA aptamers recognizing chloramphenicol. J Biotechnol. 2011;155:361-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloramphenicol (Cam), although an effective antibiotic, has lost favour due to some fatal side effects. Thus there is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive methods to detect residues in food, feed and environment...
  32. Song C, Gao N, Gao H. Transmembrane distribution of kanamycin and chloramphenicol: insights into the cytotoxicity of antibacterial drugs. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:1901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were exposed to two structurally different antibiotics, kanamycin (KAN) and chloramphenicol (CAP). The membrane distribution and toxicological effects of these antibiotics were investigated...
  33. Schmuckli Maurer J, Shiels B, Dobbelaere D. Stochastic induction of Theileria annulata merogony in vitro by chloramphenicol. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show that chloramphenicol induces schizont differentiation in proliferating T. annulata-transformed cells...
  34. Kim D, Rahman M, Do M, Ban C, Shim Y. An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;25:1781-8 pubmed publisher
    An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the ..
  35. Dong Z, Huang G, Xu S, Deng C, Zhu J, Chen S, et al. Real-time and label-free detection of chloramphenicol residues with specific molecular interaction. J Microsc. 2009;234:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..As application, we present the measurement of chloramphenicol residues with specific molecular interaction employing an indirect competitive immunoreaction by using the ..
  36. Liu N, Su P, Gao Z, Zhu M, Yang Z, Pan X, et al. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;632:128-34 pubmed publisher
    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed...
  37. Thalmann S, Behrens M, Meyerhof W. Major haplotypes of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R41 encode functional receptors for chloramphenicol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chloramphenicol was identified as agonist for TAS2R41...
  38. Tao X, Jiang H, Yu X, Zhu J, Wang X, Wang Z, et al. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads. Drug Test Anal. 2013;5:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed...
  39. Schirmer C, Meisel H. Chromatographic evaluation of polymers imprinted with analogs of chloramphenicol and application to selective solid-phase extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;394:2249-55 pubmed publisher
    To obtain a highly selective material for the antibiotic chloramphenicol, which has several harmful side effects in humans, different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared...
  40. Srinivasan V, Vaidyanathan V, Mondal A, Rajamohan G. Role of the two component signal transduction system CpxAR in conferring cefepime and chloramphenicol resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33777 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress...
  41. Gross F, Lewis E, Piraee M, van Pee K, Vining L, White R. Isolation of 3' -O-acetylchloramphenicol: a possible intermediate in chloramphenicol biosynthesis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002;12:283-6 pubmed
    3' -O-acetylchloramphenicol, commonly formed from chloramphenicol by resistant bacteria, has been isolated from the antibiotic-producing organism...
  42. Li C, Tzeng S, Cheng Y, Kang J. Chloramphenicol-induced mitochondrial stress increases p21 expression and prevents cell apoptosis through a p21-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26193-9 pubmed
    Pretreatment of HepG2 and H1299 cells with chloramphenicol rendered the cells resistant to mitomycin-induced apoptosis. Both mitomycin-induced caspase 3 activity and PARP activation were also inhibited...
  43. Ghisalberti D, Masi M, Pages J, Chevalier J. Chloramphenicol and expression of multidrug efflux pump in Enterobacter aerogenes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:1113-8 pubmed
    b>Chloramphenicol has been reported to act as an inducer of the multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli...
  44. Manchanda V, Bhalla P, Sethi M, Sharma V. Treatment of enteric fever in children on the basis of current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:101-6 pubmed
    Recent reports indicate decreased susceptibility of S. typhi to fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin. Chloramphenicol has been suggested as first line therapy of enteric fever in many studies...
  45. Gallo S, Chevalier J, Mahamoud A, Eyraud A, Pages J, Barbe J. 4-alkoxy and 4-thioalkoxyquinoline derivatives as chemosensitizers for the chloramphenicol-resistant clinical Enterobacter aerogenes 27 strain. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:270-3 pubmed
    ..Strains resistant to chloramphenicol are frequently isolated...
  46. Rose P, Harnden A, Brueggemann A, Perera R, Sheikh A, Crook D, et al. Chloramphenicol treatment for acute infective conjunctivitis in children in primary care: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366:37-43 pubmed
    ..We undertook a randomised double-blind trial to compare the effectiveness of chloramphenicol eye drops with placebo in children with infective conjunctivitis in primary care.
  47. Wolter N, Smith A, Farrell D, Schaffner W, Moore M, Whitney C, et al. Novel mechanism of resistance to oxazolidinones, macrolides, and chloramphenicol in ribosomal protein L4 of the pneumococcus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3554-7 pubmed
    Two clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, identified as resistant to macrolides and chloramphenicol and nonsusceptible to linezolid, were found to contain 6-bp deletions in the gene encoding riboprotein L4...
  48. Gikas E, Kormali P, Tsipi D, Tsarbopoulos A. Development of a rapid and sensitive SPE-LC-ESI MS/MS method for the determination of chloramphenicol in seafood. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:1025-30 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in seafood samples...
  49. Hasdemir U, Chevalier J, Nordmann P, Pages J. Detection and prevalence of active drug efflux mechanism in various multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from Turkey. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2701-6 pubmed
    ..MICs of various antibiotics, including quinolones, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and beta-lactams, for those strains were determined either with or without the efflux pump ..
  50. Morii H, Hayashi N, Uramoto K. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance gene on conjugative R plasmids from the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;53:107-13 pubmed
    ..piscicida from Japan. Drug resistances were transferred via plasmids of 100, 50, and 40 kb. Resistance to chloramphenicol (Cmr) was transferred on plasmids of all 3 sizes...
  51. Qiu J, Zhou D, Qin L, Han Y, Wang X, Du Z, et al. Microarray expression profiling of Yersinia pestis in response to chloramphenicol. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;263:26-31 pubmed
    ..Human plague can be effectively controlled by timely antibiotic administration, chloramphenicol being a drug of choice...
  52. Huys G, Bartie K, Cnockaert M, Hoang Oanh D, Phuong N, Somsiri T, et al. Biodiversity of chloramphenicol-resistant mesophilic heterotrophs from Southeast Asian aquaculture environments. Res Microbiol. 2007;158:228-35 pubmed
    ..farms in Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the biodiversity and environmental distribution of chloramphenicol-resistant (CmR) mesophilic heterotrophs in Southeast Asian aquaculture sites...
  53. Chang Z, Sun Y, He J, Vining L. p-Aminobenzoic acid and chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae: gene sets for a key enzyme, 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase. Microbiology. 2001;147:2113-26 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the fused pabAB set previously isolated from this species, they do not participate in chloramphenicol biosynthesis, but like pabAB they can be disrupted without affecting growth on minimal medium...