poloxamer

Summary

Summary: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)

Top Publications

  1. Yan F, Zhang C, Zheng Y, Mei L, Tang L, Song C, et al. The effect of poloxamer 188 on nanoparticle morphology, size, cancer cell uptake, and cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine. 2010;6:170-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of triblock copolymer poloxamer 188 on nanoparticle morphology, size, cancer cell uptake, and cytotoxicity...
  2. Chen M, Cheng Y, Lai P, Wu J, Hsu Y. In vitro biocompatibility of thermally gelling liquid mucoadhesive loaded curcuminoids in colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27:869-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This aims to study the potential of Poloxamer 407 as the thermogelling and mucoadhesive polymer for development of a site-targeting delivery system to enhance ..
  3. Misra A, Kondaveeti P, Nissanov J, Barbee K, Shewokis P, Rioux L, et al. Preventing neuronal damage and inflammation in vivo during cortical microelectrode implantation through the use of poloxamer P-188. J Neural Eng. 2013;10:016011 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of Poloxamer P188 to reduce cell death and immune response associated with mechanical trauma to cells during implantation of a chronic recording electrode.
  4. Parodi B, Russo E, Caviglioli G, Baldassari S, Gaglianone N, Schito A, et al. A chitosan lactate/poloxamer 407-based matrix containing Eudragit RS microparticles for vaginal delivery of econazole: design and in vitro evaluation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013;39:1911-20 pubmed publisher
    A matrix based on chitosan lactate and poloxamer 407 was evaluated as a delivery system for the vaginal administration of the antifungal drug econazole...
  5. Ju C, Sun J, Zi P, Jin X, Zhang C. Thermosensitive micelles-hydrogel hybrid system based on poloxamer 407 for localized delivery of paclitaxel. J Pharm Sci. 2013;102:2707-17 pubmed publisher
    A thermosensitive micelles-hydrogel hybrid system based on Poloxamer 407 (P407) was prepared to resolve the fast erosion and low loading capability of lipophilic drug of P407 gels for local chemotherapy...
  6. Wimmer Greinecker G, Bouchot O, Verhoye J, Perrault L, Borgermann J, Diegeler A, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing a thermosensitive polymer (LeGoo) with conventional vessel loops for temporary coronary artery occlusion during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92:2177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The present prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial evaluates safety and efficacy of a novel thermosensitive polymer (LeGoo) as an atraumatic temporary vascular occluder...
  7. Yu C, Lee J, Baek H, Nam H. The effectiveness of poloxamer 407-based new anti-adhesive material in a laminectomy model in rats. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:971-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the laminectomy model in rats, to verify anti-adhesive effectiveness of the new material, a mixture composed of poloxamer 407, calcium chloride, and xanthorrhizol, we compared it with that of commercially used solution form anti-..
  8. Saxena V, Hussain M. Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles for delivery of gambogic acid to breast and multidrug-resistant cancer. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:713-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Mixed micelles prepared from Poloxamer 407 and TPGS may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug by delivering high concentrations inside the ..
  9. Moloughney J, Weisleder N. Poloxamer 188 (p188) as a membrane resealing reagent in biomedical applications. Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2012;6:200-11 pubmed
    ..to find reagents that can modulate plasma membrane reseal found that specific tri-block copolymers, such as poloxamer 188 (P188, or Pluronic F68), can increase the structural stability and resealing of the plasma membrane...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Fouad S, Basalious E, El Nabarawi M, Tayel S. Microemulsion and poloxamer microemulsion-based gel for sustained transdermal delivery of diclofenac epolamine using in-skin drug depot: in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm. 2013;453:569-78 pubmed publisher
    Microemulsion (ME) and poloxamer microemulsion-based gel (PMBG) were developed and optimized to enhance transport of diclofenac epolamine (DE) into the skin forming in-skin drug depot for sustained transdermal delivery of drug...
  2. Chaudhary H, Brocks D. The single dose poloxamer 407 model of hyperlipidemia; systemic effects on lipids assessed using pharmacokinetic methods, and its effects on adipokines. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16:65-73 pubmed
    The induction of hyperlipidemia using poloxamer 407 (P407) is gaining use for studying the effect of the condition on drug pharmacokinetics...
  3. Luo C, Chen X, Li L, Li Q, Li B, Xue A, et al. Poloxamer 188 attenuates in vitro traumatic brain injury-induced mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane permeabilization damage in cultured primary neurons. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:597-607 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of the current study was to assess the role of a putative membrane-resealing agent poloxamer 188 (P188) in MOMP and LMP in response to a well-defined mechanical insult...
  4. Wang M, Wu B, Lu P, Cloer C, Tucker J, Lu Q. Polyethylenimine-modified pluronics (PCMs) improve morpholino oligomer delivery in cell culture and dystrophic mdx mice. Mol Ther. 2013;21:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue toxicity of PCMs in muscle was not clearly detected with the concentrations used, indicating the potential of the PCMs as effective and safe PMO carriers for treating diseases such as muscular dystrophy...
  5. Yuhua S, Ligen L, Jiake C, Tongzhu S. Effect of Poloxamer 188 on deepening of deep second-degree burn wounds in the early stage. Burns. 2012;38:95-101 pubmed publisher
    To discuss the effect of Poloxamer 188 (P188) on deepening of deep second-degree burn wounds in the early stage after burn.
  6. Mishra S, Peddada L, Devore D, Roth C. Poly(alkylene oxide) copolymers for nucleic acid delivery. Acc Chem Res. 2012;45:1057-66 pubmed publisher
  7. Gu J, Ge J, Li M, Xu H, Wu F, Qin Z. Poloxamer 188 protects neurons against ischemia/reperfusion injury through preserving integrity of cell membranes and blood brain barrier. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61641 pubmed publisher
    b>Poloxamer 188 (P188), a multiblock copolymer surfactant, has been shown to protect against ischemic tissue injury of cardiac muscle, testes and skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms have not been fully understood...
  8. Chen Y, Lu Y, Zhong Y, Wang Q, Wu W, Gao S. Ocular delivery of cyclosporine A based on glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 liquid crystalline nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, in vitro corneal penetration and ocular irritation. J Drug Target. 2012;20:856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..was to develop an ophthalmic drug delivery system for cyclosporine A (CsA) based on glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 liquid crystalline nanoparticles with reduced ocular irritancy and improved corneal penetration...
  9. Seoane S, Diaz Rodriguez P, Sendon Lago J, Gallego R, Perez Fernandez R, Landin M. Administration of the optimized ?-Lapachone-poloxamer-cyclodextrin ternary system induces apoptosis, DNA damage and reduces tumor growth in a human breast adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2013;84:497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..We formulated ?-Lap in an optimal random methylated-?-cyclodextrin/poloxamer 407 mixture (i.e...
  10. Juneman E, Saleh L, Lancaster J, Thai H, MARKHAM B, Goldman S. The effects of poloxamer-188 on left ventricular function in chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;60:293-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Poloxamer-188 (P-188) is a biological membrane sealant that prevents the unregulated entry of Ca into cardiomyocytes and has been shown to have the ability to act as a membrane-repair agent in isolated cardiac myocytes...
  11. Wang Y, Hao J, Li Y, Zhang Z, Sha X, Han L, et al. Poly(caprolactone)-modified Pluronic P105 micelles for reversal of paclitaxcel-resistance in SKOV-3 tumors. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4741-51 pubmed publisher
  12. Ibrahim E, Ismail S, Fetih G, Shaaban O, Hassanein K, Abdellah N. Development and characterization of thermosensitive pluronic-based metronidazole in situ gelling formulations for vaginal application. Acta Pharm. 2012;62:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the in vitro evaluation of prepared formulations, the in situ gelling liquid formulated with PF-127/PF-68 (20/10 %, m/m) was selected for further clinical evaluation...
  13. Yuan Y, Cui Y, Zhang L, Zhu H, Guo Y, Zhong B, et al. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive in situ gel based on poloxamer as new carrier for rectal administration of nimesulide. Int J Pharm. 2012;430:114-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Poloxamer 407 has excellent thermo-sensitive gelling properties. Nevertheless, these gels possess inadequate poor bioadhesiveness and high permeability to water, which limited its' application as a thermoresponsive matrix...
  14. Chiappetta D, Facorro G, de Celis E, Sosnik A. Synergistic encapsulation of the anti-HIV agent efavirenz within mixed poloxamine/poloxamer polymeric micelles. Nanomedicine. 2011;7:624-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-micellization process of 10% binary systems combining different weight ratios of a highly hydrophilic poloxamer (Pluronic F127) and a more hydrophobic poloxamine counterpart (Tetronic T304 and T904) was investigated by means ..
  15. Tian J, Zhao Y, Jin Z, Lu C, Tang Q, Xiang Q, et al. Synthesis and characterization of Poloxamer 188-grafted heparin copolymer. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2010;36:832-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Poloxamer 188 is a safe biocompatible polymer that can be used in protein drug delivery system.
  16. Escobar Chávez J, López Cervantes M, Naik A, Kalia Y, Quintanar Guerrero D, Ganem Quintanar A. Applications of thermo-reversible pluronic F-127 gels in pharmaceutical formulations. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9:339-58 pubmed
    ..Gels containing penetration enhancers have proven to be especially popular for administering anti-inflammatory medications since they are relatively easy to prepare and very efficacious...
  17. Yoon N, Kim H, Chung H, Choi J. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of an edible brown algae, Ecklonia stolonifera, and its constituents on poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemic and cholesterol-fed rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:1564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..and dieckol, on serum lipid levels in rats with hyperlipidemia that was induced by a high-cholesterol diet or poloxamer 407. Treatment with the EtOH extracts of E...
  18. Cafaggi S, Russo E, Caviglioli G, Parodi B, Stefani R, Sillo G, et al. Poloxamer 407 as a solubilising agent for tolfenamic acid and as a base for a gel formulation. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2008;35:19-29 pubmed publisher
    A solubility phase study was carried out to investigate the ability of Poloxamer 407 (P407) to solubilise tolfenamic acid...
  19. Kilinc D, Gallo G, Barbee K. Mechanically-induced membrane poration causes axonal beading and localized cytoskeletal damage. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:422-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we tested the effect of Poloxamer 188 (P188), a tri-block co-polymer that is known to promote resealing membrane pores...
  20. Zhao M, Thuret G, Piselli S, Pipparelli A, Acquart S, Peoc h M, et al. Use of poloxamers for deswelling of organ-cultured corneas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:550-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to evaluate the innovative use of poloxamers compared with dextran for deswelling OC corneas...
  21. Spurney C, Guerron A, Yu Q, Sali A, van der Meulen J, Hoffman E, et al. Membrane sealant Poloxamer P188 protects against isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy in dystrophin deficient mice. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2011;11:20 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of dystrophin leads to loss of membrane integrity, cell death and fibrosis in cardiac muscle. Treatment of cardiomyocyte membrane instability could help prevent cardiomyopathy...
  22. Ranjan A, Zeglam K, Mukerjee A, Thamake S, Vishwanatha J. A sustained release formulation of chitosan modified PLCL:poloxamer blend nanoparticles loaded with optical agent for animal imaging. Nanotechnology. 2011;22:295104 pubmed publisher
    ..with indocynanine green (ICG) using chitosan modified poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLCL):poloxamer (Pluronic F68) blended polymer...
  23. Burns J, Baer L, Jones J, Dubick M, Wade C. Severe controlled hemorrhage resuscitation with small volume poloxamer 188 in sedated miniature swine. Resuscitation. 2011;82:1453-9 pubmed publisher
    The surfactant poloxamer 188 (P188) has been shown to improve survival following hemorrhage...
  24. Liu Q, Liu S, Li L, Chen Z, Lei L, Zhang N, et al. [A dyslipidemia animal model induced by poloxamer 407 in golden hamsters and pilot study on the mechanism]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2011;46:406-11 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to establish a simple and stable model like poloxamer 407 (P-407)-induced dyslipidemia of golden hamster model, and investigate the mechanism of lipid metabolism disturbance in this model...
  25. Guan Y, Huang J, Zuo L, Xu J, Si L, Qiu J, et al. Effect of pluronic P123 and F127 block copolymer on P-glycoprotein transport and CYP3A metabolism. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1719-28 pubmed publisher
  26. Fischer S, Brandl M, Fricker G. Effect of the non-ionic surfactant Poloxamer 188 on passive permeability of poorly soluble drugs across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2011;79:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..and nadolol across Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined in the absence and presence of the non-ionic surfactant Poloxamer 188 (Pluronic® F68, P-188)...
  27. Karekar P, Vyas V, Shah M, Sancheti P, Pore Y. Physicochemical investigation of the solid dispersion systems of etoricoxib with poloxamer 188. Pharm Dev Technol. 2009;14:373-9 pubmed publisher
    Solid dispersion systems of a poorly water-soluble drug, etoricoxib were prepared with poloxamer 188 in 1:0.5, 1:1.5 and 1:2.5 ratios and evaluated by FTIR, powder XRD and dissolution studies...
  28. Jung H, Park K, Han D. Preparation of TGF-?1-conjugated biodegradable pluronic F127 hydrogel and its application with adipose-derived stem cells. J Control Release. 2010;147:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work indicated that X-HA/F127 composite hydrogel was thermoreversible and biodegradable, and that the TGF-conjugated hydrogel could be effective in inducing chondrogenesis of human ASCs...
  29. Wei Z, Hao J, Yuan S, Li Y, Juan W, Sha X, et al. Paclitaxel-loaded Pluronic P123/F127 mixed polymeric micelles: formulation, optimization and in vitro characterization. Int J Pharm. 2009;376:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..4 microg/ml) and the free PTX (1.7 microg/ml). Therefore, PTX-loaded P123/F127 mixed micelles may be considered as an effective anticancer drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy...
  30. Park K, Lee S, Joung Y, Na J, Lee M, Park K. Thermosensitive chitosan-Pluronic hydrogel as an injectable cell delivery carrier for cartilage regeneration. Acta Biomater. 2009;5:1956-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the CP hydrogel has potential as an injectable cell delivery carrier for cartilage regeneration and could serve as a new biomaterial for tissue engineering...
  31. Singh Joy S, McLain V. Safety assessment of poloxamers 101, 105, 108, 122, 123, 124, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 212, 215, 217, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 282, 284, 288, 331, 333, 334, 335, 338, 401, 402, 403, and 407, poloxamer 105 benzoate, and poloxamer 182 dibenzoate a. Int J Toxicol. 2008;27 Suppl 2:93-128 pubmed publisher
    Poloxamers are polyoxyethlyene, polyoxypropylene block polymers. The impurities of commercial grade Poloxamer 188, as an example, include low-molecular-weight substances (aldehydes and both formic and acetic acids), as well as 1,4-..
  32. Shi Q, Ye S, Kristalyn C, Su Y, Jiang Z, Chen Z. Probing molecular-level surface structures of polyethersulfone/pluronic F127 blends using sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Langmuir. 2008;24:7939-46 pubmed publisher
  33. Kim T, Ahn J, Choi H, Choi Y, Cho C. A novel mucoadhesive polymer film composed of carbopol, poloxamer and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:381-6 pubmed
    Using the casting method novel mucoadhesive polymer blend film consisting of Carbopol, poloxamer, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was prepared and characterized...
  34. Hyun H, Kim Y, Song I, Lee J, Kim M, Khang G, et al. In vitro and in vivo release of albumin using a biodegradable MPEG-PCL diblock copolymer as an in situ gel-forming carrier. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:1093-100 pubmed
  35. Mitchell S, Huizer Pajkos A, Cogger V, McLachlan A, Le Couteur D, Hilmer S. Poloxamer 407 increases the recovery of paracetamol in the isolated perfused rat liver. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..in the hepatic disposition of paracetamol was investigated in isolated perfused livers from rats treated with poloxamer 407 (P407), a surfactant that causes extensive defenestration of the LSECs...
  36. Sonoda A, Nitta N, Ohta S, Nitta Seko A, Morikawa S, Tabata Y, et al. Controlled release and antitumor effect of pluronic F127 mixed with cisplatin in a rabbit model. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010;33:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..05) than in the other groups, without apparent damage to normal liver tissue. We conclude that pluronic is useful for the controlled release of cisplatin in a rabbit model...
  37. Besheer A, Vogel J, Glanz D, Kressler J, Groth T, MADER K. Characterization of PLGA nanospheres stabilized with amphiphilic polymers: hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl starch vs pluronics. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, these results warrant in vivo experiments to evaluate how the HES laurates can affect the pharmacokinetics and fate of the nanospheres...
  38. Csaba N, Sanchez A, Alonso M. PLGA:poloxamer and PLGA:poloxamine blend nanostructures as carriers for nasal gene delivery. J Control Release. 2006;113:164-72 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results suggest that these new nanoparticles have a potential as carriers for the delivery of DNA across the nasal mucosa...
  39. Santander Ortega M, Jódar Reyes A, Csaba N, Bastos González D, Ortega Vinuesa J. Colloidal stability of pluronic F68-coated PLGA nanoparticles: a variety of stabilisation mechanisms. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006;302:522-9 pubmed
    ..work is to study the electrophoretic mobility (mu(e)) and colloidal stability of complexes formed by adsorbing a poloxamer (Pluronic F68) onto poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles...
  40. Rhee Y, Shin Y, Park C, Chi S, Park E. Effect of flavors on the viscosity and gelling point of aqueous poloxamer solution. Arch Pharm Res. 2006;29:1171-8 pubmed
    ..added to improve the appeal of pharmaceutical agents, on the viscosity and gelling point of 18% (w/w) aqueous poloxamer 407 solutions. Monoterpenes, esters, alcohols, aldehyde . ketones and lactone type flavors were examined...
  41. Khalil E, Afifi F, Al Hussaini M. Evaluation of the wound healing effect of some Jordanian traditional medicinal plants formulated in Pluronic F127 using mice (Mus musculus). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109:104-12 pubmed
    ..The best wound healing activity was observed with the extract of Inula viscosa, followed by Parieteria diffusa, Laurus nobilis, Ajuga chia and the least active extract was that of Rubia taenifolia...
  42. Quinlan J, Wong B, Niemeier R, McCullough A, Levin L, Emanuele M. Poloxamer 188 failed to prevent exercise-induced membrane breakdown in mdx skeletal muscle fibers. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006;16:855-64 pubmed
    We sought to determine the effectiveness of poloxamer 188 (P188) in protecting dystrophin-deficient, mdx skeletal muscle fiber membrane against exercise-induced breaches...
  43. Xuan J, Balakrishnan P, Oh D, Yeo W, Park S, Yong C, et al. Rheological characterization and in vivo evaluation of thermosensitive poloxamer-based hydrogel for intramuscular injection of piroxicam. Int J Pharm. 2010;395:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..hydrogel that is easy to administer, gels quickly in the body and allows sustained release of the drug, poloxamer-based hydrogels containing piroxicam as a model drug were prepared with poloxamer, sodium hydroxide and sodium ..
  44. Serbest G, Horwitz J, Jost M, Barbee K. Mechanisms of cell death and neuroprotection by poloxamer 188 after mechanical trauma. FASEB J. 2006;20:308-10 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that promotion of membrane repair acutely with the non-ionic surfactant poloxamer 188 (P188) restored cell viability to control values at 24 h postinjury...
  45. Mina E, Lasagna Reeves C, Glabe C, Kayed R. Poloxamer 188 copolymer membrane sealant rescues toxicity of amyloid oligomers in vitro. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:577-85 pubmed publisher
    ..amyloid oligomer toxicity and membrane permeabilization can be reversed using the membrane sealant copolymer poloxamer 188...
  46. Moebus K, Siepmann J, Bodmeier R. Alginate-poloxamer microparticles for controlled drug delivery to mucosal tissue. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2009;72:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize novel hydrogel-based delivery systems allowing for the controlled release of drugs to mucosal surfaces...
  47. Goddeeris C, Van den Mooter G. Free flowing solid dispersions of the anti-HIV drug UC 781 with Poloxamer 407 and a maximum amount of TPGS 1000: investigating the relationship between physicochemical characteristics and dissolution behaviour. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2008;35:104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Poloxamer 407, a polyethylene-polypropylene glycol block copolymer, was selected as a suitable polymer based on UC 781 ..
  48. Koffi A, Agnely F, Ponchel G, Grossiord J. Modulation of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of thermosensitive poloxamer-based hydrogels intended for the rectal administration of quinine. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006;27:328-35 pubmed
    The aim of this work was to formulate and characterize thermosensitive gels based on poloxamer 407, a thermosensitive polymer, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), a bioadhesive polymer, intended for the rectal delivery of quinine in ..
  49. Lee J, Go D, Bae J, Lee S, Park K. Heparin conjugated polymeric micelle for long-term delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor. J Control Release. 2007;117:204-9 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that TCH PMs become a novel candidate for the long-term delivery of various growth factors with heparin-binding domain in tissue engineering...
  50. Zhang R, Hunter R, Gonzalez E, Moore F. Poloxamer 188 prolongs survival of hypotensive resuscitation and decreases vital tissue injury after full resuscitation. Shock. 2009;32:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its value is limited by continuing ischemic injury. Purified poloxamer 188 (P188), a copolymer with rheological and cytoprotective activities, was known to reduce mortality of ..
  51. Baek E, Kim H, Kim J, Kim N, Kim H. Stroma-free mass production of clinical-grade red blood cells (RBCs) by using poloxamer 188 as an RBC survival enhancer. Transfusion. 2009;49:2285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a protocol for mass production of clinical-grade RBCs from cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells in stroma-free culture by using poloxamer 188 (P188), a polymer known to be cytoprotective against hydrodynamic stress.
  52. Batrakova E, Li S, Brynskikh A, Sharma A, Li Y, BOSKA M, et al. Effects of pluronic and doxorubicin on drug uptake, cellular metabolism, apoptosis and tumor inhibition in animal models of MDR cancers. J Control Release. 2010;143:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, formulation of Dox with P85 results in increased inhibition of the growth solid tumors in mice and represents novel and promising strategy for therapy of drug resistant cancers...
  53. Yasuda S, Townsend D, Michele D, Favre E, Day S, Metzger J. Dystrophic heart failure blocked by membrane sealant poloxamer. Nature. 2005;436:1025-9 pubmed
    ..calcium overload, leading to cell contracture and death, and that application of the membrane sealant poloxamer 188 corrects these defects in vitro...