ethylene glycol

Summary

Summary: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.

Top Publications

  1. Somfai T, Nakai M, Tanihara F, Noguchi J, Kaneko H, Kashiwazaki N, et al. Comparison of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol for the vitrification of immature porcine oocytes. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:378-84 pubmed
    ..Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG...
  2. Patel S, Zhang Y, Pollock J, Janjic J. Cyclooxgenase-2 inhibiting perfluoropoly (ethylene glycol) ether theranostic nanoemulsions-in vitro study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55802 pubmed publisher
    ..These features strongly support the future use of the presented nanoemulsions as anti-COX-2 theranostic nanomedicine with possible anticancer applications...
  3. Coulter C, Farquhar S, McSherry C, Isbister G, Duffull S. Methanol and ethylene glycol acute poisonings - predictors of mortality. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011;49:900-6 pubmed publisher
    Methanol and ethylene glycol cause significant mortality post-ingestion. Predicting prognosis based on the biomarkers osmolal gap, anion gap and pH is beneficial.
  4. Trmcic Cvitas J, Hasan E, Ramstedt M, Li X, Cooper M, Abell C, et al. Biofunctionalized protein resistant oligo(ethylene glycol)-derived polymer brushes as selective immobilization and sensing platforms. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:2885-94 pubmed publisher
    Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes are extremely protein resistant polymer coatings that can reduce nonspecific adsorption of proteins from complex mixtures such as blood, sera and plasma...
  5. Divakar K, Pawar A, Chandrasekhar S, Dighe S, Divakar G. Protective effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia roots against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1013-8 pubmed publisher
    ..HARC) against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis and its possible underlying mechanisms using male Wistar albino rats...
  6. Khajavi Rad A, Hadjzadeh M, Rajaei Z, Mohammadian N, Valiollahi S, Sonei M. The beneficial effect of cynodon dactylon fractions on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol J. 2011;8:179-84 pubmed
    To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.
  7. Sandberg Y, Rood P, Russcher H, Zwaans J, Weige J, van Daele P. Falsely elevated lactate in severe ethylene glycol intoxication. Neth J Med. 2010;68:320-3 pubmed
    ..Lactate acidosis due to mesenteric ischaemia was suspected. However, toxicology screening demonstrated ethylene glycol intoxication. Treatment with ethanol infusion and acute haemodialysis was started...
  8. Goswami L, Houston Z, Sarma S, Jalisatgi S, Hawthorne M. Efficient synthesis of diverse heterobifunctionalized clickable oligo(ethylene glycol) linkers: potential applications in bioconjugation and targeted drug delivery. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:1116-26 pubmed publisher
    ..the sequential synthesis of a variety of azide-alkyne click chemistry-compatible heterobifunctional oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) linkers for bioconjugation chemistry applications...
  9. Liu H, Ramos K, Valdehuesa K, Nisola G, Lee W, Chung W. Biosynthesis of ethylene glycol in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:3409-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important platform chemical with steadily expanding global demand. Its commercial production is currently limited to fossil resources; no biosynthesis route has been delineated...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen Y, Liu H, Chen H, Tsai F, Chang C, Lee Y, et al. Ethylene glycol induces calcium oxalate crystal deposition in Malpighian tubules: a Drosophila model for nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis. Kidney Int. 2011;80:369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Drosophila as a model organism and fed the flies lithogenic agents such as ethylene glycol, hydroxyl-L-proline, and sodium oxalate...
  2. Vutyavanich T, Sreshthaputra O, Piromlertamorn W, Nunta S. Closed-system solid surface vitrification versus slow programmable freezing of mouse 2-cell embryos. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare closed-system solid surface vitrification with slow freezing...
  3. McMartin K. Are calcium oxalate crystals involved in the mechanism of acute renal failure in ethylene glycol poisoning?. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:859-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning often results in acute renal failure, particularly if treatment with fomepizole or ethanol is delayed because of late presentation or diagnosis...
  4. Sheikhi M, Hultenby K, Niklasson B, Lundqvist M, Hovatta O. Preservation of human ovarian follicles within tissue frozen by vitrification in a xeno-free closed system using only ethylene glycol as a permeating cryoprotectant. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:170-7.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the preservation of follicles within ovarian tissue vitrified using only one or a combination of three permeating cryoprotectants...
  5. Christophis C, Grunze M, Rosenhahn A. Quantification of the adhesion strength of fibroblast cells on ethylene glycol terminated self-assembled monolayers by a microfluidic shear force assay. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:4498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..As an application we investigated the adhesion strength of cells on a series of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) containing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)...
  6. Devaraneni P, Mishra N, Bhat R. Polyol osmolytes stabilize native-like cooperative intermediate state of yeast hexokinase A at low pH. Biochimie. 2012;94:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..5 help in the retention of structure that is typical of native state? To answer this question, the effect of ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, trehalose and glucose at pH 2...
  7. Saghir S, Bartels M, Snellings W. Dermal penetration of ethylene glycol through human skin in vitro. Int J Toxicol. 2010;29:268-76 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro dermal absorption of ethylene glycol (EG) through dermatomed human abdominal skin (containing epidermis and dermis), obtained from cadavers within 24 hours of death and kept frozen until ..
  8. Saha S, Verma R. Bergenia ciliata extract prevents ethylene glycol induced histopathological changes in the kidney. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68:711-5 pubmed
    The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the effect of Bergenia ciliata extract on kidney of ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in adult female Wistar rats...
  9. Liu Z, Liu S, Niu G, Wang F, Liu S, Chen X. Optical imaging of integrin alphavbeta3 expression with near-infrared fluorescent RGD dimer with tetra(ethylene glycol) linkers. Mol Imaging. 2010;9:21-9 pubmed
    ..NIRF) imaging of an IRDye800-labeled new cyclic RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) dimer with tetra(ethylene glycol) (PEG4) linkers (ie, E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2, PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) in a U87MG ..
  10. Ilbey Y, Ozbek E, Simsek A, Cekmen M, Somay A, Tasci A. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate treatment prevents ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis through inhibition of NF-kappaB and p38-MAPK signaling pathways in rat kidney. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2010;82:87-94 pubmed
    ..The rats were divided into three groups; group 1; control group, group 2; ethylene glycol (EG) group, group 3; EG + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group...
  11. Jammalamadaka D, Raissi S. Ethylene glycol, methanol and isopropyl alcohol intoxication. Am J Med Sci. 2010;339:276-81 pubmed publisher
    In clinical practice, poisoning with ethylene glycol, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol is common. These alcohol-related intoxications can present with high anion gap metabolic acidosis and increased osmolality...
  12. Ruiz P, Mumtaz M, Gombar V. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;254:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs)...
  13. Park H, Seo J, Lee H, Kim H, Wall I, Gong M, et al. Synthesis of elastic biodegradable polyesters of ethylene glycol and butylene glycol from sebacic acid. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:2911-8 pubmed publisher
    High molecular weight biodegradable polyesters were prepared from sebacic acid, ethylene glycol and butylene glycol through a simple non-solvent polycondensation with a low toxicity catalyst...
  14. Shao Q, He Y, White A, Jiang S. Different effects of zwitterion and ethylene glycol on proteins. J Chem Phys. 2012;136:225101 pubmed publisher
    In this work, we investigated the effects of carboxybetaine (CB) and (ethylene glycol)(4) (EG(4)) solutes on chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) as a model protein using molecular dynamics simulations...
  15. Das D, Dey J, Chandra A, Thapa U, Ismail K. Aggregation behavior of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate in aqueous ethylene glycol medium. A case of hydrogen bonding between surfactant and solvent and its manifestation in the surface tension isotherm. Langmuir. 2012;28:15762-9 pubmed publisher
    The dependence of critical micelle concentration (cmc) of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT) on the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in water + EG medium was reported to be unusual and different from that of other surfactants to the extent ..
  16. Wu C, Qu J, Elliott J, Yu K, Tsang S. Hydrogenolysis of ethylene glycol to methanol over modified RANEY® catalysts. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:9043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we employ ethylene glycol as a model compound for catalytic activation, which represents a basic unit for complex carbohydrate ..
  17. Chauvigné F, Lubzens E, Cerdà J. Design and characterization of genetically engineered zebrafish aquaporin-3 mutants highly permeable to the cryoprotectant ethylene glycol. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:34 pubmed publisher
    ..To exploit further the possibilities of using aquaporins in cryobiology, we investigated the functional properties of zebrafish (Danio rerio) GLPs...
  18. Wanderley L, Luz H, Faustino L, Lima I, Lopes C, Silva A, et al. Ultrastructural features of agouti (Dasyprocta aguti) preantral follicles cryopreserved using dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and propanediol. Theriogenology. 2012;77:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) or propanediol (PROH); some of those fragments were subsequently cryopreserved in a programmable freezer...
  19. Li Y, McLaren M, McMartin K. Involvement of urinary proteins in the rat strain difference in sensitivity to ethylene glycol-induced renal toxicity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F605-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethylene glycol (EG) exposure is a common model for kidney stones, because animals accumulate calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in kidneys...
  20. Taniguchi M, Arikawa R, Kaedei Y, Tanihara F, Namula Z, Viet V, et al. Effects of cryoprotectant agents and equilibration methods on developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Cryo Letters. 2011;32:410-4 pubmed
    ..In vitro-matured oocytes were exposed to 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (GLY), or 1,2-propanediol (PD), fertilized with spermatozoa, and cultured for 8 days...
  21. Buchanan J, Alhelail M, Cetaruk E, Schaeffer T, Palmer R, Kulig K, et al. Massive ethylene glycol ingestion treated with fomepizole alone-a viable therapeutic option. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:131-4 pubmed publisher
    Fomepizole is used to treat and prevent toxicity from ethylene glycol poisoning...
  22. Ingale K, Thakurdesai P, Vyawahare N. Effect of Hygrophila spinosa in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44:639-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of methanolic extract of Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasic rats.
  23. Marchionni A, Bevilacqua M, Bianchini C, Chen Y, Filippi J, Fornasiero P, et al. Electrooxidation of ethylene glycol and glycerol on Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C anodes in direct alcohol fuel cells. ChemSusChem. 2013;6:518-28 pubmed publisher
    The electrooxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (G) has been studied: in alkaline media, in passive as well as active direct ethylene glycol fuel cells (DEGFCs), and in direct glycerol fuel cells (DGFCs) containing Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C ..
  24. Shahzad Y, Khan Q, Hussain T, Shah S. Influence of cellulose derivative and ethylene glycol on optimization of lornoxicam transdermal formulation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;61:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..model was selected to investigate the influence of variables, namely hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and ethylene glycol (EG) on permeation of lornoxicam from topically applied lotion formulations...
  25. Giton F, Guéchot J, Fiet J. New reusable Celite/ethylene glycol cartridges for selective chromatography of steroids before immunoassay. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:1735-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Preparation of reusable and easy to handle Celite chromatographic columns...
  26. Sharma G, Dubey P, Chandra V. Morphological changes, DNA damage and developmental competence of in vitro matured, vitrified-thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes: A comparative study of two cryoprotectants and two cryodevices. Cryobiology. 2010;60:315-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of two cryodevices; french mini straw (FMS) and open pulled straw (OPS) using two different cryoprotectants; ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) on morphological damage, recovery rate, DNA damage and developmental ..
  27. Garg U, Frazee C, Johnson L, Turner J. A fatal case involving extremely high levels of ethylene glycol without elevation of its metabolites or crystalluria. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009;30:273-5 pubmed publisher
    A unique case of an intentional overdose of ethylene glycol resulting in a fatality is described. The decedent had a very high concentration of ethylene glycol without elevated concentrations of its metabolites or crystalluria...
  28. Hovda K, Guo C, Austin R, McMartin K. Renal toxicity of ethylene glycol results from internalization of calcium oxalate crystals by proximal tubule cells. Toxicol Lett. 2010;192:365-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethylene glycol exposure can lead to the development of renal failure due to the metabolic formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals...
  29. Lewis L, Smith B, Mamourian A. Delayed sequelae after acute overdoses or poisonings: cranial neuropathy related to ethylene glycol ingestion. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997;61:692-9 pubmed
    ..Her blood ethylene glycol concentration was 390 mg/L, and she was treated with an intravenous ethanol infusion and hemodialysis...
  30. Liebermann J, Tucker M. Effect of carrier system on the yield of human oocytes and embryos as assessed by survival and developmental potential after vitrification. Reproduction. 2002;124:483-9 pubmed
    ..The survival of day 3 embryos after vitrification was improved by using a mixture of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulphoxide in combination with the hemi-straw system method rather than the cryoloop method (89...
  31. Zhang Y, Zhuo R. Synthesis and in vitro drug release behavior of amphiphilic triblock copolymer nanoparticles based on poly (ethylene glycol) and polycaprolactone. Biomaterials. 2005;26:6736-42 pubmed
    Novel BAB type amphiphilic triblock copolymers consisting of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) (B) as hydrophilic segment and poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) (A) as hydrophobic block were prepared by coupling reaction using L-lysine methyl ..
  32. Caravati E, Erdman A, Christianson G, Manoguerra A, Booze L, Woolf A, et al. Ethylene glycol exposure: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43:327-45 pubmed
    In 2002, poison centers in the US reported 5816 human exposures to ethylene glycol. A guideline that effectively determines the threshold dose for emergency department referral and need for pre-hospital decontamination could potentially ..
  33. Mullen S, Li M, Li Y, Chen Z, Critser J. Human oocyte vitrification: the permeability of metaphase II oocytes to water and ethylene glycol and the appliance toward vitrification. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1812-25 pubmed
    To determine the permeability of human metaphase II oocytes to ethylene glycol and water in the presence of ethylene glycol, and to use this information to develop a method to vitrify human oocytes.
  34. Magnusson V, Feitosa W, Goissis M, Yamada C, Tavares L, D Avila Assumpção M, et al. Bovine oocyte vitrification: effect of ethylene glycol concentrations and meiotic stages. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;106:265-73 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of maturation stage and ethylene glycol (EG) concentration on survival of bovine oocytes after vitrification...
  35. Lepik K, Levy A, Sobolev B, Purssell R, DeWitt C, Erhardt G, et al. Adverse drug events associated with the antidotes for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning: a comparison of ethanol and fomepizole. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53:439-450.e10 pubmed publisher
    We investigate adverse drug events associated with antidotes ethanol and fomepizole in methanol or ethylene glycol poisonings. An "adverse drug event" is harm associated with normal or incorrect drug use...
  36. De Santis L, Coticchio G, Paynter S, Albertini D, Hutt K, Cino I, et al. Permeability of human oocytes to ethylene glycol and their survival and spindle configurations after slow cooling cryopreservation. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2776-83 pubmed
    ..coefficients Lp (hydraulic conductivity) and P(EG) (cryoprotectant permeability) of mature human oocytes after exposure to ethylene glycol (EG) and tested the efficiency of a multi-step slow cooling protocol based on this cryoprotectant.
  37. Inbar P, Li C, Takayama S, Bautista M, Yang J. Oligo(ethylene glycol) derivatives of thioflavin T as inhibitors of protein-amyloid interactions. Chembiochem. 2006;7:1563-6 pubmed
  38. Guo C, Cenac T, Li Y, McMartin K. Calcium oxalate, and not other metabolites, is responsible for the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol. Toxicol Lett. 2007;173:8-16 pubmed
    b>Ethylene glycol (EG) is nephrotoxic due to its metabolism...
  39. Rota A, Milani C, Cabianca G, Martini M. Comparison between glycerol and ethylene glycol for dog semen cryopreservation. Theriogenology. 2006;65:1848-58 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ethylene glycol versus glycerol for dog semen freezing, on post-thaw longevity, motility and motility parameters, and on plasma membrane functional integrity...
  40. Kuleshova L, MacFarlane D, Trounson A, Shaw J. Sugars exert a major influence on the vitrification properties of ethylene glycol-based solutions and have low toxicity to embryos and oocytes. Cryobiology. 1999;38:119-30 pubmed
    A systematic approach was taken to assess the vitrification properties of ethylene glycol-based solutions supplemented with carbohydrates. Solutions were prepared by weight (gravimetrically) using ethylene glycol as the cryoprotectant, 0...
  41. Kataoka M, Sasaki M, Hidalgo A, Nakano M, Shimizu S. Glycolic acid production using ethylene glycol-oxidizing microorganisms. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:2265-70 pubmed
    Screening for microorganisms oxidizing ethylene glycol to glycolic acid was carried out. Among stock cultures, several yeasts and acetic acid bacteria showed high glycolic acid producing activity...
  42. Hess R, Bartels M, Pottenger L. Ethylene glycol: an estimate of tolerable levels of exposure based on a review of animal and human data. Arch Toxicol. 2004;78:671-80 pubmed
    Upon ingestion ethylene glycol (EG, monoethylene glycol) is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and depending on the severity of exposure signs of toxicity may progress through three stages...
  43. Huang H, Ma M, Chen J, Chen C. Changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the kidney of rats with nephrolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol. J Urol. 2002;167:2584-93 pubmed
    We investigated the possible mechanism of increased free radicals, the role of antioxidant enzymes and their correlation with renal tubular damage in the kidney after feeding 0.75% ethylene glycol to male Wistar rats.
  44. Mahmoud K, Scholkamy T, Ahmed Y, Seidel G, Nawito M. Effect of different combinations of cryoprotectants on in vitro maturation of immature buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes vitrified by straw and open-pulled straw methods. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:565-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The vitrification solution (VS) consisted of 6 m ethylene glycol (EG) as the standard, control vitrification treatment, and this was compared with 3 m EG + 3 m dimethyl ..
  45. Xue C, Velayudham S, Johnson S, Saha R, Smith A, Brewer W, et al. Highly water-soluble, fluorescent, conjugated fluorene-based glycopolymers with poly(ethylene glycol)-tethered spacers for sensitive detection of Escherichia coli. Chemistry. 2009;15:2289-95 pubmed publisher
    Two bromide-bearing, fluorene-based, conjugated polymers with oligo(ethylene glycol)- and poly(ethylene glycol)-tethered spacers have been prepared by the Suzuki coupling polymerization of bromide-bearing, fluorene monomers...
  46. Bautista J, Kanagawa H. Current status of vitrification of embryos and oocytes in domestic animals: ethylene glycol as an emerging cryoprotectant of choice. Jpn J Vet Res. 1998;45:183-91 pubmed
    ..Numerous vitrification solutions have been formulated with ethylene glycol in combination with macromolecules, sugars and other cryoprotective agents...
  47. Chen P, Hsieh G, Wang J, Cheng T. Prolonged time to pregnancy in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in semiconductor manufacturing. Epidemiology. 2002;13:191-6 pubmed
    ..Previous research on reproductive effects of working in the semiconductor industry is limited and has produced conflicting results...
  48. Amorim C, Rondina D, Rodrigues A, Costa S, Gonçalves P, de Figueiredo J, et al. Isolated ovine primordial follicles cryopreserved in different concentrations of ethylene glycol. Theriogenology. 2003;60:735-42 pubmed
    ..The aim of this work was to assess the toxicity of different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG) to primordial follicles, and verify the viability of these follicles after the freezing-thawing ..
  49. Cai X, Chen G, Lian Y, Zheng X, Peng H. Cryoloop vitrification of rabbit oocytes. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:1969-74 pubmed
    ..In this study, rabbit oocytes (fertilized by ICSI) were vitrified with cryoloops, and the effect of three different cryopreservation protocols on spindle configuration and embryo quality was assessed...
  50. Kuwayama M, Vajta G, Kato O, Leibo S. Highly efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of human oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005;11:300-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that vitrification using the Cryotop is the most efficient method for human oocyte cryopreservation...
  51. Pizon A, Brooks D. Hyperosmolality: another indication for hemodialysis following acute ethylene glycol poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44:181-3 pubmed
    When given early, fomepizole has demonstrated an effective role in the treatment of ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication, often eliminating the need for hemodialysis (HD). Many indications for HD have been suggested for EG intoxication...
  52. McMartin K, Wallace K. Calcium oxalate monohydrate, a metabolite of ethylene glycol, is toxic for rat renal mitochondrial function. Toxicol Sci. 2005;84:195-200 pubmed
    b>Ethylene glycol poisoning can produce acute renal failure, requiring long-term hemodialysis to restore function. The mechanism of the renal failure is unknown, but is associated with tubular cell necrosis and ethylene glycol metabolism...
  53. Velez L, Shepherd G, Lee Y, Keyes D. Ethylene glycol ingestion treated only with fomepizole. J Med Toxicol. 2007;3:125-8 pubmed
    b>Ethylene glycol is a widely used chemical that is capable of causing significant injury if ingested. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning typically includes basic supportive care, alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition, and hemodialysis...