chloral hydrate

Summary

Summary: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.

Top Publications

  1. Seng J, Agrawal N, Horsley E, Leakey T, Scherer E, Xia S, et al. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;193:281-92 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene...
  2. Ho Y, Ma H, Chang H, Wei B, Lee C, Ho S, et al. Lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in rats and human cells induced by chloral hydrate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:621-9 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate (CH) is widely used as a sedative and hypnotic in pediatric medicine. It is also a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolite of trichloroethylene...
  3. Uematsu M, Takasawa M, Hosoi R, Inoue O. Uncoupling of flow and metabolism by chloral hydrate: a rat in-vivo autoradiographic study. Neuroreport. 2009;20:219-22 pubmed
    ..and glucose utilization using 2-[1-14C] deoxy-D-glucose during general anesthesia with pentobarbital and chloral hydrate as well as conscious controls using rats and in-vivo autoradiography...
  4. Sheroan M, Dilley D, Lucas W, Vann W. A prospective study of 2 sedation regimens in children: chloral hydrate, meperidine, and hydroxyzine versus midazolam, meperidine, and hydroxyzine. Anesth Prog. 2006;53:83-90 pubmed
    ..of this study was to compare both the behavioral and physiological effects of 2 drug regimens in children: chloral hydrate (CH), meperidine (M), and hydroxyzine (H) (regimen A) versus midazolam (MZ), M, and H (regimen B)...
  5. Heistein L, Ramaciotti C, Scott W, Coursey M, Sheeran P, Lemler M. Chloral hydrate sedation for pediatric echocardiography: physiologic responses, adverse events, and risk factors. Pediatrics. 2006;117:e434-41 pubmed
    The physiologic responses to chloral hydrate sedation in the setting of a pediatric echocardiography laboratory have not been well documented; neither has the population at risk been identified adequately...
  6. Kreuter J, Mattson B, Wang B, You Z, Hope B. Cocaine-induced Fos expression in rat striatum is blocked by chloral hydrate or urethane. Neuroscience. 2004;127:233-42 pubmed
    ..ability of 20 mg/kg cocaine to induce Fos expression in the striatum following pretreatment with 400 mg/kg chloral hydrate or 1.3 g/kg urethane, two of the most commonly used anesthetics for in vivo electrophysiology...
  7. Avlonitou E, Balatsouras D, Margaritis E, Giannakopoulos P, Douniadakis D, Tsakanikos M. Use of chloral hydrate as a sedative for auditory brainstem response testing in a pediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;75:760-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloral hydrate (CH) is an oral sedative widely used to sedate infants and young children during auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing...
  8. Esmaeili A, Keinhorst A, Schuster T, Beske F, Schlosser R, Bastanier C. Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome with clonidine and chloral hydrate. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:209-14 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the medical treatment of neonatal narcotic abstinence syndrome with clonidine and chloral hydrate with the commonly used combination therapy of morphine and phenobarbital.
  9. D Agostino J, Terndrup T. Chloral hydrate versus midazolam for sedation of children for neuroimaging: a randomized clinical trial. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2000;16:1-4 pubmed
    The comparative safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate and midazolam for sedation of children has not been adequately studied.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pan Q, Liu Y, Zheng J, Lu X, Wu S, Zhu P, et al. Protective effect of chloral hydrate against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced acute lethal liver injury and zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:967-77 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of chloral hydrate (CH) on the acute inflammatory response in BALB/c mice using lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-..
  2. Wheeler D, Jensen R, Poss W. A randomized, blinded comparison of chloral hydrate and midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2001;40:381-7 pubmed
    The objective of this prospective, randomized, and blinded study was to compare the use of chloral hydrate versus oral midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography...
  3. Caksen H, Odabas D, Uner A, Tuncer O, Ata B. Respiratory arrest due to chloral hydrate in an infant. J Emerg Med. 2003;24:342-3 pubmed
  4. Laurent Y, Wallemacq P, Haufroid V, Renkin J, Liolios A, Hantson P. Electrocardiographic changes with segmental akinesia after chloral hydrate overdose. J Emerg Med. 2006;30:179-82 pubmed
    We report a case of deliberate ingestion of 12.5 g chloral hydrate in a 25-year-old psychiatric patient. Coma and life-threatening ventricular dysrhythmias were observed soon after ingestion...
  5. Fávero M, Ponce F, Pio M, Tabith Junior A, Carvalho e Silva F. Chloral hydrate to study auditory brainstem response. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76:433-6 pubmed
    b>Chloral Hydrate (CH) is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in pediatric procedures owing to the low depressive effect it has on the respiratory and cardiac systems.
  6. Thoresen M, Henriksen O, Wannag E, Laegreid L. Does a sedative dose of chloral hydrate modify the EEG of children with epilepsy?. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1997;102:152-7 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate (CH) is used to sedate children unable to cooperate during investigations such as EEG requiring the patient to be still. It is not known if CH or its metabolites modify the EEG and our aim was to answer this question...
  7. Pant K, Sly J, Bruce S, Leung C, San R. Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay with conditioned media (without X-ray irradiated feeder layer) using 2,4-diaminotoluene, 2,6-diaminotoluene and chloral hydrate. Mutat Res. 2008;654:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Three compounds, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), 2,6-diaminotoluene (2,6-DAT), and chloral hydrate were tested in the SHE cell transformation assay without an X-ray irradiated feeder layer and using a 7-day ..
  8. Hijazi O, Haidar N, Al Eissa Y. Chloral hydrate. An effective agent for sedation in children with age and weight dependent response. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:746-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, none of the drugs used for sedation are risk free. The aim of this work is to study sedation indications, effectiveness, and safety at our center...
  9. Malviya S, Voepel Lewis T, Tait A, Reynolds P, Gujar S, Gebarski S, et al. Pentobarbital vs chloral hydrate for sedation of children undergoing MRI: efficacy and recovery characteristics. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14:589-95 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate (CH) sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with significant failure rates, adverse events and delayed recovery...
  10. Mason K, Sanborn P, Zurakowski D, Karian V, Connor L, Fontaine P, et al. Superiority of pentobarbital versus chloral hydrate for sedation in infants during imaging. Radiology. 2004;230:537-42 pubmed
    To compare the effectiveness and safety of oral pentobarbital and oral chloral hydrate for sedation in infants younger than 1 year during magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT).
  11. Sabeti J, Gerhardt G, Zahniser N. Chloral hydrate and ethanol, but not urethane, alter the clearance of exogenous dopamine recorded by chronoamperometry in striatum of unrestrained rats. Neurosci Lett. 2003;343:9-12 pubmed
    ..We used high-speed chronoamperometry to examine how urethane, chloral hydrate and ethanol affected clearance of locally-applied DA in the dorsal striatum of unrestrained rats...
  12. Loewy J, Hallan C, Friedman E, Martinez C. Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: a comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy. J Perianesth Nurs. 2005;20:323-32 pubmed
    ..The effects of chloral hydrate and music therapy were evaluated and compared as means of safe and effective ways to achieve sleep/sedation ..
  13. Haselkorn T, Whittemore A, Udaltsova N, Friedman G. Short-term chloral hydrate administration and cancer in humans. Drug Saf. 2006;29:67-77 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate, used as a hypnosedative in adults and children, has been shown to be genotoxic and carcinogenic in animal studies...
  14. Ashrafi M, Mohammadi M, Tafarroji J, Shabanian R, Salamati P, Zamani G. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010;14:235-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to assess the impact of melatonin on the sleep EEG recording in comparison with chloral hydrate. Three hundred and forty eight patients (aged 1 month to 6 years) that were uncooperative with the EEG setup ..
  15. Dallman J, Ignelzi M, Briskie D. Comparing the safety, efficacy and recovery of intranasal midazolam vs. oral chloral hydrate and promethazine. Pediatr Dent. 2001;23:424-30 pubmed
    ..of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy and recovery time of intranasal midazolam spray administered using an atomizer to orally administered chloral hydrate and promethazine for the sedation of pediatric dental patients.
  16. Zhang Q, Kuang W, Liu L, Li K, Wong K, Chow A, et al. Trihalomethane, haloacetonitrile, and chloral hydrate formation potentials of organic carbon fractions from sub-tropical forest soils. J Hazard Mater. 2009;172:880-7 pubmed publisher
    ..acid and were analysed for the formation potentials of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and chloral hydrate (CHD)...
  17. Broderick P. Alprazolam, diazepam, yohimbine, clonidine: in vivo CA1 hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin release profiles under chloral hydrate anesthesia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1997;21:1117-40 pubmed
    ..5-HT release, with 2 separate neural electrochemical signals, within CA1 region of hippocampus, in the chloral hydrate anesthetized rat. 4...
  18. Lipscomb J, Mahle D, Brashear W, Garrett C. A species comparison of chloral hydrate metabolism in blood and liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;227:340-50 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate (CH), [302-17-0], is a human sedative useful in premature infants. No current epidemiological study supports increased cancer risk. CH is also a rodent toxicant and a P450-derived metabolite of trichloroethylene (TRI)...
  19. Leakey J, Seng J, Latendresse J, Hussain N, Allen L, Allaben W. Dietary controlled carcinogenicity study of chloral hydrate in male B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;193:266-80 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate, which is used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination, is hepatocarcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which are ..
  20. da Costa L, da Costa P, Lima A. A randomized double-blinded trial of chloral hydrate with or without hydroxyzine versus placebo for pediatric dental sedation. Braz Dent J. 2007;18:334-40 pubmed
    b>Chloral hydrate and hydroxyzine are a drug combination frequently used by practitioners to sedate pediatric dental patients, but their effectiveness has not been compared to a negative control group in humans...
  21. George M, Moore T, Kilburn S, Olson G, DeAngelo A. Carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate administered in drinking water to the male F344/N rat and male B6C3F1 mouse. Toxicol Pathol. 2000;28:610-8 pubmed
    Male B6C3F1 mice and male F344/N rats were exposed to chloral hydrate (chloral) in the drinking water for 2 years. Rats: Measured chloral hydrate drinking water concentrations for the study were 0.12 g/L, 0.58 g/L, and 2...
  22. Bringmann G, God R, Fahr S, Feineis D, Fornadi K, Fornadi F. Identification of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-trichloromethyl-1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline in human blood after intake of the hypnotic chloral hydrate. Anal Biochem. 1999;270:167-75 pubmed
    ..this heterocycle has been postulated to be formed endogenously in humans after administration of the hypnotic chloral hydrate or after exposure to the industrial solvent trichloroethylene by a spontaneous chemical ring closure reaction...
  23. Low E, O Driscoll M, MacEneaney P, O Mahony O. Sedation with oral chloral hydrate in children undergoing MRI scanning. Ir Med J. 2008;101:80-2 pubmed
    ..of a general anaesthetic facility for MRI scanning in children, we introduced a sedation protocol using chloral hydrate. Our aim was to evaluate the success and safety of our protocol...
  24. Merdink J, Gonzalez Leon A, Bull R, Schultz I. The extent of dichloroacetate formation from trichloroethylene, chloral hydrate, trichloroacetate, and trichloroethanol in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci. 1998;45:33-41 pubmed
    ..data have been published related to the formation of dichloroacetate (DCA) from trichloroethylene (TRI), chloral hydrate (CH), or trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in B6C3F1 mice...
  25. Kinney G, Vogel G, Feng P. Decreased dorsal raphe nucleus neuronal activity in adult chloral hydrate anesthetized rats following neonatal clomipramine treatment: implications for endogenous depression. Brain Res. 1997;756:68-75 pubmed
    ..The present study controlled these variables by using chloral hydrate anesthesia, testing 'depressed' rats at both 2 and 3 months of age, and verifying electrode location using ..
  26. Krsek P, Sebronova V, Prochazka T, Maulisová A, Komarek V. Successful treatment of Ohtahara syndrome with chloral hydrate. Pediatr Neurol. 2002;27:388-91 pubmed
    ..infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression bursts (Ohtahara syndrome) with an excellent response to chloral hydrate to draw attention to a possible role of the "old" drug in the treatment of intractable epilepsy...
  27. Chakrabarti A, Schatten H, Mitchell K, Crosser M, Taylor M. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos. Cell Tissue Res. 1998;293:453-62 pubmed
    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate...
  28. Dowdell E. Pediatric medical errors part 1: the case. A pediatric drug overdose case. Pediatr Nurs. 2004;30:328-30 pubmed
  29. Forkert P, Lash L, Nadeau V, Tardif R, Simmonds A. Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene in epididymis and testis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;182:244-54 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that TCE is metabolized in the male reproductive tract, leading to adverse effects that are more severe in the epididymis than in the testis...
  30. Jiang X, Gao L, Zhang Y, Wang G, Liu Y, Yan C, et al. A comparison of the effects of ketamine, chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on isolated rat hearts and cardiomyocytes. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2011;12:732-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was intended to investigate which commonly used anesthetic in intact animals has the least effect on the function of isolated hearts and cardiomyocytes among the anesthetized animals...
  31. Cummings B, Parker J, Lash L. Cytochrome p450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene in rat kidney. Toxicol Sci. 2001;60:11-9 pubmed
    ..b>Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite consistently detected and was used as a measurement of P450-dependent metabolism ..
  32. Trabaris M, Laskin J, Weisel C. Effects of temperature, surfactants and skin location on the dermal penetration of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012;22:393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The dermal flux of mg/l concentrations of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs, increased by approximately 50% to 170% with increasing temperature from 25?°..
  33. Inoue K, Nishimukai H, Yamasawa K. Purification and partial characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase from human erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979;569:117-23 pubmed
    ..In kinetic characteristic and sensitivity to disulfiram, erythrocyte aldehyde dehydrogenase closely resembles the cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase found in the liver of various species of mammalians...
  34. Ghita A, Pârvu D, Sava R, Georgescu L, Zagrean L. Analysis of the visual evoked potential in anesthesia with sevoflurane and chloral hydrate : (Variability of amplitudes, latencies and morphology of VEP with the depth of anesthesia). J Med Life. 2013;6:214-25 pubmed
    ..For experimental studies of VEP in experimental animals anesthesia is frequently required. Our study sought VEP changes depending on the type and depth of anesthesia...
  35. Lee J, Jun M, Lee M, Lee M, Eom S, Zoh K. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213:465-74 pubmed publisher
    ..HANs; dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, ..
  36. Ye Y, Zhang J, Zhong Y, Zhang W, Shen X, Wei E, et al. [Comparison of behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs between two strains of mice]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;40:384-90 pubmed
    ..To compare the behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs between two strains of mice...
  37. Villanueva C, Castano Vinyals G, Moreno V, Carrasco Turigas G, Aragones N, Boldo E, et al. Concentrations and correlations of disinfection by-products in municipal drinking water from an exposure assessment perspective. Environ Res. 2012;114:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..MX), four haloacetonitries, two haloketones, chloropicrin and chloral hydrate and estimate correlations. A total of 233 tap water samples were collected in 2010...
  38. Cunliffe M, McArthur L, Dooley F. Managing sedation withdrawal in children who undergo prolonged PICU admission after discharge to the ward. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14:293-8 pubmed
  39. Zausinger S, Baethmann A, Schmid Elsaesser R. Anesthetic methods in rats determine outcome after experimental focal cerebral ischemia: mechanical ventilation is required to obtain controlled experimental conditions. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2002;9:112-21 pubmed
    ..In experimental research, rats are predominantly used to investigate the effects of focal cerebral ischemia. Chloral hydrate, applied intraperitoneally (i.p...
  40. Poon R, Nadeau B, Chu I. Biochemical effects of chloral hydrate on male rats following 7-day drinking water exposure. J Appl Toxicol. 2000;20:455-61 pubmed
    The biochemical and toxicological effects of chloral hydrate were investigated...
  41. Soares F, Britto L, Vertucci F, Guelmann M. Interdisciplinary approach to endodontic therapy for uncooperative children in a dental school environment. J Dent Educ. 2006;70:1362-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that cooperation between pediatric dentists and endodontists is fundamental to achieving success when providing root canal treatment for uncooperative child patients...
  42. Sonn J, Mayevsky A. Effects of anesthesia on the responses to cortical spreading depression in the rat brain in vivo. Neurol Res. 2006;28:206-19 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on the metabolic, hemodynamic, electrical and ionic properties during anesthesia as compared with the awake state...
  43. Smirnova E, Svetlitskaia O, Chentsov I. [Disruption of organization of mitotic microtubules in root meristem cells of Allium cepa induced by chloral hydrate]. Tsitologiia. 2002;44:120-30 pubmed
    ..It also disturbs the spatial interaction between microtubules, which is crucial for the formation and functioning of various microtubular systems (preprophase band, spindle and phragmoplast)...
  44. Sjakste N, Baumane L, Meirena D, Lauberte L, Dzintare M, Kalvins I. Drastic increase in nitric oxide content in rat brain under halothane anesthesia revealed by EPR method. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999;58:1955-9 pubmed
    ..The same effect was produced by 1% and 2% halothane. Ketamine, chloral hydrate, and pentobarbital were used as reference drugs...
  45. Zhang J, Grindstaff R, Thai S, Murray S, Kohan M, Blackman C. Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2011;27:207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Alterations in GJC are associated with carcinogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Chloral hydrate (CH), a by-product of chlorine disinfection of water, is carcinogenic in mice, and we demonstrated that CH ..
  46. Trabaris M, Laskin J, Weisel C. Percutaneous absorption of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate and simulated human exposures. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..studies were initiated to measure the permeation coefficients (K(p) ) for haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs...
  47. Gruss M, Hempelmann G, Scholz A. Trichloroethanol alters action potentials in a subgroup of primary sensory neurones. Neuroreport. 2002;13:853-6 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE), the active metabolite of chloral hydrate, on large-conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (BKCa channels) of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones...
  48. Bracken J, Heaslip I, Ryan S. Chloral hydrate sedation in radiology: retrospective audit of reduced dose. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:349-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloral hydrate (CH) is safe and effective for sedation of suitable children.
  49. Miller F. Protracted alcohol withdrawal delirium. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1994;11:127-30 pubmed
  50. Dogan Duyar S, Willemse J, Van Hee P, Duval E, Neels H. Chloral hydrate intoxication in a 3-month-old child: avoidance of hemodialysis by an immediate determination of trichloroethanol. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:328-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloral hydrate is used worldwide as a first-line agent for procedural sedation in paediatric patients undergoing painless diagnostic investigations...
  51. Myers G, Maestrello C, Mourino A, Best A. Effect of submucosal midazolam on behavior and physiologic response when combined with oral chloral hydrate and nitrous oxide sedation. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26:37-43 pubmed
    This study was designed to examine the efficacy and safety of submucosal (SM) midazolam and oral chloral hydrate (CH) when used for pediatric conscious sedation in a clinical dental environment.
  52. Tang X, Li L, Huang J, Deng Y. Guinea pig maximization test for trichloroethylene and its metabolites. Biomed Environ Sci. 2002;15:113-8 pubmed
    To study the contact allergenic activities of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its three metabolites trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate.
  53. Leelataweedwud P, Vann W. Adverse events and outcomes of conscious sedation for pediatric patients: study of an oral sedation regimen. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132:1531-9; quiz 1596 pubmed
    The authors report on adverse events and sedation outcomes for an oral sedation regimen of chloral hydrate, meperidine and hydroxyzine with 100 percent oxygen, or O2, supplementation.