ethylene glycols

Summary

Summary: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.

Top Publications

  1. Stahl J, Braun M, Siebert J, Kietzmann M. The effect of a combination of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol (octenisept) on wound healing in pigs in vivo and its in vitro percutaneous permeation through intact and barrier disrupted porcine skin. Int Wound J. 2010;7:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenoxyethanol permeates through intact porcine skin in amounts of 11.3% and through barrier disrupted skin in amounts of 43.9%..
  2. Choi S, Schneider J, Bennett D, Beach T, Bedell B, Zehntner S, et al. Correlation of amyloid PET ligand florbetapir F 18 binding with A? aggregation and neuritic plaque deposition in postmortem brain tissue. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012;26:8-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This study used human autopsy brain tissue to evaluate the correlation between in vitro florbetapir F 18 binding and A? density measured by established neuropathologic methods...
  3. Mura S, Manconi M, Sinico C, Valenti D, Fadda A. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil. Int J Pharm. 2009;380:72-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Fleisher A, Chen K, Liu X, Roontiva A, Thiyyagura P, Ayutyanont N, et al. Using positron emission tomography and florbetapir F18 to image cortical amyloid in patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia due to Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2011;68:1404-11 pubmed publisher
  5. Lin K, Hsu W, Hsiao I, Wey S, Jin L, Skovronsky D, et al. Whole-body biodistribution and brain PET imaging with [18F]AV-45, a novel amyloid imaging agent--a pilot study. Nucl Med Biol. 2010;37:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..This pilot study reports the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of [(18)F]AV-45 in human subjects...
  6. Mura S, Manconi M, Valenti D, Sinico C, Vila A, Fadda A. Transcutol containing vesicles for topical delivery of minoxidil. J Drug Target. 2011;19:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of in vitro diffusion experiments showed that Trc-containing PEVs are able to deliver minoxidil to deep skin layers without any transdermal permeation...
  7. Scognamiglio J, Jones L, Letizia C, Api A. Fragrance material review on 2-phenoxyethanol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50 Suppl 2:S244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances...
  8. Choi S, Golding G, Zhuang Z, Zhang W, Lim N, Hefti F, et al. Preclinical properties of 18F-AV-45: a PET agent for Abeta plaques in the brain. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:1887-94 pubmed publisher
    ..E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine ((18)F-AV-45) is such as an agent currently in phase III clinical studies for PET of Abeta plaques in the brain...
  9. Landau S, Lu M, Joshi A, PONTECORVO M, Mintun M, Trojanowski J, et al. Comparing positron emission tomography imaging and cerebrospinal fluid measurements of ?-amyloid. Ann Neurol. 2013;74:826-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined agreement and disagreement between 2 biomarkers of ?-amyloid (A?) deposition (amyloid positron emission tomography [PET] and cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] A?1-42 ) in normal aging and dementia in a large multicenter study...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Dodo T, Taketa Y, Sugiyama M, Inomata A, Sonoda J, Okuda Y, et al. Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 11) Two- or four-week repeated-dose studies and fertility study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in female rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2009;34 Suppl 1:SP121-8 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that a repeated-dose toxicity study with a treatment period for 2 weeks or longer is sufficient for evaluation of ovarian toxicity induced by EGME...
  2. Clark C, Pontecorvo M, Beach T, Bedell B, Coleman R, Doraiswamy P, et al. Cerebral PET with florbetapir compared with neuropathology at autopsy for detection of neuritic amyloid-? plaques: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:669-78 pubmed
    ..We therefore prospectively compared the sensitivity and specificity of amyloid PET imaging with neuropathology at autopsy...
  3. Liu Y, Zhu L, Plossl K, Choi S, Qiao H, Sun X, et al. Optimization of automated radiosynthesis of [18F]AV-45: a new PET imaging agent for Alzheimer's disease. Nucl Med Biol. 2010;37:917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We report herein an optimal [(18)F]fluorination, de-protection condition and fully automated radiosynthesis of [(18)F]AV-45 ([(18)F]5) on a radiosynthesis module (BNU F-A2)...
  4. Wong D, Rosenberg P, Zhou Y, Kumar A, Raymont V, Ravert H, et al. In vivo imaging of amyloid deposition in Alzheimer disease using the radioligand 18F-AV-45 (florbetapir [corrected] F 18). J Nucl Med. 2010;51:913-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the results of a clinical trial with (E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine ((18)F-AV-45 or florbetapir [corrected] F 18)...
  5. Newberg A, Arnold S, Wintering N, Rovner B, Alavi A. Initial clinical comparison of 18F-florbetapir and 18F-FDG PET in patients with Alzheimer disease and controls. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:902-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine how clinical interpretations of the (18)F-amyloid tracer florbetapir compares diagnostically with (18)F-FDG PET when evaluating patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and controls...
  6. Cordier S, Garlantezec R, Labat L, Rouget F, Monfort C, Bonvallot N, et al. Exposure during pregnancy to glycol ethers and chlorinated solvents and the risk of congenital malformations. Epidemiology. 2012;23:806-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to solvents during pregnancy has long been suspected of increasing the risk of congenital malformations, but the lack of prospective assessment of specific solvent exposures has prevented definitive conclusions...
  7. Clark C, Schneider J, Bedell B, Beach T, Bilker W, Mintun M, et al. Use of florbetapir-PET for imaging beta-amyloid pathology. JAMA. 2011;305:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to identify and quantify brain ?-amyloid could increase the accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease...
  8. Zhang R, Zhu G, Zhang W, Cao S, Ou X, Li X, et al. Crystal structure of a carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis with anti-Prelog stereospecificity. Protein Sci. 2008;17:1412-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This latter result provides a new example of a protein engineering approach to modify the coenzyme specificity in SCR and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in general...
  9. Bagchi G, Waxman D. Toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether: impact on testicular gene expression. Int J Androl. 2008;31:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, given the effects of EGME on multiple genes and signalling pathways in the testis, mixture studies combining EGME, or MAA, with other testicular toxicants may help identify toxicities that are aggravated by EGME exposure...
  10. Elliott B, Ashby J. Review of the genotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol. Mutat Res. 1997;387:89-96 pubmed
  11. Fukushima T, Yamamoto T, Kikkawa R, Hamada Y, Komiyama M, Mori C, et al. Effects of male reproductive toxicants on gene expression in rat testes. J Toxicol Sci. 2005;30:195-206 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that cDNA microarray is a useful technique for evaluation of primary testicular toxicity. Furthermore, we propose the above 3 spermatogenesis-related genes as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity...
  12. Hsieh G, Wang J, Cheng T, Chen P. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:510-6 pubmed
    ..It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy...
  13. Laitinen J, Pulkkinen J. Biomonitoring of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols by analysing urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. Toxicol Lett. 2005;156:117-26 pubmed
    ..2 +/- 7.4 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acid concentrations and the preceding 8-h occupational exposure to 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanol...
  14. Klaunig J, Kamendulis L. Mode of action of butoxyethanol-induced mouse liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Toxicol Lett. 2005;156:107-15 pubmed
  15. Nyska A, Haseman J, Kohen R, Maronpot R. Association of liver hemangiosarcoma and secondary iron overload in B6C3F1 mice--the National Toxicology Program experience. Toxicol Pathol. 2004;32:222-8 pubmed
    ..The reason for the sex-increased susceptibility for development of hemangiosarcoma is unknown but may be due to a hormone-related, reduced antioxidative defensive capacity through modulation of the activities of antioxidative enzymes...
  16. El Zein R, Abdel Rahman S, Morris D, Legator M. Exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether: clinical and cytogenetic findings. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57:371-6 pubmed
    ..The study characterizes EGME as a human teratogen, as indicated by the prevalence of characteristic dysmorphic features and persistent cytogenetic damage in individuals exposed in utero to this chemical...
  17. Siesky A, Kamendulis L, Klaunig J. Hepatic effects of 2-butoxyethanol in rodents. Toxicol Sci. 2002;70:252-60 pubmed
  18. Buhrer C, Bahr S, Siebert J, Wettstein R, Geffers C, Obladen M. Use of 2% 2-phenoxyethanol and 0.1% octenidine as antiseptic in premature newborn infants of 23-26 weeks gestation. J Hosp Infect. 2002;51:305-7 pubmed
    ..2-Phenoxyethanol is readily absorbed by the newborn's skin but apparently undergoes extensive oxidative metabolization to 2-phenoxyacetic acid...
  19. Park J, Kamendulis L, Klaunig J. Effects of 2-butoxyethanol on hepatic oxidative damage. Toxicol Lett. 2002;126:19-29 pubmed
  20. Syed V, Hecht N. Rat pachytene spermatocytes down-regulate a polo-like kinase and up-regulate a thiol-specific antioxidant protein, whereas sertoli cells down-regulate a phosphodiesterase and up-regulate an oxidative stress protein after exposure to methoxyethanol an. Endocrinology. 1998;139:3503-11 pubmed
  21. Yang X, Deng W, Fu L, Blanco E, Gao J, Quan D, et al. Folate-functionalized polymeric micelles for tumor targeted delivery of a potent multidrug-resistance modulator FG020326. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;86:48-60 pubmed
    ..The in vitro Rhodamine 123 efflux experiment using MDR KB(v200) cells revealed that when cells were pretreated with folate-attached and FG020326-loaded micelles, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux function was significantly inhibited...
  22. Corthals S, Kamendulis L, Klaunig J. Mechanisms of 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemangiosarcomas. Toxicol Sci. 2006;92:378-86 pubmed
    ..These events coupled together provide the events necessary for the induction of hemangiosarcomas by 2-butoxyethanol...
  23. Cordier S, Multigner L. Occupational exposure to glycol ethers and ovarian function. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:507-8 pubmed
  24. Fromme H, Nitschke L, Boehmer S, Kiranoglu M, Goen T. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios. Chemosphere. 2013;90:2714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents...
  25. Guégan R. Confinement effects on water structure in membrane lyotropic phases. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2011;358:485-90 pubmed publisher
  26. Suciu N, Tiberto F, Vasileiadis S, Lamastra L, Trevisan M. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant. Food Chem. 2013;141:4146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food...
  27. Liu R, Liu Z, Shu L, Zhang C, Zhang B. [Effect of three penetration enhancers on corneal permeability of mangiferin in vitro]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:3131-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of labrasol, solutol HS 15 and transcutol P on the corneal permeability of mangiferin in vitro...
  28. Mattsson N, Tosun D, Insel P, Simonson A, Jack C, Beckett L, et al. Association of brain amyloid-? with cerebral perfusion and structure in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Brain. 2014;137:1550-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Amyloid-? pathology has different associations with cerebral blood flow and volume, and may cause more loss of blood flow in early stages, whereas volume loss dominates in late disease stages. ..
  29. Briese V, Neumann G, Waldschläger J, May T, Siebert J, Gerber B. Efficacy and tolerability of a local acting antiseptic agent in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283:585-90 pubmed publisher
  30. Maraš N, Polanc S, Kocevar M. Ring-opening reactions of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) derived quaternary ammonium salts with phenols and related nucleophiles. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:1300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..One-pot methodologies allow for the synthesis of piperazines directly from primary alcohols, alkyl halides or sulfonates, using phenols, or other nucleophile sources, and DABCO...
  31. Akuse R, Eke F, Ademola A, Fajolu I, Gbelee H, Ihejiahi U, et al. Diagnosing renal failure due to diethylene glycol in children in a resource-constrained setting. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because there are limited diagnostic facilities in resource-constrained countries, this study investigated whether AKI associated with DEG could be identified by other means...
  32. Högenauer M, Brendel M, Delker A, Därr S, Weiss M, Bartenstein P, et al. Impact of MRI-based Segmentation Artifacts on Amyloid- and FDG-PET Quantitation. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13:597-607 pubmed
    ..06 cm³) accounted for much of the PET quantitation bias. Large segmentation artifacts need to be detected and resolved as they considerably bias PET quantitation, especially when PVEC is applied to PET data. ..
  33. Gao X, Wang B, Wei X, Rao W, Ai F, Zhao F, et al. Preparation, characterization and application of star-shaped PCL/PEG micelles for the delivery of doxorubicin in the treatment of colon cancer. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:971-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that SSMPEG-PCL micelles have promising application in doxorubicin delivery for the enhancement of anticancer effect...
  34. Schrank S, Bieling U, José H, Moreira R, Schröder H. Generation of endocrine disruptor compounds during ozone treatment of tannery wastewater confirmed by biological effect analysis and substance specific analysis. Water Sci Technol. 2009;59:31-8 pubmed publisher
  35. Zhang J, Zhao S, Li J, Zhang W. [Detecting 2-butoxy ethanol in the air of workplaces by gas chromatography]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012;30:389-90 pubmed
    ..To establish a gas chromatographic method for detecting 2-butoxy ethanol in the air of workplaces...
  36. Otto A, Wiechers J, Kelly C, Hadgraft J, Du Plessis J. Effect of penetration modifiers on the dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs and cosmetic active ingredients. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;21:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the effect of DMI and DGME on the solubility of the active ingredients in the skin was counteracted by a simultaneous reduction in the thermodynamic activity in the formulation...
  37. Wu K, Hsiao I, Chen C, Chen C, Hsieh C, Wai Y, et al. Increased brain amyloid deposition in patients with a lifetime history of major depression: evidenced on 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;41:714-22 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine brain amyloid accumulation in patients with lifetime major depression using (18)F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging in comparison with that in nondepressed subjects...
  38. Garlantezec R, Warembourg C, Monfort C, Labat L, Pulkkinen J, Bonvallot N, et al. Urinary glycol ether metabolites in women and time to pregnancy: the PELAGIE cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycol ethers are present in a wide range of occupational and domestic products. Animal studies have suggested that some of them may affect ovarian function...
  39. Gottesman R, Schneider A, Zhou Y, Coresh J, Green E, Gupta N, et al. Association Between Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and Estimated Brain Amyloid Deposition. JAMA. 2017;317:1443-1450 pubmed publisher
    ..Midlife vascular risk factors have been associated with late-life dementia. Whether these risk factors directly contribute to brain amyloid deposition is less well understood...
  40. Fowles J, Banton M, Klapacz J, Shen H. A toxicological review of the ethylene glycol series: Commonalities and differences in toxicity and modes of action. Toxicol Lett. 2017;278:66-83 pubmed publisher
    This review summarizes the hazards, exposure and risk that are associated with ethylene glycols (EGs) in their intended applications...
  41. Musumeci D, Montesarchio D. Synthesis of a cholesteryl-HEG phosphoramidite derivative and its application to lipid-conjugates of the anti-HIV 5'TGGGAG³' Hotoda's sequence. Molecules. 2012;17:12378-92 pubmed publisher
  42. Ballinger J. Comment on Hsiao et al.: Correlation of early-phase ¹?F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1512; author reply 1513 pubmed publisher
  43. Singh B, Khurana L, Bandyopadhyay S, Kapil R, Katare O. Development of optimized self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of carvedilol with enhanced bioavailability potential. Drug Deliv. 2011;18:599-612 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present studies ratified the potential of SNEDDS in augmenting the oral bioavailability of BCS class II drugs...
  44. Taketa Y, Inomata A, Hosokawa S, Sonoda J, Hayakawa K, Nakano K, et al. Histopathological characteristics of luteal hypertrophy induced by ethylene glycol monomethyl ether with a comparison to normal luteal morphology in rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39:372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that EGME has a luteal hypertrophic effect on all CL phases, including regression...
  45. Aslund I, Medronho B, Topgaard D, Soderman O, Schmidt C. Homogeneous length scale of shear-induced multilamellar vesicles studied by diffusion NMR. J Magn Reson. 2011;209:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..hom) is decreasing with increasing shear rate in agreement with theoretical expectations and results from (2)H NMR lineshape analysis...
  46. Yi J, Zhao F, Xu S, Zhang L, Gao H, Hu R. Effects of pressure and TEGDN content on decomposition reaction mechanism and kinetics of DB gun propellant containing the mixed ester of TEGDN and NG. J Hazard Mater. 2009;165:853-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Chen S, Lu W, Wen Z, Li Q, Chen J. Preparation, characterization and anticancer activity of norcantharidin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles. Pharmazie. 2012;67:781-8 pubmed
    ..As a new drug delivery system, copolymer micelles present many advantages including easy formulation, good water solubility, low toxicity and high treatment efficacy, and show great potential as carriers of hydrophobic drugs...
  48. Adedara I, Farombi E. Chemoprotection of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats by kolaviron, isolated biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seed. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2012;31:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Kolaviron or vitamin E exhibited protective effects against EGEE-induced male reproductive toxicity by enhancement of antioxidant status and improvement in spermatozoa quantity and quality...
  49. Ma H, Feng W, Tian M, Jia Q. Determination of N-methylcarbamate pesticides in vegetables by poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013;929:27-32 pubmed publisher
  50. de Villiers M, Caira M, Li J, Strydom S, Bourne S, Liebenberg W. Crystallization of toxic glycol solvates of rifampin from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol. Mol Pharm. 2011;8:877-88 pubmed publisher
  51. Zhu S, Hong M, Liu C, Pei Y. Application of Box-Behnken design in understanding the quality of genistein self-nanoemulsified drug delivery systems and optimizing its formulation. Pharm Dev Technol. 2009;14:642-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the Box-Behnken experimental design allowed us to understand the effect of formulation variables on the rapid dissolution of GN from SNEDDS, and optimize the formulation to obtain a rapid drug dissolution at 5 min...
  52. Salaun B, Greutert M, Romero P. Toll-like receptor 3 is necessary for dsRNA adjuvant effects. Vaccine. 2009;27:1841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this study also shows that, in contrast to previous reports in humans, TLR3 does not exert direct costimulatory activity on CD8(+) T cells in mice...
  53. Gamal W, Fahmy R, Mohamed M. Development of novel amisulpride-loaded liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems via dual tackling of its solubility and intestinal permeability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2017;43:1530-1538 pubmed publisher