butylene glycols

Summary

Summary: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.

Top Publications

  1. Ji X, Huang H, Du J, Zhu J, Ren L, Hu N, et al. Enhanced 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca using a two-stage agitation speed control strategy. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:3410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5 g l(-1) with the yield of 0.478 g g(-1) and the productivity of 1.71 g l(-1)h(-1), which were 6.23%, 6.22% and 22.14% over the best results controlled by constant agitation speeds...
  2. Zeng A, Sabra W. Microbial production of diols as platform chemicals: recent progresses. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011;22:749-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We review and discuss here the recent development in the microbial production of these diols, especially regarding the engineering of production strains and optimization of the fermentation processes...
  3. Bari W, Song Y, Yoon S. Suppressed induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a unique metabolite produced by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype in cultured host cells. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel and potential role of 2,3-BD as an immune modulator that might have conferred a superior pathogenic potential of the El Tor over the Classical biotype...
  4. Yan Y, Lee C, Liao J. Enantioselective synthesis of pure (R,R)-2,3-butanediol in Escherichia coli with stereospecific secondary alcohol dehydrogenases. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:3914-7 pubmed publisher
    ..coli to produce enantiomerically pure (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) from glucose with a titer of 6.1 g/L (enantio purity >99%), and yield of 0.31 g product/g glucose (62% of theoretical maximum)...
  5. Ma C, Wang A, Qin J, Li L, Ai X, Jiang T, et al. Enhanced 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae SDM. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..21 g/l h was obtained by the constant residual glucose concentration feeding strategy. To the best of our knowledge, these results were new records on BD fermentation...
  6. Clavel T, Lippman R, Gavini F, Dore J, Blaut M. Clostridium saccharogumia sp. nov. and Lactonifactor longoviformis gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel human faecal bacteria involved in the conversion of the dietary phytoestrogen secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2007;30:16-26 pubmed
    ..0 mol%). According to these findings, it is proposed to create a novel genus, Lactonifactor, and a novel species, Lactonifactor longoviformis, to accommodate strain ED-Mt61/PYG-s6. The type strain is DSM 17459T (=CCUG 51487T)...
  7. Li L, Wang Y, Zhang L, Ma C, Wang A, Tao F, et al. Biocatalytic production of (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol from diacetyl using whole cells of engineered Escherichia coli. Bioresour Technol. 2012;115:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1 g l(-1) and 26.8 g l(-1) in batch and fed-batch conversions, respectively. Thus, the process might be a promising alternative for the production of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD...
  8. Christofidou Solomidou M, Tyagi S, Pietrofesa R, Dukes F, Arguiri E, Turowski J, et al. Radioprotective role in lung of the flaxseed lignan complex enriched in the phenolic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Radiat Res. 2012;178:568-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The dietary lignan complex of FS, mainly consisting of the phenolic secoisolariciresinol, is protective against radiation pneumonopathy in vivo while not hindering the tumoricidal effects of radiotherapy...
  9. Yang T, Zhang X, Rao Z, Gu S, Xia H, Xu Z. Optimization and scale-up of 2,3-butanediol production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..4 and 0.38 g/g at 36 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 1.71 g/l h. This result shows similar amount of 2,3-BD obtained in lab-scale fermentation, and it is possible to scale up to larger fermentors without major problems...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Otagiri M, Ui S, Takusagawa Y, Ohtsuki T, Kurisu G, Kusunoki M. Structural basis for chiral substrate recognition by two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This result confirms the importance of conserved residues in modifying the stereospecificity of homologous enzymes...
  2. Bengtsson J, Wolde Hawariat Y, Khbaish H, Negash M, Jembere B, Seyoum E, et al. Field attractants for Pachnoda interrupta selected by means of GC-EAD and single sensillum screening. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:1063-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Field trapping results revealed that racemic 2,3-butanediol is a powerful novel attractant for P. interrupta...
  3. Ehsani M, Fernández M, Biosca J, Julien A, Dequin S. Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:3196-205 pubmed publisher
  4. Wevers E, Moons P, Van Houdt R, Lurquin I, Aertsen A, Michiels C. Quorum sensing and butanediol fermentation affect colonization and spoilage of carrot slices by Serratia plymuthica. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;134:63-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhang G, Yang G, Wang X, Guo Q, Li Y, Li J. Influence of blocking of 2,3-butanediol pathway on glycerol metabolism for 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;168:116-28 pubmed
    ..The assay of the enzyme activities in the oxidative branch and the reductive branch of the glycerol metabolism, as well as the intracellular redox state, exposited the results logically...
  6. Yang G, Tian J, Li J. Fermentation of 1,3-propanediol by a lactate deficient mutant of Klebsiella oxytoca under microaerobic conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;73:1017-24 pubmed
    ..56 g l-1, 0.62 mol mol-1, and 1.61 g l(-1) h-1, respectively. Furthermore, 60.11 g l(-1) 2,3-butanediol was also formed as major byproduct in the broth...
  7. Biswas R, Yamaoka M, Nakayama H, Kondo T, Yoshida K, Bisaria V, et al. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol by engineered Bacillus subtilis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 g/l and overall productivity increased by 6.7-fold to 0.4 g/l h in the engineered strain compared to that in the parental control...
  8. Ji X, Huang H, Zhu J, Ren L, Nie Z, Du J, et al. Engineering Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2, 3-butanediol production through insertional inactivation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..At last, by fed-batch culturing of the mutant, the final 2,3-BD titer up to 130 g/l with the productivity of 1.63 g/l.h and the 2,3-BD yield relative to glucose of 0.48 g/g was obtained...
  9. Li Z, Jian J, Wei X, Shen X, Chen G. Microbial production of meso-2,3-butanediol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli under low oxygen condition. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:2001-9 pubmed publisher
    ..43 g BD/g glucose for the mixed acid pathway deleted mutant grown in fermentors under 1% DO. These results reveals the potential of production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-BD isomer by recombinant E. coli under low oxygen condition...
  10. Shin S, Kim S, Kim J, Lee S, Um Y, Oh M, et al. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca KCTC 1686, used in production of 2,3-butanediol. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2371-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The KCTC 1686 strain contains 5,974,109 bp with G+C content of 56.05 mol% and contains 5,488 protein-coding genes and 110 structural RNAs...
  11. Nicholson W. The Bacillus subtilis ydjL (bdhA) gene encodes acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..From the data, it is proposed that the major AR/BDH-encoding gene ydjL be renamed bdhA...
  12. Wang A, Xu Y, Ma C, Gao C, Li L, Wang Y, et al. Efficient 2,3-butanediol production from cassava powder by a crop-biomass-utilizer, Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40442 pubmed publisher
    ..2,3-Butanediol (BD) is considered as one of the key platform chemicals used in a variety of industrial applications. It is crucial to find an efficient sugar-utilizing strain and feasible carbon source for the economical production of BD...
  13. Cho S, Kang B, Han S, Anderson A, Park J, Lee Y, et al. 2R,3R-butanediol, a bacterial volatile produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, is involved in induction of systemic tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:1067-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the bacterial volatile 2R,3R-butanediol was a major determinant in inducing resistance to drought in Arabidopsis through an SA-dependent mechanism...
  14. Ji X, Huang H, Li S, Du J, Lian M. Enhanced 2,3-butanediol production by altering the mixed acid fermentation pathway in Klebsiella oxytoca. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:731-4 pubmed
    ..8% more 2,3-butanediol than ME-303 with the corresponding byproducts of lactic and acetic acid decreased by 88% and 92%, respectively...
  15. Effantin G, Rivasseau C, Gromova M, Bligny R, Hugouvieux Cotte Pattat N. Massive production of butanediol during plant infection by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genera Dickeya and Pectobacterium. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the importance of butanediol metabolism in limiting acidification of the plant tissue during the development of the soft-rot disease caused by pectinolytic enterobacteria...
  16. Celinska E, Grajek W. Biotechnological production of 2,3-butanediol--current state and prospects. Biotechnol Adv. 2009;27:715-25 pubmed publisher
  17. Wang A, Wang Y, Jiang T, Li L, Ma C, Xu P. Production of 2,3-butanediol from corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:965-70 pubmed publisher
    ..4%. The present study suggests that the low-cost corncob molasses could be used as an alternative substrate for the production of BD by K. pneumoniae SDM, as well as a potential carbon source for production of other high-value chemicals...
  18. Petrov K, Petrova P. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from glycerol by forced pH fluctuations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:943-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The forced pH fluctuations emphasized pH as a governing factor in microbial conversion processes...
  19. Han S, Lee J, Park K, Park Y. Production of 2,3-butanediol by a low-acid producing Klebsiella oxytoca NBRF4. N Biotechnol. 2013;30:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, 34.2g/L 2,3-BDO concentration and 0.35 g/g yield were obtained without organic acid production in 70 hours of the fed-batch culture, which were 2.4 and 1.2 times higher than those of the batch fermentation using 44 g/L glucose...
  20. Yu B, Sun J, Bommareddy R, Song L, Zeng A. Novel (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from potential industrial strain Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 12321. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that BDH99::67 belongs to the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and not to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, to which meso- and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases belong...
  21. Nie Z, Ji X, Huang H, Du J, Li Z, Qu L, et al. An effective and simplified fed-batch strategy for improved 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;163:946-53 pubmed publisher
    ..5 g/l, 1.37 g/(l•h), and 0.43 g/g obtained in glucose-feedback fed-batch strategy. This feeding strategy was simple and easy to operate and could be feasible for industrial 2,3-BD production in the future...
  22. Ji X, Huang H, Ouyang P. Microbial 2,3-butanediol production: a state-of-the-art review. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:351-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The future prospects of microbial 2,3-butanediol production are discussed in light of the current progress, challenges, and trends in this field. Guidelines for future studies are also proposed...
  23. Nielsen D, Yoon S, Yuan C, Prather K. Metabolic engineering of acetoin and meso-2, 3-butanediol biosynthesis in E. coli. Biotechnol J. 2010;5:274-84 pubmed publisher
  24. Jung M, Ng C, Song H, Lee J, Oh M. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes to enhance 2,3-butanediol production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05 g/l 2,3-butanediol was produced in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-butanediol with E. aerogenes achieved by metabolic pathway engineering...
  25. Ji X, Huang H, Du J, Zhu J, Ren L, Li S, et al. Development of an industrial medium for economical 2,3-butanediol production through co-fermentation of glucose and xylose by Klebsiella oxytoca. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:5214-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Ehsani M, Fernández M, Biosca J, Dequin S. Reversal of coenzyme specificity of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisae and in vivo functional analysis. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:381-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they represent promising tools for the manipulation of the NADP(H) metabolism and for the development of a powerful catalyst in biotransformations requiring NADPH regeneration...
  27. Yang T, Rao Z, Zhang X, Lin Q, Xia H, Xu Z, et al. Production of 2,3-butanediol from glucose by GRAS microorganism Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. J Basic Microbiol. 2011;51:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3 g/l at 96 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 0.96 g/l h. To our knowledge, the results were new records on 2,3-BD fermentation by Bacillus, which shown an excellent candidate for the microbial fermentation of 2,3-BD on an industrial scale...
  28. Zhang L, Sun J, Hao Y, Zhu J, Chu J, Wei D, et al. Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol by a surfactant (serrawettin)-deficient mutant of Serratia marcescens H30. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;37:857-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, fed-batch culturing of the mutant afforded a maximum 2,3-BD concentration of 152 g l(-1) with a productivity of 2.67 g l(-1) h(-1) and a yield of 92.6% at 57 h...
  29. Ji X, Nie Z, Huang H, Ren L, Peng C, Ouyang P. Elimination of carbon catabolite repression in Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2,3-butanediol production from glucose-xylose mixtures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:1119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study offers a metabolic engineering strategy to achieve highly efficient utilization of sugar mixtures derived from the lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bio-based chemicals using enteric bacteria...
  30. Gaspar P, Neves A, Gasson M, Shearman C, Santos H. High yields of 2,3-butanediol and mannitol in Lactococcus lactis through engineering of NAD? cofactor recycling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The theoretical yield for 2,3-butanediol was achieved. We show that FI10089?ldhB is a valuable basis for engineering strategies aiming at the production of reduced compounds...
  31. Xu Y, Wang A, Tao F, Su F, Tang H, Ma C, et al. Genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM, an efficient biomass-utilizing producer of platform chemical 2,3-butanediol. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:897-8 pubmed publisher
    ..9-Mb assembly of its genome. The key genes for regulation and metabolism of 2,3-butanediol production were annotated, which could provide further insights into the molecular mechanism of high-yield production of 2,3-butanediol...
  32. Yim H, HASELBECK R, Niu W, Pujol Baxley C, Burgard A, Boldt J, et al. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for direct production of 1,4-butanediol. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates a systems-based metabolic engineering approach to strain design and development that can enable new bioprocesses for commodity chemicals that are not naturally produced by living cells...
  33. Sun L, Wang X, Dai J, Xiu Z. Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:847-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that Jerusalem artichoke tuber is a favorable substrate for 2,3-butanediol production, and the application of fed-batch SSF for its conversion can result in a more cost-effective process...
  34. Hsieh S, Lu C, Horng Y, Soo P, Chang Y, Tsai Y, et al. The bacterial metabolite 2,3-butanediol ameliorates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1402-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that bacterial metabolite, 2,3-butanediol has a negative regulatory effect on host innate immunity response, suggesting bacteria may use some metabolites for host immune evasion...
  35. Siemerink M, Kuit W, López Contreras A, Eggink G, van der Oost J, Kengen S. D-2,3-butanediol production due to heterologous expression of an acetoin reductase in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A metabolic network that is in agreement with the experimental data is proposed. Native 2,3-butanediol production is a first step toward a potential homofermentative 2-butanol-producing strain of C. acetobutylicum...
  36. Oliver J, Machado I, Yoneda H, Atsumi S. Cyanobacterial conversion of carbon dioxide to 2,3-butanediol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..38 g/L, which is a significant increase for chemical production from exogenous pathways in cyanobacteria. This work demonstrates that developing strong design methods can continue to increase chemical production in cyanobacteria...
  37. Otsuka M, Harada N, Itabashi T, Ohmori S. Blood and urinary levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and C4 compounds such as diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol in normal male students after ethanol ingestion. Alcohol. 1999;17:119-24 pubmed
    ..The student with the inactive form of ALDH2 was flushed and his levels of 2,3-butanediol and acetaldehyde in blood and urine were found to be the highest...
  38. Clavel T, Borrmann D, Braune A, Dore J, Blaut M. Occurrence and activity of human intestinal bacteria involved in the conversion of dietary lignans. Anaerobe. 2006;12:140-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, Peptostreptococcus productus demethylated the lignans pinoresinol, lariciresinol and matairesinol. Finally, Eggerthella lenta catalysed the reduction of pinoresinol and lariciresinol to secoisolariciresinol...
  39. Ui S, Takusagawa Y, Sato T, Ohtsuki T, Mimura A, Ohkuma M, et al. Production of L-2,3-butanediol by a new pathway constructed in Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39:533-7 pubmed
  40. Ryu C, Farag M, Hu C, Reddy M, Kloepper J, Pare P. Bacterial volatiles induce systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1017-26 pubmed
    ..This study provides new insight into the role of bacteria VOCs as initiators of defense responses in plants...
  41. Nojima S, Sakata T, Yoshimura K, Robbins P, Morris B, Roelofs W. Male-specific EAD active compounds produced by female European chafer Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky). J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:503-7 pubmed
    ..No behavioral role for any of the EAD active compounds could be discerned with this species...
  42. Saha B, Bothast R. Production of 2,3-butanediol by newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1999;52:321-6 pubmed
    ..35 g/g available sugars). It also produced BD from dilute acid pretreated corn fiber by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (0.34 g/g theoretical sugars)...
  43. Clavel T, Henderson G, Engst W, Dore J, Blaut M. Phylogeny of human intestinal bacteria that activate the dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2006;55:471-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the activation of SDG involves phylogenetically diverse bacteria, most of which are members of the dominant human intestinal microbiota...
  44. Clavel T, Henderson G, Alpert C, Philippe C, Rigottier Gois L, Dore J, et al. Intestinal bacterial communities that produce active estrogen-like compounds enterodiol and enterolactone in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6077-85 pubmed
    ..productus and related species (P = 0.012), as well as bacteria belonging to the Atopobium group (P = 0.035), were typical of individuals with moderate to high concentrations of EL-producing communities...
  45. Maeda H, Yamagata Y, Abe K, Hasegawa F, Machida M, Ishioka R, et al. Purification and characterization of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;67:778-88 pubmed
    ..Determination of the affinities for different chemicals indicated that the most preferred substrate for the enzyme would consist of butyric acid and n-hexanol...
  46. Perego P, Converti A, Del Borghi M. Effects of temperature, inoculum size and starch hydrolyzate concentration on butanediol production by Bacillus licheniformis. Bioresour Technol. 2003;89:125-31 pubmed
    ..licheniformis. Therefore, cornstarch hydrolyzate can be proposed as an alternative carbon source for industrial production of 2,3-butanediol with no need for growth factor addition...
  47. Ryu C, Farag M, Hu C, Reddy M, Wei H, Pare P, et al. Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4927-32 pubmed
  48. Rochat D, Morin J, Kakul T, Beaudoin Ollivier L, Prior R, Renou M, et al. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis. J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:479-500 pubmed
    ..The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed...
  49. Syu M. Biological production of 2,3-butanediol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;55:10-8 pubmed
    ..On-line analysis, modeling, and control of BDL fermentation are discussed. In addition, downstream recovery of 2,3-BDL and the integrated process (being important issues of BDL production) are also introduced...
  50. Foureman P, Mason J, Valencia R, Zimmering S. Chemical mutagenesis testing in Drosophila. IX. Results of 50 coded compounds tested for the National Toxicology Program. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1994;23:51-63 pubmed
    ..Five of these, including 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, 2,2-dimethyl vinyl chloride, hexamethylphosphoramide, isopropyl glycidyl ether, and urethane, also induced reciprocal translocations...
  51. Zhang L, Yang Y, Sun J, Shen Y, Wei D, Zhu J, et al. Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol by a mutagenized strain of Serratia marcescens H30. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:1961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this strategy, the maximum 2,3-BD concentration of 139.92 g/l with the diol (AC+BD) productivity of 3.49 g/lh and the yield of 94.67% was obtained...
  52. Ma X, Wang R, Zhao X, Zhang C, Sun J, Li J, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of flaxseed secoisolariciresinol diglycoside in ovariectomized mice subjected to unpredictable chronic stress. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of flaxseed SDG in the ovariectomized mice might be related to their modulating effects on the neuroendocrine-immune network and neurotrophin factor expression...
  53. Huang C, Jiang Y, Guo G, Hwang W. Method of 2,3-butanediol production from glycerol and acid-pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by newly isolated strains: pre-evaluation as an integrated biorefinery process. Bioresour Technol. 2013;135:446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that 2,3-butanediol can be considered as the main product or a value-added byproduct of biofuel production and then potentially improve the economy of lignocellulosic biorefinery...