trifluoroethanol

Summary

Summary: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.

Top Publications

  1. Munishkina L, Phelan C, Uversky V, Fink A. Conformational behavior and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in organic solvents: modeling the effects of membranes. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2720-30 pubmed
    ..oligomers with high concentrations of methanol, ethanol, and propanol and moderate concentrations of trifluoroethanol (TFE), or because of the appearance of a highly alpha-helical conformation at high TFE and hexafluoro-2-..
  2. Yamamoto S, Yamaguchi I, Hasegawa K, Tsutsumi S, Goto Y, Gejyo F, et al. Glycosaminoglycans enhance the trifluoroethanol-induced extension of beta 2-microglobulin-related amyloid fibrils at a neutral pH. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:126-33 pubmed
    ..The effect of trifluoroethanol and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) on the extension of the fibrils at a neutral pH was investigated with the use of ..
  3. Roccatano D, Colombo G, Fioroni M, Mark A. Mechanism by which 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/water mixtures stabilize secondary-structure formation in peptides: a molecular dynamics study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12179-84 pubmed
    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques have been used to investigate the effect of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) as a cosolvent on the stability of three different secondary structure-forming peptides: the alpha-helix from Melittin, the ..
  4. Wecker K, Morellet N, Bouaziz S, Roques B. NMR structure of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr in H2O/trifluoroethanol. Comparison with the Vpr N-terminal (1-51) and C-terminal (52-96) domains. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:3779-88 pubmed
  5. Chugh J, Sharma S, Hosur R. Equilibrium refolding transitions driven by trifluoroethanol and by guanidine hydrochloride dilution are similar in GTPase effector domain: implications to sequence-self-association paradigm. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12945-53 pubmed publisher
    ..folded state of the GTPase effector domain (GED) of dynamin driven by addition of increasing amounts of trifluoroethanol (TFE) and compared it with that driven by progressive dilution of the guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl) ..
  6. Muller I, Sarramégna V, Renault M, Lafaquière V, Sebai S, Milon A, et al. The full-length mu-opioid receptor: a conformational study by circular dichroism in trifluoroethanol and membrane-mimetic environments. J Membr Biol. 2008;223:49-57 pubmed publisher
    The secondary structure content of the recombinant human mu-opioid receptor (HuMOR) solubilized in trifluoroethanol (TFE) and in detergent micelles was investigated by circular dichroism...
  7. Brender J, Nanga R, Popovych N, Soong R, Macdonald P, Ramamoorthy A. The amyloidogenic SEVI precursor, PAP248-286, is highly unfolded in solution despite an underlying helical tendency. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:1161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of this difference, the structures of PAP(248-286) were solved in aqueous solution and with 30% and 50% trifluoroethanol. In solution, pulsed field gradient (PFG)-NMR and (1)H-(1)H NOESY experiments indicate that PAP(248-286) is ..
  8. Rohl C, Chakrabartty A, Baldwin R. Helix propagation and N-cap propensities of the amino acids measured in alanine-based peptides in 40 volume percent trifluoroethanol. Protein Sci. 1996;5:2623-37 pubmed
    ..and N-cap propensities of the amino acids have been measured in alanine-based peptides in 40 volume percent trifluoroethanol (40% TFE) to determine if this helix-stabilizing solvent uniformly affects all amino acids...
  9. Anderson V, Webb W. A desolvation model for trifluoroethanol-induced aggregation of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Biophys J. 2012;102:897-906 pubmed publisher
    Studies of amyloid disease-associated proteins in aqueous solutions containing 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) have shown that the formation of structural intermediates is often correlated with enhanced protein aggregation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Filippov A, Gröbner G, Antzutkin O. Aggregation of amyloid Abeta((1-40)) peptide in perdeuterated 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol caused by ultrasound sonication. Magn Reson Chem. 2010;48:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon simple dissolution of Abeta((1-40)) in perdeuterated trifluoroethanol, CF(3)-CD(2)-OD (TFE-d(3)), the peptide is present in the solution as a stable monomer adopting alpha-helical ..
  2. Correa F, Farah C. Different effects of trifluoroethanol and glycerol on the stability of tropomyosin helices and the head-to-tail complex. Biophys J. 2007;92:2463-75 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigate the influence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and glycerol on the stability of recombinant Tm fragments (ASTm1-142, Tm143-284(5OHW269)) and of the ..
  3. Gast K, Zirwer D, Müller Frohne M, Damaschun G. Trifluoroethanol-induced conformational transitions of proteins: insights gained from the differences between alpha-lactalbumin and ribonuclease A. Protein Sci. 1999;8:625-34 pubmed
    The trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced structural changes of two proteins widely used in folding experiments, bovine alpha-lactalbumin, and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, have been investigated...
  4. Craig H, Eklund J, Seidler N. Trifluoroethanol increases albumin's susceptibility to chemical modification. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;480:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether trifluoroethanol (TFE), which mimics inhaled anesthetics, affects the susceptibility of HSA to modification by acrolein...
  5. Deshusses J, Burgess J, Scherl A, Wenger Y, Walter N, Converset V, et al. Exploitation of specific properties of trifluoroethanol for extraction and separation of membrane proteins. Proteomics. 2003;3:1418-24 pubmed
    ..b>Trifluoroethanol (TFE) is traditionally used at high concentration to solubilize peptides and proteins for NMR studies...
  6. Wienk H, Czisch M, De Kruijff B. The structural flexibility of the preferredoxin transit peptide. FEBS Lett. 1999;453:318-26 pubmed
    ..In 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol, structurally independent N- and C-terminal helices are stabilized...
  7. Luo Y, Baldwin R. Trifluoroethanol stabilizes the pH 4 folding intermediate of sperm whale apomyoglobin. J Mol Biol. 1998;279:49-57 pubmed
    2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) is known to stabilize peptide helices by strengthening hydrogen bonds. On the other hand, TFE destabilizes native proteins, as we confirm here, presumably by weakening the hydrophobic interaction...
  8. Zhang H, Lin Q, Ponnusamy S, Kothandaraman N, Lim T, Zhao C, et al. Differential recovery of membrane proteins after extraction by aqueous methanol and trifluoroethanol. Proteomics. 2007;7:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We extracted membrane proteins from red blood cells (RBCs) using methanol (MeOH), trifluoroethanol (TFE) and urea, and identified membrane proteins using 2-D LC coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS...
  9. Liu W, Prausnitz J, Blanch H. Amyloid fibril formation by peptide LYS (11-36) in aqueous trifluoroethanol. Biomacromolecules. 2004;5:1818-23 pubmed
    Peptide LYS (11-36), derived from the beta-sheet region of T4 lysozyme, forms an amyloid fibril in aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE) at elevated temperature...
  10. Akitake B, Spelbrink R, Anishkin A, Killian J, de Kruijff B, Sukharev S. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol changes the transition kinetics and subunit interactions in the small bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS. Biophys J. 2007;92:2771-84 pubmed
    2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE), a low-dielectric solvent, has recently been used as a promising tool to probe the strength of intersubunit interactions in membrane proteins...
  11. Raja M, Spelbrink R, de Kruijff B, Killian J. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5715-22 pubmed
    ..PG) in a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer slightly stabilized the tetramer and protected it from trifluoroethanol-induced dissociation...
  12. Gupta P, Khan R, Saleemuddin M. Trifluoroethanol-induced "molten globule" state in stem bromelain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;413:199-206 pubmed
    2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) denatures proteins but also stabilizes/induces alpha helical conformation in partially/completely unfolded proteins...
  13. Zerovnik E, Virden R, Jerala R, Turk V, Waltho J. On the mechanism of human stefin B folding: I. Comparison to homologous stefin A. Influence of pH and trifluoroethanol on the fast and slow folding phases. Proteins. 1998;32:296-303 pubmed
    ..To gain more information on the stefin B folding mechanism, effects of pH and trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the fast and slow phases were investigated by several spectroscopic probes...
  14. Mendieta J, Folqué H, Tauler R. Two-phase induction of the nonnative alpha-helical form of beta-lactoglobulin in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Biophys J. 1999;76:451-7 pubmed
    The trifluoroethanol-dependent induction of the nonnative alpha-helical form of beta-lactoglubulin has been studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Data analysis is performed by factor analysis and multivariate curve resolution...
  15. Buck M. Trifluoroethanol and colleagues: cosolvents come of age. Recent studies with peptides and proteins. Q Rev Biophys. 1998;31:297-355 pubmed
    Alcohol based cosolvents, such as trifluoroethanol (TFE) have been used for many decades to denature proteins and to stabilize structures in peptides...
  16. Jha A, Narayan S, Udgaonkar J, Krishnamoorthy G. Solvent-induced tuning of internal structure in a protein amyloid protofibril. Biophys J. 2012;103:797-806 pubmed publisher
  17. Li H, Du H, Tang L, Hu J, Hu H. Structural transformation and aggregation of human alpha-synuclein in trifluoroethanol: non-amyloid component sequence is essential and beta-sheet formation is prerequisite to aggregation. Biopolymers. 2002;64:221-6 pubmed
    ..structural transformation and aggregation of human alpha-synuclein and its C-terminus truncated fragments in trifluoroethanol. Proteins containing the NAC (non-amyloid component) segment undergo a three-state transition: from native ..
  18. Asghari S, Khajeh K, Ranjbar B, Sajedi R, Naderi Manesh H. Comparative studies on trifluoroethanol (TFE) state of a thermophilic alpha-amylase and its mesophilic counterpart: limited proteolysis, conformational analysis, aggregation and reactivation of the enzymes. Int J Biol Macromol. 2004;34:173-9 pubmed
    ..and proteolytic digestion of bacterial alpha-amylases have been carried out to elucidate the effect of trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the structure of these enzymes...
  19. Pallares I, Vendrell J, Aviles F, Ventura S. Amyloid fibril formation by a partially structured intermediate state of alpha-chymotrypsin. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:321-31 pubmed
    Here we investigated the effects of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the structure of alpha-chymotrypsin. The protein aggregates maximally in 35% (v/v) TFE...
  20. Rezaei Ghaleh N, Ebrahim Habibi A, Moosavi Movahedi A, Nemat Gorgani M. Role of electrostatic interactions in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol-induced structural changes and aggregation of alpha-chymotrypsin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;457:160-9 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that alpha-chymotrypsin (CT) can be driven toward amyloid aggregation by addition of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), at intermediate concentrations...
  21. Benaki D, Zikos C, Evangelou A, Livaniou E, Vlassi M, Mikros E, et al. Solution structure of humanin, a peptide against Alzheimer's disease-related neurotoxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:152-60 pubmed
    ..In this study, NMR and circular dichroism studies of synthetic humanin in aqueous and 30% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) solutions are reported...
  22. Barrera F, Renart M, Molina M, Poveda J, Encinar J, Fernandez A, et al. Unfolding and refolding in vitro of a tetrameric, alpha-helical membrane protein: the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14344-52 pubmed
    2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) effectively destabilizes the otherwise highly stable tetrameric structure of the potassium channel KcsA, a predominantly alpha-helical membrane protein [Valiyaveetil, F. I., Zhou, Y., and MacKinnon, R...
  23. Ozdirekcan S, Nyholm T, Raja M, Rijkers D, Liskamp R, Killian J. Influence of trifluoroethanol on membrane interfacial anchoring interactions of transmembrane alpha-helical peptides. Biophys J. 2008;94:1315-25 pubmed
    ..Here we tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the interaction of a Trp-flanked synthetic transmembrane peptide (acetyl-GW(2)(LA)(8)LW(2)A-NH(2)) ..
  24. Yamaguchi K, Naiki H, Goto Y. Mechanism by which the amyloid-like fibrils of a beta 2-microglobulin fragment are induced by fluorine-substituted alcohols. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:279-88 pubmed
    ..Although K3 formed an alpha-helix at high concentrations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in 10 mM HCl (pH approximately 2), the helical content was ..
  25. Barrera F, Renart M, Poveda J, de Kruijff B, Killian J, González Ros J. Protein self-assembly and lipid binding in the folding of the potassium channel KcsA. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2123-33 pubmed publisher
    Moderate concentrations of the alcohol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) cause the coupled unfolding and dissociation into subunits of the homotetrameric potassium channel KcsA, in a process that is partially irreversible when the protein is ..
  26. Del Vecchio P, Graziano G, Granata V, Barone G, Mandrich L, Rossi M, et al. Effect of trifluoroethanol on the conformational stability of a hyperthermophilic esterase: a CD study. Biophys Chem. 2003;104:407-15 pubmed
    ..of the hyperthermophilic esterase AFEST from Archeoglobus fulgidus against the denaturing action of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) has been investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) measurements...
  27. Sydnes M, Doi I, Ohishi A, Kuse M, Isobe M. Determination of solvent-trapped products obtained by photolysis of aryl azides in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. Chem Asian J. 2008;3:102-12 pubmed
    ..of nonfluorinated and fluorinated aryl azides with varied functionality patterns were irradiated in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with either a high-pressure or a low-pressure mercury lamp...
  28. Anderson V, Ramlall T, Rospigliosi C, Webb W, Eliezer D. Identification of a helical intermediate in trifluoroethanol-induced alpha-synuclein aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18850-5 pubmed publisher
    ..fibrillar species by incubation of ?S in the presence of intermediate (10-20% v/v) concentrations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)...
  29. Rennella E, Corazza A, Giorgetti S, Fogolari F, Viglino P, Porcari R, et al. Folding and fibrillogenesis: clues from beta2-microglobulin. J Mol Biol. 2010;401:286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism leading to deposition of amyloid in vivo is not totally understood, some organic compounds, such as trifluoroethanol (TFE), are commonly used to promote the elongation of amyloid fibrils in vitro...
  30. Fort A, Spray D. Trifluoroethanol reveals helical propensity at analogous positions in cytoplasmic domains of three connexins. Biopolymers. 2009;92:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that whereas peptides were largely unstructured in aqueous buffer, certain peptides in 30% trifluoroethanol (TFE) showed considerable helical content...
  31. Iram A, Naeem A. Trifluoroethanol and acetonitrile induced formation of the molten globule states and aggregates of cellulase. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;50:932-8 pubmed
    A systematic investigation on the effects of trifluoroethanol and acetonitrile at various concentrations on cellulase (EC 3.2.1...
  32. Pina D, Gomez J, England P, Craescu C, Johannes L, Shnyrov V. Characterization of the non-native trifluoroethanol-induced intermediate conformational state of the Shiga toxin B-subunit. Biochimie. 2006;88:1199-207 pubmed
    The effect of increasing concentrations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the conformational stability of the Shiga toxin B-subunit (STxB), a bacterial homopentameric protein involved in cell-surface binding and intracellular transport, ..
  33. Jasanoff A, Fersht A. Quantitative determination of helical propensities from trifluoroethanol titration curves. Biochemistry. 1994;33:2129-35 pubmed
    ..2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) has been shown to induce helical structure in polypeptides, and TFE titration has been used as a ..
  34. Banerjee V, Das K. Modulation of pathway of insulin fibrillation by a small molecule helix inducer 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;92:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of the small molecule TFE on the avoidance of the formation soluble oligomeric state during fibrillation may have considerable implications in reducing cellular toxicity...
  35. Santambrogio C, Ricagno S, Sobott F, Colombo M, Bolognesi M, Grandori R. Characterization of ?2-microglobulin conformational intermediates associated to different fibrillation conditions. J Mass Spectrom. 2011;46:734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of ?2m under two distinct, in vitro amyloidogenic conditions: neutral pH in the presence of 20% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and acidic pH in the absence of TFE...
  36. Padmanabhan S, Jimenez M, Rico M. Folding propensities of synthetic peptide fragments covering the entire sequence of phage 434 Cro protein. Protein Sci. 1999;8:1675-88 pubmed
  37. Banerjee T, Kishore N. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol-induced molten globule state of concanavalin a and energetics of 8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate binding: calorimetric and spectroscopic investigation. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:22655-62 pubmed
    The interaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) with concanavalin A has been investigated by using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence ..
  38. Jalili S, Akhavan M. Molecular dynamics simulation study of association in trifluoroethanol/water mixtures. J Comput Chem. 2010;31:286-94 pubmed publisher
    Mixtures of Trifluoroethanol (TFE) and water with different proportions are studied using molecular dynamics simulations...
  39. Raja M. The role of phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin in stability of the tetrameric assembly of potassium channel KcsA. J Membr Biol. 2010;234:235-40 pubmed publisher
  40. Luo P, Baldwin R. Mechanism of helix induction by trifluoroethanol: a framework for extrapolating the helix-forming properties of peptides from trifluoroethanol/water mixtures back to water. Biochemistry. 1997;36:8413-21 pubmed
    ..a framework for extrapolating the helix-forming properties of peptides from TFE/H2O mixtures (TFE = 2,2, 2-trifluoroethanol) back to water, the thermal unfolding curves have been measured by circular dichroism for four repeating-..
  41. Molinaro A, De Castro C, Lanzetta R, Manzo E, Parrilli M. Solvent effect on the isomeric equilibrium of carbohydrates: the superior ability of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol for intramolecular hydrogen bond stabilization. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:12605-10 pubmed
    The higher aptitude of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol for intramolecular hydrogen bond stabilization in carbohydrates is suggested...
  42. Lu Z, Shi L, Wang J, Park D, Bhak J, Yang J, et al. The effect of trifluoroethanol on tyrosinase activity and conformation: inhibition kinetics and computational simulations. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:1896-908 pubmed publisher
    We studied the inhibitory effects of trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the activity and conformation of tyrosinase. TFE increased the degree of secondary structure of tyrosinase, which directly resulted in enzyme inactivation...
  43. Plapp B, Ramaswamy S. Atomic-resolution structures of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase with NAD(+) and fluoroalcohols define strained Michaelis complexes. Biochemistry. 2012;51:4035-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Structures of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase complexed with NAD(+) and unreactive substrate analogues, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol or 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl alcohol, were determined at 100 K at 1.12 or 1...
  44. Brokx R, Scheek R, Weljie A, Vogel H. Backbone dynamic properties of the central linker region of calcium-calmodulin in 35% trifluoroethanol. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:272-80 pubmed
    ..backbone dynamic properties of uniformly (15)N-labeled calcium-saturated calmodulin (Ca(2+)-CaM) in 35% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) have been examined by (15)N NMR relaxation methods...
  45. Carrotta R, Manno M, Giordano F, Longo A, Portale G, Martorana V, et al. Protein stability modulated by a conformational effector: effects of trifluoroethanol on bovine serum albumin. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:4007-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the thermodynamic and conformational stability of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), by addition of trifluoroethanol (TFE), which is known to affect both the solvent properties and the protein structure...
  46. Lawrence J, Johnson W. Lifson-Roig nucleation for alpha-helices in trifluoroethanol: context has a strong effect on the helical propensity of amino acids. Biophys Chem. 2002;101-102:375-85 pubmed
    ..CD spectra were measured in various mixtures of buffer and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), and then analyzed for helix propensity of the amino acids using the Lifson-Roig model...
  47. Kuroda Y, Miyamoto K, Matsumoto M, Maeda Y, Kanaori K, Otaka A, et al. Structural study of the sodium channel inactivation gate peptide including an isoleucine-phenylalanine-methionine motif and its analogous peptide (phenylalanine/glutamine) in trifluoroethanol solutions and SDS micelles. J Pept Res. 2000;56:172-84 pubmed
    ..K1480-K1496 in rat brain type-IIA Na+ channels, MP-3A) and its F/Q(Gln) substituted one (MP-4A) in trifluoroethanol (TFE) solutions and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles using circular dichroism (CD) and 1H-NMR ..
  48. Grandori R. Detecting equilibrium cytochrome c folding intermediates by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: two partially folded forms populate the molten-globule state. Protein Sci. 2002;11:453-8 pubmed
    ..The less compact one, I(A), also can be induced by destabilization of the native structure by trifluoroethanol. I(A) and I(B) can be detected, in the absence of additives, around the midpoint of the acid-induced ..
  49. Waring A, Faull K, Leung C, Chang Chien A, Mercado P, Taeusch H, et al. Synthesis, secondary structure and folding of the bend region of lung surfactant protein B. Pept Res. 1996;9:28-39 pubmed
    ..measurements show that both peptides assume turn conformations in structure-promoting solvents such as trifluoroethanol (TFE), a structural model is proposed in which Cys35 and Cys46 are brought in close apposition through an ..
  50. Regev O, Khalfin R, Zussman E, Cohen Y. About the albumin structure in solution and related electro-spinnability issues. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the BSA in a water environment, in a 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) environment, and in a TFE/beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) environment demonstrated an unfolding pathway; ..
  51. Pintus F, Mura A, Rinaldi A, Contini A, Spano D, Medda R, et al. Activity and structural changes of Euphorbia characias peroxidase in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Protein J. 2008;27:434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..between secondary structures of a peroxidase from Euphorbia characias were studied in the presence of trifluoroethanol and in the presence or absence of calcium ions...
  52. Bemporad F, Taddei N, Stefani M, Chiti F. Assessing the role of aromatic residues in the amyloid aggregation of human muscle acylphosphatase. Protein Sci. 2006;15:862-70 pubmed
    ..This suggests that aromatic residues favor aggregation because of these factors rather than for their aromaticity...
  53. Wray V, Kakoschke C, Nokihara K, Naruse S. Solution structure of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1993;32:5832-41 pubmed
    ..neuropeptides PACAP38 and PACAP27 have been investigated in aqueous solution containing varying amounts of trifluoroethanol (TFE) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and a combination of 2D 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ..