phenylethyl alcohol

Summary

Summary: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.

Top Publications

  1. Jin L, Xu W, Krefetz D, Gruener D, Kielbasa W, Tauscher Wisniewski S, et al. Clinical outcomes from an open-label study of edivoxetine use in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013;23:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes from an open label study of edivoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  2. Liu R, Chen H, Bai H, Zhang W, Wang X, Qin X, et al. Suppression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase contributes to bleomycin-induced oxidative stress and fibrogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2013;220:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results disclose a potential regulatory mechanism in pulmonary fibrosis that will aid the development of new therapies...
  3. Tayman C, Tonbul A, Köşüş A, Hirfanoglu I, Haltas H, Uysal S, et al. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on intestinal damage in necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the preventative effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in an experimental rat model of NEC...
  4. Wongmekiat O, Gomonchareonsiri S, Thamprasert K. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against oxidative stress-related renal dysfunction in rats treated with cyclosporin A. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011;25:619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The protection afforded by CAPE is mediated, at least in part, through inhibiting renal lipid peroxidation and enhancing or maintaining the antioxidant glutathione content...
  5. Vauzour D, Corona G, Spencer J. Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neurotoxicity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;501:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..1+/-3.0%, p<0.001) at the same concentration. These data indicate that hydroxycinnamates, phenolic acids and phenolic alcohol are also capable of inducing neuroprotective effects to a similar extent to that seen with flavonoids...
  6. Pangallo B, Dellva M, D Souza D, Essink B, Russell J, Goldberger C. A randomized, double-blind study comparing LY2216684 and placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:748-55 pubmed publisher
    ..01) from baseline in systolic (3 mm Hg) and diastolic (4 mm Hg) blood pressure and pulse (10 bpm) compared with placebo. LY2216684 6-18 mg demonstrated significant efficacy and was tolerated in the treatment of MDD...
  7. Watanabe M, Amarante M, Conti B, Sforcin J. Cytotoxic constituents of propolis inducing anticancer effects: a review. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1378-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the antitumour effects of propolis extracts and its constituents (e.g. flavonoids, terpenes and caffeic acid phenethyl ester) are discussed...
  8. Cakır T, Ozkan E, Dulundu E, Topaloglu U, Sehirli A, Ercan F, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) prevents methotrexate-induced hepatorenal oxidative injury in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1566-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the methotrexate (MTX)-induced hepatorenal oxidative damage in rats...
  9. Kielbasa W, Quinlan T, Jin L, Xu W, Lachno D, Dean R, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of edivoxetine (LY2216684), a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2012;22:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of edivoxetine were assessed in children and adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following single and once-daily oral doses of edivoxetine...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wang X, Stavchansky S, Kerwin S, Bowman P. Structure-activity relationships in the cytoprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and fluorinated derivatives: effects on heme oxygenase-1 induction and antioxidant activities. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;635:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the induction of HO-1 plays a more important role in the cytoprotective activity of CAPE derivatives than their direct antioxidant activity...
  2. Liu Z, Sun L, Zhu L, Jia X, Li X, Jia H, et al. Hydroxytyrosol protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. J Neurochem. 2007;103:2690-700 pubmed publisher
  3. Tomur A, Kanter M, Gurel A, Erboga M. The efficiency of CAPE on retardation of hepatic fibrosis in biliary obstructed rats. J Mol Histol. 2011;42:451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that CAPE attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation, and fibrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of CAPE is associated with antioxidative potential...
  4. Tijerino A, Cardoza R, Moraga J, Malmierca M, Vicente F, Aleu J, et al. Overexpression of the trichodiene synthase gene tri5 increases trichodermin production and antimicrobial activity in Trichoderma brevicompactum. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to the significant role of tri5 in the production of trichodermin and in the antifungal activity of T. brevicompactum...
  5. Cui Z, Yang X, Shen Q, Wang K, Zhu T. Optimisation of biotransformation conditions for production of 2-phenylethanol by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWY132 mutant. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:754-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6 × 10(7) cells/mL. With the optimised conditions, the yield of 2-PE was further increased to 3.52 g L(-1) (an increase of 249.5%), which corresponds to a molar conversion rate of 95.19%...
  6. Motawi T, Darwish H, Abd El Tawab A. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on endotoxin-induced cardiac stress in rats: a possible mechanism of protection. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2011;25:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effect of CAPE might be mediated, at least in part, by the superinduction of HO-1...
  7. Fontanilla C, Ma Z, Wei X, Klotsche J, Zhao L, Wisniowski P, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurodegeneration. Neuroscience. 2011;188:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CAPE may have beneficial effects in slowing or preventing the progression of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders...
  8. Oktar S, Aydin M, Yonden Z, Alcin E, Ilhan S, Nacar A. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2010;10:298-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CAPE on isoproterenol (ISO) -induced myocardial infarction...
  9. Granados Principal S, Quiles J, Ramirez Tortosa C, Sanchez Rovira P, Ramirez Tortosa M. Hydroxytyrosol: from laboratory investigations to future clinical trials. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:191-206 pubmed publisher
    ..New evidence and strategies regarding the use of hydroxytyrosol as a natural drug for the prevention and treatment of diseases with high incidences in Western countries are also presented...
  10. Zrelli H, Matsuoka M, Kitazaki S, Araki M, Kusunoki M, Zarrouk M, et al. Hydroxytyrosol induces proliferation and cytoprotection against oxidative injury in vascular endothelial cells: role of Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:4473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides a molecular basis for the contribution of HT in the Mediterranean diet to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases...
  11. Zhang J, Ma L, Yu H, Zhang H, Wang H, Qin Y, et al. A tyrosine decarboxylase catalyzes the initial reaction of the salidroside biosynthesis pathway in Rhodiola sachalinensis. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:1443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..sachalinensis...
  12. Zrelli H, Matsuka M, Araki M, Zarrouk M, Miyazaki H. Hydroxytyrosol induces vascular smooth muscle cells apoptosis through NO production and PP2A activation with subsequent inactivation of Akt. Planta Med. 2011;77:1680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that HT could induce VSMCs apoptosis through NO production and PP2A activation followed by inactivation of Akt signaling pathway...
  13. Zrelli H, Matsuoka M, Kitazaki S, Zarrouk M, Miyazaki H. Hydroxytyrosol reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in vascular endothelial cells by upregulating catalase expression through the AMPK-FOXO3a pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;660:275-82 pubmed publisher
  14. Lucas R, Comelles F, Alcantara D, Maldonado O, Curcuroze M, Parra J, et al. Surface-active properties of lipophilic antioxidants tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters: a potential explanation for the nonlinear hypothesis of the antioxidant activity in oil-in-water emulsions. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8021-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions...
  15. Castañer O, Covas M, Khymenets O, Nyyssonen K, Konstantinidou V, Zunft H, et al. Protection of LDL from oxidation by olive oil polyphenols is associated with a downregulation of CD40-ligand expression and its downstream products in vivo in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyphenols could exert health benefits not only by scavenging free radicals but also by modulating gene expression...
  16. Yang J, Marriner G, Wang X, Bowman P, Kerwin S, Stavchansky S. Synthesis of a series of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) fluorinated derivatives: comparison of cytoprotective effects to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:5032-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPA and three fluorinated analogs were found to be significantly cytoprotective when compared to control, with no significant difference in cytoprotection between caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and CAPA...
  17. Hua D, Xu P. Recent advances in biotechnological production of 2-phenylethanol. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:654-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should focus on product scale-up and product recovery processes for the industrialization of microbial processes...
  18. Yang J, Kerwin S, Bowman P, Stavchansky S. Stability of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) in rat plasma. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:594-8 pubmed publisher
    ..95, 0.35 and 0.13?h at 4, 25 and 37?°C, respectively. The energy of activation was found to be 22.1?kcal/mol for CAPA and 14.1?kcal/mol for CAPE. A more stable compound could potentially extend the beneficial effects of CAPE...
  19. Rietjens S, Bast A, de Vente J, Haenen G. The olive oil antioxidant hydroxytyrosol efficiently protects against the oxidative stress-induced impairment of the NObullet response of isolated rat aorta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1931-6 pubmed
    ..The present study provides a molecular basis for the contribution of hydroxytyrosol to the benefits of the Mediterranean diet...
  20. Cagli K, Bagci C, Gulec M, Cengiz B, Akyol O, Sari I, et al. In vivo effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptotic changes in rats. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2005;35:440-8 pubmed
    ..The I/R+CAPE group showed reduced apoptosis, attenuated NO production, elevated myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and diminished serum CK and AST activities, compared to the I/R group...
  21. Sirianni R, Chimento A, De Luca A, Casaburi I, Rizza P, Onofrio A, et al. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with ERK1/2 activation. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrated that HT and OL can have a chemo-preventive role in breast cancer cell proliferation through the inhibition of estrogen-dependent rapid signals involved in uncontrolled tumor cell growth...
  22. Jung W, Lee D, Choi Y, Yea S, Choi I, Park S, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester attenuates allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. Life Sci. 2008;82:797-805 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that oxidative stress may have a crucial function in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, and that CAPE may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of bronchial asthma...
  23. Fragopoulou E, Nomikos T, Karantonis H, Apostolakis C, Pliakis E, Samiotaki M, et al. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:80-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one...
  24. Cornwell D, Ma J. Nutritional benefit of olive oil: the biological effects of hydroxytyrosol and its arylating quinone adducts. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:8774-86 pubmed publisher
  25. Yilmaz H, Uz E, Gokalp O, Ozcelik N, Cicek E, Ozer M. Protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and erdosteine on activities of purine-catabolizing enzymes and level of nitric oxide in red blood cells of isoniazid-administered rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:519-24 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPE and erdosteine may have protective potential in this process and they may become a promising drug in the prevention of this undesired side effect of INH...
  26. Xiang D, Wang D, He Y, Xie J, Zhong Z, Li Z, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces growth arrest and apoptosis of colon cancer cells via the beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling. Anticancer Drugs. 2006;17:753-62 pubmed
  27. Jayakumar A, Donovan M, Tripathi V, Ramalho Ortigao M, McDowell M. Leishmania major infection activates NF-kappaB and interferon regulatory factors 1 and 8 in human dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..major infection either directly stimulates a signaling cascade or induces an autocrine pathway that activates IRF-1 and IRF-8, ultimately resulting in IL-12 transcription...
  28. Tan J, Ma Z, Han L, Du R, Zhao L, Wei X, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses potent cardioprotective effects in a rabbit model of acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H2265-71 pubmed
    ..Importantly, protection is conferred when CAPE is systemically administered after the onset of ischemia, thus demonstrating potential efficacy in the clinical scenario...
  29. Parlakpinar H, Tasdemir S, Polat A, Bay Karabulut A, Vardi N, Ucar M, et al. Protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (cape) on gentamicin-induced acute renal toxicity in rats. Toxicology. 2005;207:169-77 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that CAPE acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent the toxic effects of GEN both at the biochemical and histological level. Thus, CAPE could be effectively combined with GEN treatment...
  30. Chen M, Wu C, Chen Y, Keng P, Chen W. Cell killing and radiosensitization by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in lung cancer cells. J Radiat Res. 2004;45:253-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the effects of CAPE on differential cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and radiosensitization are associated with glutathione depletion that occurred shortly after treatments...
  31. Wang L, Chu K, Liang Y, Lin Y, Chiang B. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB and protein kinase B signalling pathways and induces caspase-3 expression in primary human CD4+ T cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of CAPE for immune regulation and a rationale for the use of propolis for the treatment of allergic disorders...
  32. Ho C, Lin S, Chou M, Chen F, Hu C, Chen C, et al. Effects of CAPE-like compounds on HIV replication in vitro and modulation of cytokines in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:372-9 pubmed
  33. Wang X, Stavchansky S, Zhao B, Bynum J, Kerwin S, Bowman P. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells from menadione cytotoxicity by caffeic acid phenethyl ester: the role of heme oxygenase-1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;591:28-35 pubmed publisher
  34. Jin U, Song K, Motomura M, Suzuki I, Gu Y, Kang Y, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia U937 cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;310:43-8 pubmed
    ..From the results, it was concluded that CAPE induces the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis but not death receptors- or ER-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells...
  35. Plotnikov M, Chernysheva G, Smol yakova V, Maslov M, Cherkashina I, Krysin A, et al. Effect of n-tyrosol on blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:61-3 pubmed
    ..The effects of n-tyrosol are comparable to that of pentoxyphylline...
  36. Parlakpinar H, Ozer M, Ucar M, Gaffaroglu M, Vardi N, Koc M, et al. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006;24:363-7 pubmed
    ..Morphological tubule damage in rats given AK was severe in the renal cortex, whereas in rats given AK plus CAPE, no histological changes occurred. It is concluded that CAPE could be useful for reducing the nephrotoxic effects of AK...
  37. Chen M, Keng P, Lin P, Yang C, Liao S, Chen W. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester decreases acute pneumonitis after irradiation in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer. 2005;5:158 pubmed
    ..To determine whether CAPE, an antioxidant and an inhibitor of NF-kappa B, could be a useful adjuvant agent for lung cancer treatment, we examine the effects of CAPE on irradiated normal lung tissue in this study...
  38. Chernyshova G, Plotnikov M, Smol yakova V, Golubeva I, Aliev O, Tolstikova T, et al. Antiarrhythmic activity of n-tyrosol during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:689-91 pubmed
    ..The preparation reduces the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, increases the percent of animals without ventricular arrhythmia, and moderates the severity of developing ventricular arrhythmias...
  39. Ahn E, Jiang Y, Zhang Y, Son E, You S, Kang S, et al. Cytotoxicity of p-tyrosol and its derivatives may correlate with the inhibition of DNA replication initiation. Oncol Rep. 2008;19:527-34 pubmed
    ..Pol alpha-primase may be the main target molecule. Taken together, we suggest that p-tyrosyl gallate is a strong anticancer drug candidate that warrants further investigation...
  40. Aissa I, Bouaziz M, Ghamgui H, Kamoun A, Miled N, Sayadi S, et al. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated tyrosol by response surface methodology. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:10298-305 pubmed
    ..Among the eluted products from HPLC, mono- and diacetylated derivatives were identified by positive mass spectrometry. Tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivative exert similar antiradicalar activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle...
  41. Velazquez C, Navarro M, Acosta A, Angulo A, Dominguez Z, Robles R, et al. Antibacterial and free-radical scavenging activities of Sonoran propolis. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1747-56 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the antibacterial and free-radical scavenging (FRS) activities of propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico [Pueblo de Alamos (PAP), Ures (UP) and Caborca (CP)]...
  42. Ho H, Hsu S, Ting C, Kuo C, Yang V. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo using a local delivery system. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2009;55 Suppl:OL1161-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, CAPE prevents intima thickening in rabbits after balloon angioplasty. These results indicate that CAPE may have therapeutic relevance for the prevention of restenosis during PCI in the treatment of coronary artery diseases...
  43. Hishikawa K, Nakaki T, Fujita T. Oral flavonoid supplementation attenuates atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:442-6 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of oral CAPE supplementation on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice...
  44. Okutan H, Ozcelik N, Yilmaz H, Uz E. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rat heart. Clin Biochem. 2005;38:191-6 pubmed
    ..In light of the antioxidant ability of CAPE, the effects of CAPE on the antioxidative status of cardiac tissue were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
  45. Ma Z, Wei X, Fontanilla C, Noelker C, Dodel R, Hampel H, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester blocks free radical generation and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. Life Sci. 2006;79:1307-11 pubmed
    ..Both the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of CAPE may be beneficial in the therapy for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases...
  46. Ozyurt B, Iraz M, Koca K, Ozyurt H, Sahin S. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;292:197-203 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it can be speculated that CAPE or other antioxidant agents may be useful in the treatment of I/R injury as well as diffused traumatic injury of skeletal muscle...
  47. Carrasco Legleu C, Sánchez Pérez Y, Marquez Rosado L, Fattel Fazenda S, Arce Popoca E, Hernández García S, et al. A single dose of caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents initiation in a medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis model. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6779-85 pubmed
    ..To study of the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the initiation period in a medium-term assay of hepatocarcinogenesis...
  48. Tekin A, Kucukkartallar T, Turkyilmaz S, Dinckan A, Esen H, Ates B, et al. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on sepsis in rats. Inflammation. 2008;31:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support that CAPE may be used for the treatment of organ failure during sepsis...
  49. Wei X, Ma Z, Fontanilla C, Zhao L, Xu Z, Taggliabraci V, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Neuroscience. 2008;155:1098-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may further help understanding of the mechanism of glutamate-induced neuronal death and CAPE-induced neuroprotection against excitotoxicity...
  50. Mateos R, Trujillo M, Pereira Caro G, Madrona A, Cert A, Espartero J. New lipophilic tyrosyl esters. Comparative antioxidant evaluation with hydroxytyrosyl esters. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The length and nature of the acyl side chain did not seem to play an important role in the antioxidant activity of either the hydroxytyrosyl or tyrosyl ester series, since no significant differences were observed among them...
  51. Loru D, Incani A, Deiana M, Corona G, Atzeri A, Melis M, et al. Protective effect of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol against oxidative stress in kidney cells. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Tyrosol, instead, in this experimental model, did not exert any protective effect...
  52. Esrefoglu M, Gul M, Ates B, Yilmaz I. The ultrastructural and biochemical evidences of the beneficial effects of chronic caffeic acid phenethyl ester and melatonin administration on brain and cerebellum of aged rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010;24:305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking the results together, we suggest that supplemental administration of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and melatonin is beneficial in delaying age-related cellular damage in nervous system...
  53. Bianco A, Melchioni C, Ramunno A, Romeo G, Uccella N. Phenolic components of Olea europaea--isolation of tyrosol derivatives. Nat Prod Res. 2004;18:29-32 pubmed
    ..A new tyrosol derivative, the oleic ester of tyrosol, was isolated from fruits of Olea europaea, Cassanese cultivar. Salidroside, the known glucosyl derivative of thyrosol, was isolated from the Carolea cultivar...