benzyl alcohol

Summary

Summary: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.

Top Publications

  1. Minogue S, Sun D. Bacteriostatic saline containing benzyl alcohol decreases the pain associated with the injection of propofol. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:683-6, table of contents pubmed
    Bacteriostatic saline is a physiological saline solution containing the bacteriostatic agent benzyl alcohol as a 0.9% solution...
  2. Milisavljevic V, Tran L, Batmalle C, Bootsma H. Benzyl alcohol and ethanol can enhance the pathogenic potential of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36:552-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that alcohol used in skin disinfectants, as well as preservative in solutions administered through catheters, can enhance biofilm formation by S epidermidis...
  3. Ludi B, Süess M, Werner I, Niederberger M. Mechanistic aspects of molecular formation and crystallization of zinc oxide nanoparticles in benzyl alcohol. Nanoscale. 2012;4:1982-95 pubmed publisher
    ..generation of zinc oxide nanorods, which arrange into bundles with a fan- or bouquet-like structure, using the benzyl alcohol route...
  4. Shrivastava R, Basu A, Phale P. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86. Arch Microbiol. 2011;193:553-63 pubmed publisher
    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes...
  5. Chang Y, Wu C, Tseng S, Kuo P, Tseng S. In vitro benzyl alcohol cytotoxicity: implications for intravitreal use of triamcinolone acetonide. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86:942-50 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of benzyl alcohol (BA), the preservative in commercial triamcinolone acetonide (TA) suspensions, on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
  6. Fu X, Feng J, Wang H, Ng K. Room temperature synthesis of a novel gamma-MnO2 hollow structure for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:375601 pubmed publisher
    ..gamma-MnO(2) hollow structure was found to exhibit a better catalytic performance than conventional gamma-MnO(2) in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, demonstrating its possible application in alcohol oxidation.
  7. de Marco A, Vigh L, Diamant S, Goloubinoff P. Native folding of aggregation-prone recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli by osmolytes, plasmid- or benzyl alcohol-overexpressed molecular chaperones. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2005;10:329-39 pubmed
    ..Addition of the membrane fluidizer heat shock-inducer benzyl alcohol (BA) to the bacterial medium resulted in similar high yields as with plasmid-mediated chaperone coexpression...
  8. Larsen S, Lund R, Thygesen P, Poulsen O, Nielsen G. Investigation of the adjuvant and immuno-suppressive effects of benzyl butyl phthalate, phthalic acid and benzyl alcohol in a murine injection model. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:439-46 pubmed
    ..phthalate plasticizer, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) as well as its degradation products, phthalic acid and benzyl alcohol (BA) in a murine model...
  9. Basu A, Dixit S, Phale P. Metabolism of benzyl alcohol via catechol ortho-pathway in methylnaphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida CSV86. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;62:579-85 pubmed
    ..However, it could grow on benzyl alcohol, 2- and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nanayakkara G, Bartlett A, Forbes B, Marriott C, Whitfield P, Brown M. The effect of unsaturated fatty acids in benzyl alcohol on the percutaneous permeation of three model penetrants. Int J Pharm. 2005;301:129-39 pubmed
    ..of monounsaturated (oleic (OA) and palmitoleic (PA)) and poly-unsaturated (linoleic (LA)) fatty acids in benzyl alcohol (BA) using Franz diffusion cells and HPLC detection...
  2. Konopasek I, Strzalka K, Svobodova J. Cold shock in Bacillus subtilis: different effects of benzyl alcohol and ethanol on the membrane organisation and cell adaptation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1464:18-26 pubmed
    A temperature shift-down of Bacillus subtilis from 40 to 20 degrees C induces an 80 min growth lag. Benzyl alcohol reduced this period to 51 min, whereas ethanol prolonged it up to 102 min...
  3. Shehab N, Lewis C, Streetman D, Donn S. Exposure to the pharmaceutical excipients benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol among critically ill neonates. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10:256-9 pubmed publisher
    To document neonatal exposures to the potentially harmful pharmaceutical excipients benzyl alcohol (BA) and propylene glycol (PG) present in parenteral medications routinely administered in the intensive care unit.
  4. Thirumangalathu R, Krishnan S, Brems D, Randolph T, Carpenter J. Effects of pH, temperature, and sucrose on benzyl alcohol-induced aggregation of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor. J Pharm Sci. 2006;95:1480-97 pubmed
    Antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., benzyl alcohol), which are required in multidose formulations, can induce protein aggregation...
  5. Wu J, Wang J, Li M, Lin J, Wei D. Optimization of immobilization for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol by Gluconobacter oxydans using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:8936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the oxidative activity of immobilized cells was retained at 53.2% compared with that of free cells after 10 repeated batch reactions, while only 15.7% of activity remained in free cells...
  6. Taylor P, Chengelis C, Miller W, Parker G, Gleason T, Cozzi E. Evaluation of propofol containing 2% benzyl alcohol preservative in cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14:516-26 pubmed publisher
    Propofol emulsion containing benzyl alcohol preservative (BA) was evaluated in cats. Eight (PB) received 1% propofol containing 2% benzyl alcohol and eight (PC) preservative-free propofol...
  7. Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 3:23-50 pubmed
    b>Benzyl Alcohol is an aromatic alcohol used in a wide variety of cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component, preservative, solvent, and viscosity-decreasing agent...
  8. Ghezzi A, Al Hasan Y, Larios L, Bohm R, Atkinson N. slo K(+) channel gene regulation mediates rapid drug tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17276-81 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, a single sedation with the anesthetic benzyl alcohol changes the expression of the slo K(+) channel gene and induces rapid drug tolerance...
  9. Saveyn P, Cocquyt E, Sinnaeve D, Martins J, Topgaard D, Meeren P. NMR study of the sorption behavior of benzyl alcohol derivatives into sonicated and extruded dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) dispersions: the relevance of membrane fluidity. Langmuir. 2008;24:3082-9 pubmed publisher
    The sorption behavior of three benzyl alcohol derivatives with different hydrophobicities into sonicated and extruded DODAC dispersions has been studied using NMR spectroscopy and NMR diffusometry...
  10. Luo J, Bruice T. Dynamic structures of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH): results of molecular dynamics simulations of HLADH-NAD(+)-PhCH(2)OH, HLADH-NAD(+)-PhCH(2)O(-), and HLADH-NADH-PhCHO. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:11952-9 pubmed
    Molecular dynamics simulations of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) have been carried out. The following three states have been studied: HLADH.PhCH(2)OH.NAD(+) (MD1), HLADH.PhCH(2)O(-)...
  11. Cowmeadow R, Krishnan H, Ghezzi A, Al Hasan Y, Wang Y, Atkinson N. Ethanol tolerance caused by slowpoke induction in Drosophila. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:745-53 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, induction of slowpoke expression has been linked to anesthetic resistance...
  12. Pritchard J, Kesavan L, Piccinini M, He Q, Tiruvalam R, Dimitratos N, et al. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and benzyl alcohol oxidation using Au-Pd catalysts prepared by sol immobilization. Langmuir. 2010;26:16568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..technique and explore their use for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. In particular, we examine the synthesis of a systematic set of Au-Pd colloidal nanoparticles having a range ..
  13. Curry E, Warshaw E. Benzyl alcohol allergy: importance of patch testing with personal products. Dermatitis. 2005;16:203-8 pubmed
    b>Benzyl alcohol is a weak sensitizer found in a wide array of plants and plant products, foods, cosmetics, and medications...
  14. Caratzoulas S, Mincer J, Schwartz S. Identification of a protein-promoting vibration in the reaction catalyzed by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:3270-6 pubmed
  15. Luo J, Bruice T. Ten-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of the motions of the horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.PhCH2O- complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16597-600 pubmed
    ..The resulting cross-correlation map allowed the identification of the correlated and anticorrelated motions, which involve the entire protein. Anticorrelated and correlated motions are carried into the active site-aligned residues...
  16. Abend A, Chung L, Bibart R, Brooks M, McCollum D. Concerning the stability of benzyl alcohol: formation of benzaldehyde dibenzyl acetal under aerobic conditions. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004;34:957-62 pubmed
    An impurity in benzyl alcohol was identified as benzaldehyde dibenzyl acetal (BDBA). The component BDBA is reversibly formed by the reaction of benzyl alcohol with benzaldehyde, an oxidative degradation product of benzyl alcohol...
  17. Morrison V, Koh H, Cheng L, Bessho K, Davidson M, Freeman W. Intravitreal toxicity of the kenalog vehicle (benzyl alcohol) in rabbits. Retina. 2006;26:339-44 pubmed
    To test the toxicity of intravitreal injections of benzyl alcohol.
  18. Allen T, Kraus P, Lawson P, Drake G, Balkwill D, Tanner R. Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus sp. nov., a benzyl alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:1313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..isoamyl alcohol), ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol. Additionally, the strain oxidized H(2)/CO(2), formate, lactate, pyruvate, maleate, malate and fumarate...
  19. Pérez Lozano P, García Montoya E, Orriols A, Miñarro M, Tico J, Suñé Negre J. A new validated method for the simultaneous determination of benzocaine, propylparaben and benzyl alcohol in a bioadhesive gel by HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;39:920-7 pubmed
    ..and validated for the simultaneous determination of benzocaine, two preservatives (propylparaben (nipasol) and benzyl alcohol) and degradation products of benzocaine in a semisolid pharmaceutical dosage form (benzocaine gel)...
  20. Scognamiglio J, Jones L, Vitale D, Letizia C, Api A. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50 Suppl 2:S140-60 pubmed publisher
    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol...
  21. Maula T, Westerlund B, Slotte J. Differential ability of cholesterol-enriched and gel phase domains to resist benzyl alcohol-induced fluidization in multilamellar lipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:2454-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Benzyl alcohol (BA) has a well-known fluidizing effect on both artificial and cellular membranes. BA is also likely to modulate the activities of certain membrane proteins by decreasing the membrane order...
  22. Mashayekhi H, Rezaee M, Garmaroudi S, Montazeri N, Ahmadi S. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. Anal Sci. 2011;27:865-8 pubmed
    ..the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and ..
  23. Lorenzo Carrero J, González Barcia M, Perez Flores I. Sterile endophthalmitis after benzyl alcohol filtered triamcinolone acetonide injection. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:142-3 pubmed publisher
  24. Kobler A, Schaller H, Gernhardt C. Effects of the desensitizing agents Gluma and Hyposen on the tensile bond strength of dentin adhesives. Am J Dent. 2008;21:388-92 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the influence of two desensitizers (Gluma Desensitizer and Hyposen) on the tensile bond strength of three different dentin adhesives...
  25. Yahashiri A, Rubach J, Plapp B. Effects of cavities at the nicotinamide binding site of liver alcohol dehydrogenase on structure, dynamics and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2014;53:881-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The V203A substitution may alter the PPV and the reorganization energy for hydrogen transfer, but the protein scaffold and equilibrium thermal motions within the Michaelis complex may be more significant for enzyme catalysis. ..
  26. Rajabi F, Luque R, Serrano Ruiz J. Efficient room-temperature O-silylation of alcohols using a SBA-15-supported cobalt(II) nanocatalyst. Chem Biodivers. 2012;9:1823-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the heterogeneous catalyst showed an excellent durability and can be conveniently reused by filtration for at least twelve times without any noticeable loss of activity...
  27. Huang Y, Tsai Y, Hung W, Lin C, Wang W, Huang J, et al. Synthesis and structural studies of lithium and sodium complexes with OOO-tridentate bis(phenolate) ligands: effective catalysts for the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. Inorg Chem. 2010;49:9416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Further treatment of 7 with 2 mol equiv of benzyl alcohol provides [Li(2)(L(2)-H)(2)(BnOH)(2)] (9)...
  28. Zhou T, Hu J. Mass production and photocatalytic activity of highly crystalline metastable single-phase Bi??TiO?? nanosheets. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:8698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The reasons for the high photocatalytic activity and the formation mechanism of Bi??TiO?? nanosheets are also discussed...
  29. Bhattacharyya M, Singh A, Banerjee U. Asymmetric reduction of a ketone by wet and lyophilized cells of Geotrichum candidum in organic solvents. N Biotechnol. 2012;29:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Benzyl alcohol was found to be a good co-solvent as it afforded a high coversion and reduced deactivation of the cells...
  30. Wang Y, Krishnan H, Ghezzi A, Yin J, Atkinson N. Drug-induced epigenetic changes produce drug tolerance. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e265 pubmed
    ..immunoprecipitation followed by real-time PCR, we show that a single brief sedation with the anesthetic benzyl alcohol generates a spatiotemporal pattern of histone H4 acetylation across the slo promoter region...
  31. Jaworska M, Szulińska Z, Wilk M. Application of a capillary electrophoresis method for simultaneous determination of preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations. J Sep Sci. 2005;28:137-43 pubmed
    ..qualification and quantification of the preservatives most often included in pharmaceuticals, such as benzyl alcohol, parabens, phenol, m-cresol, chlorobutanol, thimerosal...
  32. Amado A, Jacob S. Letter: Benzyl alcohol preserved saline used to dilute injectables poses a risk of contact dermatitis in fragrance-sensitive patients. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:1396-7 pubmed
  33. Smith A, Haider K, Schachtner J, Mathur S, Vanorden R, Gentile T. Fatal hemolysis after high-dose etoposide: is benzyl alcohol to blame?. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:764-6 pubmed
    ..Further research is required to determine the relationship between the benzyl alcohol metabolic rate and toxicity and genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase in African-Americans.
  34. Martins A, de Oliveira D, Pereira A, Rubira A, Muniz E. Chitosan/TPP microparticles obtained by microemulsion method applied in controlled release of heparin. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:1127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..preparation of chitosan/tripolyphosphate microparticles (CHT/TPP) using microemulsion system based on water/benzyl alcohol. The morphology of the microparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
  35. Khadikar P, Karmarkar S, Agrawal V. A novel PI index and its applications to QSPR/QSAR studies. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2001;41:934-49 pubmed
    ..The results have shown that in several cases the PI index gave better results...
  36. Jia F, Wang F, Lin Y, Zhang L. Microwave-induced formation of platinum nanostructured networks with superior electrochemical activity and stability. Chemistry. 2011;17:14603-10 pubmed publisher
    Platinum nanostructured networks (PNNs) can be synthesized through the chemical reduction of H(2)PtCl(6) by benzyl alcohol under microwave irradiation without the introduction of any surfactants, templates, or seeds...
  37. Xing Z, Guo Q, Feng Z, Guo L, Liu Y. [Analysis on the volatile flavor compounds in Agaricus blazei by GC-MS]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:789-91 pubmed
    ..7 kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified in fruit bodies, and 16 in mycelia. Benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol are main compounds in fruit bodies, their contents are 43.20% and 28.98% respectively...
  38. Kidman G, Northrop D. Effect of pressure on nucleotide binding to yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. Protein Pept Lett. 2005;12:495-7 pubmed
    ..bathochromic shift validates one of two assignments on the effects of pressure on the kinetics of the enzymatic oxidation of benzyl alcohol, namely the protein-ligand conformational change of the capturing form of enzyme.
  39. Schwarz S, Bostwick H, Medow M. Estrogen modulates ileal basolateral membrane lipid dynamics and Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Am J Physiol. 1988;254:G687-94 pubmed
    ..anisotropy and for Na+-K+-ATPase specific activity were restored after in vitro membrane fluidization with benzyl alcohol. The data therefore indicate that ethinyl estradiol effects on basolateral membrane lipid dynamics are ..
  40. Mikulec A, Hartsock J, Salt A. Permeability of the round window membrane is influenced by the composition of applied drug solutions and by common surgical procedures. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:1020-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the effect of clinically relevant carrier solutions and of suction near the RWM on the permeability properties of the RWM...
  41. Park C, Kim J, Rhee Y, Oh T, Ha J, Choi N, et al. Preparation and valuation of a topical solution containing eutectic mixture of itraconazole and phenol. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..0 wt% of oleic acid, 5.4 wt% of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and 76.6 wt% of benzyl alcohol. The steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of the optimized topical solution were 0.90 ± 0...
  42. Fernaud J, Marina A, Gonzalez K, Vazquez J, Falcon M. Production, partial characterization and mass spectrometric studies of the extracellular laccase activity from Fusarium proliferatum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;70:212-21 pubmed
    b>Benzyl alcohol and starch-free commercial wheat bran were effective inducers of the laccase activity in cultures of Fusarium proliferatum (MUCL 31970)...
  43. Rolbiecki L. [The application of acetic acid and benzyl alcohol in parasitological preparations--advantages and disadvantages]. Wiad Parazytol. 2007;53:347-9 pubmed
    This work presents the application of acetic acid as a fixing and dehydrating agent and benzyl alcohol as the clearing medium for helminths of the Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala, and mounting them in Canada ..
  44. Turvey S, Cronin B, Arnold A, Twarog F, Dioun A. Adverse reactions to vitamin B12 injections due to benzyl alcohol sensitivity: successful treatment with intranasal cyanocobalamin. Allergy. 2004;59:1023-4 pubmed
  45. Christoskova S, Stoyanova M. Catalytic degradation of CH2O and C6H5CH2OH in wastewaters. Water Res. 2002;36:2297-303 pubmed
    The heterogeneous oxidation of benzyl alcohol and formaldehyde in aqueous medium has been investigated. The catalytic oxidation of these compounds is carried out in the presence of Ni-oxide system at ambient temperature...
  46. Alhumaimess M, Lin Z, Weng W, Dimitratos N, Dummer N, Taylor S, et al. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol by using gold nanoparticles supported on ceria foam. ChemSusChem. 2012;5:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of the Au/foamCeO(2) for solvent-free benzyl alcohol oxidation was superior to standard Au/CeO(2) catalysts, and the activity was found to be dependent on the ..
  47. Hernaez Ortega M, Soto Pedre E. Removal of benzyl alcohol from a commercially available triamcinolone acetonide suspension for intravitreal use. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2006;37:162-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this article is to study the degree to which benzyl alcohol can be eliminated with this method...
  48. Chatterjee S, Dutta T. Complete degradation of butyl benzyl phthalate by a defined bacterial consortium: role of individual isolates in the assimilation pathway. Chemosphere. 2008;70:933-41 pubmed
    ..b>Benzyl alcohol was found to be metabolized by the Acinetobacter sp. strain FW via benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and catechol...
  49. Zhang J, Jian C, Gao Y, Wang L, Tang N, Wu J. Synthesis and characterization of multi-alkali-metal tetraphenolates and application in ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Inorg Chem. 2012;51:13380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Complexes 1-7 were all characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In the presence of benzyl alcohol, all complexes are active catalysts for the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide...
  50. Granizo N, Alvarez M, Valiente M. The effect of octyl glucoside on rheological behavior of diluted and concentrated lamellar phases. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006;298:363-8 pubmed
    ..The rheological data agrees with the presence of vesicles. A special case is the system with benzyl alcohol. The apparent viscosity does not follow the same power law than for alkanols.
  51. Cakar M, Popović G, Agbaba D. High-performance thin-layer chromatography determination of some antimycotic imidazole derivatives and preservatives in medicinal creams and a gel. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:1544-8 pubmed
    ..methods for determination of antimycotics (bifonazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole) and preservatives (benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid) were developed...
  52. Jerkovic I, Marijanović Z, Kezić J, Gugić M. Headspace, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds diversity and radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic solvent extracts from Amorpha fruticosa honey samples. Molecules. 2009;14:2717-28 pubmed publisher
    ..3-58.4%), while other major compounds were trans- and cis-linalool oxides, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. 2-Phenylethanol (10.5-16.8%) and methyl syringate (5.8-8...
  53. Kahl J, Easton J, Johnson G, Zuk J, Wilson S, Galinkin J. Formocresol blood levels in children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia. Pediatr Dent. 2008;30:393-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of formocresol in the plasma of children undergoing oral rehabilitation involving pulp therapy under general anesthesia...