psychosine

Summary

Summary: An intermediate in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides. It is formed by reaction of sphingosine with UDP-galactose and then itself reacts with fatty acid-Coenzyme A to form the cerebroside.

Top Publications

  1. Sun Y, Liou B, Ran H, Skelton M, Williams M, Vorhees C, et al. Neuronopathic Gaucher disease in the mouse: viable combined selective saposin C deficiency and mutant glucocerebrosidase (V394L) mice with glucosylsphingosine and glucosylceramide accumulation and progressive neurological deficits. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1088-97 pubmed publisher
  2. Im D, Heise C, Nguyen T, O Dowd B, Lynch K. Identification of a molecular target of psychosine and its role in globoid cell formation. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:429-34 pubmed
    ..The glycosphingolipid, psychosine (d-galactosyl-beta-1,1' sphingosine), accumulates to micromolar levels in GLD patients who lack the degradative ..
  3. Bashir A, Haq E. Effect of psychosine on inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression under different culture conditions: implications for Krabbe disease. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:1282-7 pubmed
    Krabbe disease is a neuro-inflammatory disorder in which galactosyl sphingosine (psychosine) accumulates in nervous tissues...
  4. Igisu H, Suzuki K. Progressive accumulation of toxic metabolite in a genetic leukodystrophy. Science. 1984;224:753-5 pubmed
    Progressive accumulation of a cytotoxic metabolite, galactosylsphingosine (psychosine), was found in the brain of the twitcher mouse, a mutant caused by genetic deficiency of galactosylceramidase...
  5. White A, Givogri M, Lopez Rosas A, Cao H, van Breemen R, Thinakaran G, et al. Psychosine accumulates in membrane microdomains in the brain of krabbe patients, disrupting the raft architecture. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6068-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the accumulation of psychosine (galactosyl-sphingosine) in the TWI CNS may result in the disruption of rafts in different cell populations such ..
  6. Hans M, Pusch A, Dai L, Racke K, Swandulla D, Gieselmann V, et al. Lysosulfatide regulates the motility of a neural precursor cell line via calcium-mediated process collapse. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:508-17 pubmed publisher
  7. White A, Galbiati F, Givogri M, Lopez Rosas A, Qiu X, van Breemen R, et al. Persistence of psychosine in brain lipid rafts is a limiting factor in the therapeutic recovery of a mouse model for Krabbe disease. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) is a pathogenic lipid raft-associated molecule whose accumulation leads to brain deterioration and irreversible ..
  8. Zaka M, Wenger D. Psychosine-induced apoptosis in a mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line is mediated by caspase activation. Neurosci Lett. 2004;358:205-9 pubmed
    ..The death of oligodendrocytes is accompanied by accumulation of psychosine, which is also a substrate for the GALC enzyme...
  9. Sun Y, Liou B, Xu Y, Quinn B, Zhang W, Hamler R, et al. Ex vivo and in vivo effects of isofagomine on acid ?-glucosidase variants and substrate levels in Gaucher disease. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreases of storage cells were correlated with >50% reductions in substrate levels. These results indicate that IFG stabilizes GCase in tissues and serum and can reduce visceral substrates in vivo...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Won J, Kim J, Paintlia M, Singh I, Singh A. Role of endogenous psychosine accumulation in oligodendrocyte differentiation and survival: implication for Krabbe disease. Brain Res. 2013;1508:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..by genetic deficiency of galactocerebrosidase (GALC) and resultant accumulation of its cytotoxic substrate, psychosine (galactosylsphingosine), primarily in oligodendrocytes (OLs)...
  2. Khan M, Haq E, Giri S, Singh I, Singh A. Peroxisomal participation in psychosine-mediated toxicity: implications for Krabbe's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2005;80:845-54 pubmed
    b>Psychosine (galactosylsphingosine) accumulation in globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe's disease) results in the loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes...
  3. Castelvetri L, Givogri M, Zhu H, Smith B, Lopez Rosas A, Qiu X, et al. Axonopathy is a compounding factor in the pathogenesis of Krabbe disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of the lysosomal enzyme galactosyl-ceramidase causes the accumulation of the lipid raft-associated sphingolipid psychosine, the disruption of postnatal myelination, neurodegeneration and early death in most cases of infantile Krabbe ..
  4. Wang J, Kon J, Mogi C, Tobo M, Damirin A, Sato K, et al. TDAG8 is a proton-sensing and psychosine-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45626-33 pubmed
    T cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) has been reported to be a receptor for psychosine. Ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) and GPR4, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) closely related to TDAG8, however, have recently ..
  5. Esch S, Williams T, Biswas S, Chakrabarty A, Levine S. Sphingolipid profile in the CNS of the twitcher (globoid cell leukodystrophy) mouse: a lipidomics approach. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49:779-87 pubmed
    ..a lysosomal enzyme that acts to digest galactosylceramide, a glycolipid concentrated in myelin, and psychosine (galactosylsphingosine)...
  6. Haq E, Giri S, Singh I, Singh A. Molecular mechanism of psychosine-induced cell death in human oligodendrocyte cell line. J Neurochem. 2003;86:1428-40 pubmed
    This study delineates the molecular mechanism underlying psychosine-induced oligodendroglial cell death. An immortalized human oligodendroglial cell line, MO3...
  7. Lloyd Evans E, Pelled D, Riebeling C, Bodennec J, de Morgan A, Waller H, et al. Glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine modulate calcium mobilization from brain microsomes via different mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23594-9 pubmed
    ..had no effect on Ca2+ mobilization from rat brain microsomes, but both galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) and glucosylsphingosine stimulated Ca2+ release, although only galactosylsphingosine mediated Ca2+ release via ..
  8. Giri S, Jatana M, Rattan R, Won J, Singh I, Singh A. Galactosylsphingosine (psychosine)-induced expression of cytokine-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthases via AP-1 and C/EBP: implications for Krabbe disease. FASEB J. 2002;16:661-72 pubmed
    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) is characterized by the accumulation of a toxic metabolite, psychosine (galactosylsphingosine), which is a substrate for the deficient enzyme (galactocerebroside beta-galactosidase)...
  9. Giri S, Khan M, Nath N, Singh I, Singh A. The role of AMPK in psychosine mediated effects on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes: implication for Krabbe disease. J Neurochem. 2008;105:1820-33 pubmed publisher
    ..neurological disorder caused by the deficiency of galactocerebrosidase activity resulting in accumulation of psychosine, which leads to energy depletion, loss of oligodendrocytes, induction of gliosis, and inflammation by astrocytes ..
  10. Jatana M, Giri S, Singh A. Apoptotic positive cells in Krabbe brain and induction of apoptosis in rat C6 glial cells by psychosine. Neurosci Lett. 2002;330:183-7 pubmed
    ..The loss of oligodendrocyte population is accompanied by accumulation of psychosine, which is considered as the molecule responsible for the observed pathophysiology of GLD...
  11. Giri S, Khan M, Rattan R, Singh I, Singh A. Krabbe disease: psychosine-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in oligodendrocyte cell death. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1478-92 pubmed
    ..leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) is an inherited neurological disorder caused by the pathogenomic accumulation of psychosine (galactosylsphingosine), a substrate for the deficient enzyme galactocerebroside beta-galactosidase...
  12. Matsuda J, Vanier M, Saito Y, Tohyama J, Suzuki K. A mutation in the saposin A domain of the sphingolipid activator protein (prosaposin) gene results in a late-onset, chronic form of globoid cell leukodystrophy in the mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:1191-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic saposin A deficiency might be anticipated among human patients with undiagnosed late-onset chronic leukodystrophy without GALC deficiency...
  13. Kanazawa T, Nakamura S, Momoi M, Yamaji T, Takematsu H, Yano H, et al. Inhibition of cytokinesis by a lipid metabolite, psychosine. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:943-50 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that the lipid metabolite psychosine (galactosylsphingosine), derived from galactosylceramide, induced formation of multinuclear cells from a variety ..
  14. Galbiati F, Basso V, Cantuti L, Givogri M, Lopez Rosas A, Perez N, et al. Autonomic denervation of lymphoid organs leads to epigenetic immune atrophy in a mouse model of Krabbe disease. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13730-8 pubmed
    ..Our study describes a new aspect of Krabbe disease, placing patients at risk of immune-related pathologies, and identifies a novel target for therapeutic interventions...
  15. Schueler U, Kolter T, Kaneski C, Blusztajn J, Herkenham M, Sandhoff K, et al. Toxicity of glucosylsphingosine (glucopsychosine) to cultured neuronal cells: a model system for assessing neuronal damage in Gaucher disease type 2 and 3. Neurobiol Dis. 2003;14:595-601 pubmed
    ..Cells switched to glucosylsphingosine-free medium partially recovered. The data suggest that accumulation of glucosylsphingosine contributes to neuronal dysfunction and destruction in patients with neuronopathic Gaucher disease...
  16. Whitfield P, Sharp P, Taylor R, Meikle P. Quantification of galactosylsphingosine in the twitcher mouse using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res. 2001;42:2092-5 pubmed
    ..the disorder has been proposed to arise from the accumulation of the cytotoxic metabolite galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). The twitcher mouse is a naturally occurring murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy...
  17. Chuang W, Pacheco J, Zhang X, Martin M, Biski C, Keutzer J, et al. Determination of psychosine concentration in dried blood spots from newborns that were identified via newborn screening to be at risk for Krabbe disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;419:73-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 6 other newborns were identified with very low galactosylcerebrosidase (GALC) activity. Because these patients remain asymptomatic, we investigated whether psychosine levels could be a useful marker for disease.
  18. Haq E, Contreras M, Giri S, Singh I, Singh A. Dysfunction of peroxisomes in twitcher mice brain: a possible mechanism of psychosine-induced disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;343:229-38 pubmed
    b>Psychosine (galactosylsphingosine) accumulates in the brain of Krabbe disease (KD) patients as well as twitcher mice, a murine model of KD, resulting in loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin...
  19. Orvisky E, Sidransky E, McKinney C, Lamarca M, Samimi R, Krasnewich D, et al. Glucosylsphingosine accumulation in mice and patients with type 2 Gaucher disease begins early in gestation. Pediatr Res. 2000;48:233-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the accumulation of Glc-sph may be responsible for the rapid demise of mice with type 2 Gaucher disease and the devastating clinical course seen in patients with type 2 Gaucher disease...
  20. Formichi P, Radi E, Battisti C, Pasqui A, Pompella G, Lazzerini P, et al. Psychosine-induced apoptosis and cytokine activation in immune peripheral cells of Krabbe patients. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:737-43 pubmed
    ..Progressive accumulation of psychosine is considered to be the critical pathogenetic mechanism of cell death in the Krabbe brain...
  21. Hawkins Salsbury J, Parameswar A, Jiang X, Schlesinger P, Bongarzone E, Ory D, et al. Psychosine, the cytotoxic sphingolipid that accumulates in globoid cell leukodystrophy, alters membrane architecture. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:3303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of GALC, the cytotoxic glycosphingolipid, psychosine (psy), accumulates in the nervous system...
  22. Dekker N, van Dussen L, Hollak C, Overkleeft H, Scheij S, Ghauharali K, et al. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response. Blood. 2011;118:e118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that plasma glucosylsphingosine can qualify as a biomarker for type 1 Gaucher disease, but that further investigations are warranted regarding its relationship with clinical manifestations of Gaucher disease...
  23. Orvisky E, Park J, LaMarca M, Ginns E, Martin B, Tayebi N, et al. Glucosylsphingosine accumulation in tissues from patients with Gaucher disease: correlation with phenotype and genotype. Mol Genet Metab. 2002;76:262-70 pubmed
    ..The elevated levels found in brains from patients with neuronopathic Gaucher disease support the hypothesis that glucosylsphingosine may contribute to the nervous system involvement in these patients...
  24. Cantuti Castelvetri L, Givogri M, Hebert A, Smith B, Song Y, Kaminska A, et al. The sphingolipid psychosine inhibits fast axonal transport in Krabbe disease by activation of GSK3? and deregulation of molecular motors. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10048-56 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Psychosine, a lipid-raft-associated sphingolipid that accumulates in this disease, is thought to trigger these ..
  25. Zaka M, Rafi M, Rao H, Luzi P, Wenger D. Insulin-like growth factor-1 provides protection against psychosine-induced apoptosis in cultured mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cells using primarily the PI3K/Akt pathway. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;30:398-407 pubmed
    b>Psychosine (galactosylsphingosine) is a toxic metabolite that accumulates in globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) due to the deficiency of galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity...
  26. Prieschl E, Csonga R, Novotny V, Kikuchi G, Baumruker T. Glycosphingolipid-induced relocation of Lyn and Syk into detergent-resistant membranes results in mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2000;164:5389-97 pubmed
    ..In this respect, the effects of galactosylsphingosine are clearly distinct from the signaling elicited by other sphingolipids without the sugar moiety, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate...
  27. Fewou S, Bussow H, Schaeren Wiemers N, Vanier M, Macklin W, Gieselmann V, et al. Reversal of non-hydroxy:alpha-hydroxy galactosylceramide ratio and unstable myelin in transgenic mice overexpressing UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase. J Neurochem. 2005;94:469-81 pubmed
    ..These mice developed a progressive hindlimb paralysis and demyelination in the CNS, demonstrating that tight control of UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase expression is essential for myelin maintenance...
  28. Rao C, Lin X, Pike H, Molotkovsky J, Brown R. Glycolipid transfer protein mediated transfer of glycosphingolipids between membranes: a model for action based on kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13805-15 pubmed
    ..Because surface processes leading to the GLTP-GSL complex formation were limiting for GLTP action with SUVs and LUVs, it was concluded that GLTP is likely to be a valuable tool to probe and manipulate GSL environments in membranes...
  29. Nofer J, Levkau B, Wolinska I, Junker R, Fobker M, von Eckardstein A, et al. Suppression of endothelial cell apoptosis by high density lipoproteins (HDL) and HDL-associated lysosphingolipids. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34480-5 pubmed
  30. Rybak Smith M, Tripisciano C, Borowiak Palen E, Lamprecht C, Sim R. Effect of functionalization of carbon nanotubes with psychosine on complement activation and protein adsorption. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2011;7:830-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, a novel treatment using the glycolipid, Galactosyl-beta1-sphingosine (psychosine), was employed to make stable suspensions of psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes in biological buffers...
  31. Bischoff A, Czyborra P, Fetscher C, Meyer zu Heringdorf D, Jakobs K, Michel M. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosylphosphorylcholine constrict renal and mesenteric microvessels in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;130:1871-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of effects of SPP and SPPC on vascular tone and suggests that sphingolipids may be an hitherto unrecognized class of endogenous regulators of vascular tone...
  32. Ezoe T, Vanier M, Oya Y, Popko B, Tohyama J, Matsuda J, et al. Biochemistry and neuropathology of mice doubly deficient in synthesis and degradation of galactosylceramide. J Neurosci Res. 2000;59:170-8 pubmed
    ..Both galactosylceramide and galactosylsphingosine (psychosine), were undetectable in the brain of the cgt -/- and the doubly deficient mice...
  33. Park J, Orvisky E, Tayebi N, Kaneski C, LaMarca M, Stubblefield B, et al. Myoclonic epilepsy in Gaucher disease: genotype-phenotype insights from a rare patient subgroup. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:387-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, although there were certain shared mutant alleles found in these patients, both the lack of a shared genotype and the variability in clinical presentations suggest that other modifiers must contribute to this rare phenotype...
  34. Zehavi U. Synthesis of potentially caged sphingolipids, possible precursors of cellular modulators and second messengers. Chem Phys Lipids. 1997;90:55-61 pubmed
    ..amines derived from sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, N-methylsphingosine, N-methyldihydrosphingosine, psychosine and glucosylsphingosine...
  35. Ankel H, Capobianchi M, Frezza F, Castilletti C, Dianzani F. Interferon induction by HIV-1-infected cells: a possible role of sulfatides or related glycolipids. Virology. 1996;221:113-9 pubmed
    ..A partial homology of an epitope on the V3 loop of gp 120 with a previously suggested binding domain for sulfated glycoconjugates supports this conclusion...
  36. Auray Blais C, Ntwari A, Clarke J, Warnock D, Oliveira J, Young S, et al. How well does urinary lyso-Gb3 function as a biomarker in Fabry disease?. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:1906-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel plasma biomarker, globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb(3)), is increased in patients with the disease. Until now, lyso-Gb(3) was not detectable in urine, possibly because of the presence of interfering compounds...
  37. Cabrera Salazar M, Deriso M, Bercury S, Li L, Lydon J, Weber W, et al. Systemic delivery of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor reduces CNS substrates and increases lifespan in a mouse model of type 2 Gaucher disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43310 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases...
  38. Graziano A, Parenti R, Avola R, Cardile V. Krabbe disease: involvement of connexin43 in the apoptotic effects of sphingolipid psychosine on mouse oligodendrocyte precursors. Apoptosis. 2016;21:25-35 pubmed publisher
    ..a genetic demyelinating syndrome characterized by deficiency of the enzyme β-galactosylceramidase, lysosomal psychosine accumulation, and loss of myelin-forming cells...
  39. Thieme C, Hofmann D. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud ( Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:127-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore we prove that head formation is not promoted by the metamorphosis-inducer Z-GPGGPA but is prevented by the inhibitors psychosine, chelerythrine and RO-32-0432 showing the involvement of protein kinase C in this process.
  40. Harzer K, Hiraiwa M, Paton B. Saposins (sap) A and C activate the degradation of galactosylsphingosine. FEBS Lett. 2001;508:107-10 pubmed
    ..The reduced galactosylsphingosine turnover in prosaposin-deficiency suggests that there could be a pathogenetic cerebral accumulation of galactosylsphingosine in this disorder...
  41. Hikita T, Tadano Aritomi K, Iida Tanaka N, Anand J, Ishizuka I, Hakomori Si -. A novel plasmal conjugate to glycerol and psychosine ("glyceroplasmalopsychosine"): isolation and characterization from bovine brain white matter. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23084-91 pubmed
    ..group of glycerol and to the 6-hydroxyl group of galactosyl residue of beta-galactosyl 1-->1 sphingosine (psychosine)...
  42. Pasqui A, Di Renzo M, Auteri A, Federico G, Puccetti L. Increased TNF-alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with Krabbe's disease: effect of psychosine. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007;37:742-5 pubmed
    ..In this study we evaluated in vitro the cytokine profile of KD patients and the effect of psychosine, the toxic metabolite which plays a role in the demyelination process in these patients.
  43. Murad S, Kishimoto Y. Alpha hydroxylation of lignoceric acid to cerebronic acid during brain development. Diminished hydroxylase activity in myelin-deficient mouse mutants. J Biol Chem. 1975;250:5841-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a close association of the synthesis of cerebronic acid with the synthesis of the characteristic myelin lipid that is cerebroside (N-acyl sphingosine beta-D-galactoside)...
  44. Thieme C, Hofmann D. An endogenous peptide is involved in internal control of metamorphosis in the marine invertebrate Cassiopea xamachana (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:97-101 pubmed
    ..Additional inhibitor assays revealed that protein kinase C and PI3 kinase, two known elements of the metamorphosis-inducing signal transduction cascade in Cassiopea, may act downstream of the endogenous inducing peptide...
  45. Aribindi K, Guerra Y, Piqueras M, Banta J, Lee R, Bhattacharya S. Cholesterol and glycosphingolipids of human trabecular meshwork and aqueous humor: comparative profiles from control and glaucomatous donors. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the differential profiles of cholesterol and glycosphingolipid species and their quantitative differences between control and glaucomatous aqueous humor (AQH) and the trabecular meshwork (TM) derived from human donors...
  46. Zhang C, Stein P, Liu J, Wang Z, Yang R, Cho J, et al. Genome-wide association study of N370S homozygous Gaucher disease reveals the candidacy of CLN8 gene as a genetic modifier contributing to extreme phenotypic variation. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, CLN8 is a candidate modifier gene for GD1 that may function as a protective sphingolipid sensor and/or in glycosphingolipid trafficking. Future studies should explore the role of CLN8 in pathophysiology of GD...
  47. Ezoe T, Vanier M, Oya Y, Popko B, Tohyama J, Matsuda J, et al. Twitcher mice with only a single active galactosylceramide synthase gene exhibit clearly detectable but therapeutically minor phenotypic improvements. J Neurosci Res. 2000;59:179-87 pubmed
    ..The brain psychosine level in galc -/-, cgt +/- mice was also approximately two-thirds of the galc -/-, cgt +/+ mice...
  48. Zanfini A, Dreassi E, Berardi A, Governini L, Corbini G, Costantino Ceccarini E, et al. Quantification of psychosine in the serum of twitcher mouse by LC-ESI-tandem-MS analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;80:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of GALC results in the accumulation of a highly cytotoxic metabolite galactosylsphingosine (psychosine)...
  49. Parekh V, Singh A, Wilson M, Olivares Villagómez D, Bezbradica J, Inazawa H, et al. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the in vivo response of NKT cells to distinct alpha- and beta-anomeric glycolipids. J Immunol. 2004;173:3693-706 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that NKT cells can fine-tune their immune responses to distinct glycolipid Ags in vivo, a property that may be exploited for the development of effective and safe NKT cell-based immunotherapies...
  50. Kanazawa T, Takematsu H, Yamamoto A, Yamamoto H, Kozutsumi Y. Wheat germ agglutinin stains dispersed post-golgi vesicles after treatment with the cytokinesis inhibitor psychosine. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:517-25 pubmed publisher
    The galactosylsphingosine psychosine (Psy) is one of the sphingolipids and induce the formation of multinuclear cells in several cell lines by inhibiting cytokinesis...
  51. Zhang Y, Toyokuni T, Ruan F, Hakomori S. A one pot synthesis of mono- and di-lactosyl sphingosines. Glycoconj J. 2001;18:557-63 pubmed
    ..A similar glycosylation could be applicable to the synthesis of other glycosphingolipids...
  52. Bischoff A, Meyer zu Heringdorf D, Jakobs K, Michel M. Lysosphingolipid receptor-mediated diuresis and natriuresis in anaesthetized rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:1925-33 pubmed
    ..SPP affects renovascular tone and tubular function via receptors coupled to G(i)-type G-proteins. SPPC, sphingosine and glucopsychosine mimic only the tubular effects of SPP, and hence may act on distinct sites...
  53. Hoogerbrugge P, Suzuki K, Poorthuis B, Kobayashi T, Wagemaker G, Van Bekkum D. Donor-derived cells in the central nervous system of twitcher mice after bone marrow transplantation. Science. 1988;239:1035-8 pubmed
    ..Concomitantly, the levels of psychosine, a highly toxic lipid that progressively accumulates in the CNS of untreated twitcher mice, stabilized at much ..