phenylpropanolamine

Summary

Summary: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.

Top Publications

  1. Roberts R, Bavendam T, Glasser D, Carlsson M, Eyland N, Elinoff V. Tolterodine extended release improves patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: results from the IMPACT trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:752-8 pubmed
    ..Physicians reported that 68% of patients were 'much improved' or 'very much improved'. For symptom-defined conditions, patient-reported outcomes are a valuable means for determining responses to treatment...
  2. Chapple C, Martinez Garcia R, Selvaggi L, Toozs Hobson P, Warnack W, Drogendijk T, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin succinate and extended release tolterodine at treating overactive bladder syndrome: results of the STAR trial. Eur Urol. 2005;48:464-70 pubmed
    ..To compare two new generation antimuscarinics at their recommended doses for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB)...
  3. D Souza A, Smith M, Miller L, Doyle J, Ariely R. Persistence, adherence, and switch rates among extended-release and immediate-release overactive bladder medications in a regional managed care plan. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008;14:291-301 pubmed
    ..No study has compared persistence and adherence to therapy for both the ER and IR versions of tolterodine and oxybutynin...
  4. Byron J, March P, Chew D, DiBartola S. Effect of phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine on the urethral pressure profile and continence scores of incontinent female dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:47-53 pubmed
    ..b>Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is the most frequently used alpha-agonist for this condition, but increased cost and decreased ..
  5. Azzaro A, VanDenBerg C, Ziemniak J, Kemper E, Blob L, Campbell B. Evaluation of the potential for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interactions between selegiline transdermal system and two sympathomimetic agents (pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine) in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;47:978-90 pubmed
    ..for drug-drug interactions during treatment with selegiline transdermal system and pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine. Two studies were conducted with 25 healthy volunteers to assess changes in blood pressure and heart rate ..
  6. Rackley R, Weiss J, Rovner E, Wang J, Guan Z. Nighttime dosing with tolterodine reduces overactive bladder-related nocturnal micturitions in patients with overactive bladder and nocturia. Urology. 2006;67:731-6; discussion 736 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of nighttime tolterodine dosing on urgency-related micturitions in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and nocturia...
  7. Anderson R, MacDiarmid S, Kell S, Barada J, Serels S, Goldberg R. Effectiveness and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin vs extended-release tolterodine in women with or without prior anticholinergic treatment for overactive bladder. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006;17:502-11 pubmed
    ..Discontinuation rates were comparably low across groups. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of initiating treatment for OAB with extended-release oxybutynin, particularly in women presenting with incontinence...
  8. Coyne K, Matza L, Thompson C. The responsiveness of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). Qual Life Res. 2005;14:849-55 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Overactive Bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) during anti-muscarinic treatment...
  9. Kaplan S, Roehrborn C, Rovner E, Carlsson M, Bavendam T, Guan Z. Tolterodine and tamsulosin for treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296:2319-28 pubmed
    ..Men with overactive bladder and other lower urinary tract symptoms may not respond to monotherapy with antimuscarinic agents or alpha-receptor antagonists...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chapple C, van Kerrebroeck P, Jünemann K, Wang J, Brodsky M. Comparison of fesoterodine and tolterodine in patients with overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2008;102:1128-32 pubmed publisher
  2. Penzner J, Thompson D, Arth C, Fowler J, Ary A, Szumlinski K. Protracted 'anti-addictive' effects of adolescent phenylpropanolamine exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Addict Biol. 2008;13:310-25 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to the once highly prevalent over-the-counter (OTC) sympathomimetic phenylpropanolamine (PPA; +/--norephedrine) during pre-adolescence alters the developmental trajectory of catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems ..
  3. Kaplan S, Schneider T, Foote J, Guan Z, Carlsson M, Gong J. Superior efficacy of fesoterodine over tolterodine extended release with rapid onset: a prospective, head-to-head, placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 2011;107:1432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To show the superior efficacy of fesoterodine over tolterodine extended release (ER) in a placebo-controlled overactive bladder (OAB) trial with predefined treatment comparisons for both diary measures and patient-reported outcomes...
  4. Shaya F, Blume S, Gu A, Zyczynski T, Jumadilova Z. Persistence with overactive bladder pharmacotherapy in a Medicaid population. Am J Manag Care. 2005;11:S121-9 pubmed
  5. Kim Y, Yoshimura N, Masuda H, De Miguel F, Chancellor M. Antimuscarinic agents exhibit local inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors in bladder-afferent pathways. Urology. 2005;65:238-42 pubmed
    ..To investigate the potential of antimuscarinic agents for sensory mechanisms in overactive bladder using intravesical instillation...
  6. Serati M, Salvatore S, Uccella S, Cromi A, Khullar V, Cardozo L, et al. Urinary incontinence at orgasm: relation to detrusor overactivity and treatment efficacy. Eur Urol. 2008;54:911-5 pubmed
    ..To understand the pathophysiological mechanism of incontinence during orgasm and to compare women affected by symptomatic detrusor overactivity (DO) with and without incontinence at orgasm in terms of efficacy of antimuscarinic treatment...
  7. Tseng L, Wang A, Chang Y, Soong Y, Lloyd L, Ko Y. Randomized comparison of tolterodine with vaginal estrogen cream versus tolterodine alone for the treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder syndrome. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether vaginal estrogen cream combined with tolterodine is more effective than tolterodine alone in the treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder (OAB)...
  8. Brubaker L, Chapple C, Coyne K, Kopp Z. Patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: importance for determining clinical effectiveness of treatment. Urology. 2006;68:3-8 pubmed
    ..We provide an overview of instruments used to assess symptoms, health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction in patients with OAB and discuss how PROs can be incorporated into clinical trial protocols...
  9. Noël S, Cambier C, Baert K, Gustin P, Denooz R, Massart L, et al. Combined pharmacokinetic and urodynamic study of the effects of oral administration of phenylpropanolamine in female Beagle dogs. Vet J. 2010;184:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in pharmacokinetic, urodynamic and haemodynamic parameters after administration of two dosages of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in female Beagle dogs...
  10. Coyne K, Elinoff V, Gordon D, Deng D, Brodsky M, Glasser D, et al. Relationships between improvements in symptoms and patient assessments of bladder condition, symptom bother and health-related quality of life in patients with overactive bladder treated with tolterodine. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationships were evaluated between treatment-related improvements in overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms as recorded in bladder diaries and patient-reported symptom bother, bladder-related problems and health-related quality of life (HRQL)...
  11. Abbasi K, Bhanger M, Khuhawar M. Capillary gas chromatographic determination of phenylpropanolamine in pharmaceutical preparation. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:998-1001 pubmed
    Analytical procedure has been developed for the gas chromatographic determination of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) using trifluoroacetylacetone (FAA) as derivatizing reagent. Elution is carried out from the column HP-5 (30 mx0.32 mm i.d...
  12. Kuo D, Chen P, Chu S, Hsieh Y. Knocking down the transcript of NF-kappaB modulates the reciprocal regulation of endogenous antioxidants and feeding behavior in phenylpropanolamine-treated rats. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidative stress, antioxidants, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are involved in regulating the feeding behavior of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic drug...
  13. Chapple C, van Kerrebroeck P, Tubaro A, Haag Molkenteller C, Forst H, Massow U, et al. Clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder. Eur Urol. 2007;52:1204-12 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB)...
  14. Claeys S, Rustichelli F, Noël S, Hamaide A. Clinical evaluation of a single daily dose of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch. Can Vet J. 2011;52:501-5 pubmed
    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches...
  15. Yoon B, Bae H, Hong K, Lee S, Park B, Yu K, et al. Phenylpropanolamine contained in cold remedies and risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Neurology. 2007;68:146-9 pubmed
    In this study, we sought to elucidate whether phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in cold remedies (small and divided doses) increases the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS)...
  16. Azhagvuel S, Sekar R. Method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride, paracetamol, and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride in tablets by capillary zone electrophoresis. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:873-8 pubmed
    ..the simultaneous separation and determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ), paracetamol (PARA), and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA) in tablets. A 10 mM sodium tetraborate background electrolyte (BGE) solution (pH 9...
  17. Issa Y, Youssef A, Mutair A. Conductimetric determination of phenylpropanolamine HCl, ranitidine HCl, hyoscyamine HBr and betaine HCl in their pure state and pharmaceutical preparations. Farmaco. 2005;60:541-6 pubmed
    ..tetraphenylborate and phosphotungstic acid were used as titrants for the conductimetric determination of phenylpropanolamine HCl (PPA.Cl), ranitidine HCl (Ra.Cl), hyoscyamine HBr (Hy.Br) and betaine HCl (Be...
  18. Michel M, de la Rosette J, Piro M, Schneider T. Comparison of symptom severity and treatment response in patients with incontinent and continent overactive bladder. Eur Urol. 2005;48:110-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we have explored baseline symptoms and treatment responses to tolterodine in continent relative to incontinent OAB patients...
  19. Hsieh Y, Kuo M, Chen P, Kuo D. The identification of neuropeptide Y receptor subtype involved in phenylpropanolamine-induced increase in oxidative stress and appetite suppression. Neuromolecular Med. 2013;15:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..dismutase (SOD) have been reported to participate in the regulation of appetite-suppressing effect of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic agent...
  20. Herschorn S, Swift S, Guan Z, Carlsson M, Morrow J, Brodsky M, et al. Comparison of fesoterodine and tolterodine extended release for the treatment of overactive bladder: a head-to-head placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 2010;105:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine 8 mg with tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg and placebo in a randomized clinical trial of patients with an overactive bladder (OAB)...
  21. Noël S, Massart L, Hamaide A. Urodynamic and haemodynamic effects of a single oral administration of ephedrine or phenylpropanolamine in continent female dogs. Vet J. 2012;192:89-95 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the effects of a single oral administration of ephedrine (2 mg/kg) or phenylpropanolamine (PPA) (1.5 mg/kg) on the vesico-urethral and cardiovascular functions in continent female dogs...
  22. Hsieh Y, Yang S, Chiou H, Kuo D. Roles of central catecholamine and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y genome in the development of tolerance to phenylpropanolamine-mediated appetite suppression. Behav Neurosci. 2007;121:933-40 pubmed
    b>Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is an appetite suppressant. Repeated treatment with PPA can decrease food intake on initial days, but on subsequent days, food intake gradually returns to normal (tolerant effect)...
  23. Hsieh Y, Chen P, Yu C, Liao J, Kuo D. Inhibiting neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor modulates melanocortin receptor- and NF-?B-mediated feeding behavior in phenylpropanolamine-treated rats. Horm Behav. 2013;64:95-102 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) are involved in regulating anorexia elicited by phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a sympathomimetic drug...
  24. Beaufays F, Onclin K, Verstegen J. Retrograde ejaculation occurs in the dog, but can be prevented by pre-treatment with phenylpropanolamine: a urodynamic study. Theriogenology. 2008;70:1057-64 pubmed publisher
    ..of semen occurred during ejaculation in mature dogs with normal fertility, and to determine the effects of phenylpropanolamine on this phenomenon (dose-titration, switch-back study)...
  25. Kuo D, Yang S, Chu S, Chen C, Hsieh Y. Roles of protein kinase Calpha isozyme in the regulation of oxidative stress and neuropeptide Y gene expression in phenylpropanolamine-mediated appetite suppression. J Neurochem. 2009;108:1495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Although regulation of NPY expression has been reported to contribute to the appetite-suppressing effect of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), it is still unknown if protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in this effect...
  26. Castro Diaz D, Miranda P, Sánchez Ballester F, Lizarraga I, Arumi D, Rejas J. Dose and aging effect on patients reported treatment benefit switching from the first overactive bladder therapy with tolterodine ER to fesoterodine: post-hoc analysis from an observational and retrospective study. BMC Urol. 2012;12:19 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess the effect of aging and dose escalation on patient-reported treatment benefit, after changing their first Overactive Bladder (OAB) therapy with tolterodine-ER to fesoterodine in daily clinical practice...
  27. Khullar V, Amarenco G, Angulo J, Cambronero J, Høye K, Milsom I, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of mirabegron, a ?(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, in patients with overactive bladder: results from a randomised European-Australian phase 3 trial. Eur Urol. 2013;63:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Mirabegron, a ?(3)-adrenoceptor agonist, has been developed for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB)...
  28. Cardozo L, Coyne K, Versi E. Validation of the urgency perception scale. BJU Int. 2005;95:591-6 pubmed
    ..To ascertain the validity and responsiveness of the Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) as an indicator of perceived urinary urgency...
  29. Cooper T, Klesges R, Debon M, Zbikowski S, Johnson K, Clemens L. A placebo controlled randomized trial of the effects of phenylpropanolamine and nicotine gum on cessation rates and postcessation weight gain in women. Addict Behav. 2005;30:61-75 pubmed
    ..This study assessed the efficacy of two forms of pharmacotherapy [nicotine and phenylpropanolamine (PPA) gums] in addition to a 13-week cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program targeted for women...
  30. Hamaide A, Grand J, Farnir F, Le Couls G, Snaps F, Balligand M, et al. Urodynamic and morphologic changes in the lower portion of the urogenital tract after administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine in sexually intact and spayed female dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67:901-8 pubmed
    To compare the urodynamic and morphologic effects of the administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine on the lower portion of the urogenital tract in female dogs.
  31. Khullar V, Hill S, Laval K, Schiøtz H, Jonas U, Versi E. Treatment of urge-predominant mixed urinary incontinence with tolterodine extended release: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Urology. 2004;64:269-74; discussion 274-5 pubmed
    ..To examine the efficacy and tolerability of antimuscarinic therapy in women with urge-predominant mixed incontinence...
  32. Brynne N, Dalen P, Alvan G, Bertilsson L, Gabrielsson J. Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic of tolterodine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;63:529-39 pubmed
  33. Van Kerrebroeck P, Kreder K, Jonas U, Zinner N, Wein A. Tolterodine once-daily: superior efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of the overactive bladder. Urology. 2001;57:414-21 pubmed
  34. Hendershot P, Antal E, Welshman I, Batts D, Hopkins N. Linezolid: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of coadministration with pseudoephedrine HCl, phenylpropanolamine HCl, and dextromethorpan HBr. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:563-72 pubmed
    ..pharmacodynamic responses to coadministration of oral linezolid with sympathomimetics (pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine) and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (dextromethorphan)...
  35. Borovicka M, Fuller M, Konicki P, White J, Steele V, Jaskiw G. Phenylpropanolamine appears not to promote weight loss in patients with schizophrenia who have gained weight during clozapine treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63:345-8 pubmed
    ..We proposed that concomitant treatment with an appetite suppressant such as phenylpropanolamine (PPA) would lead to a decrease in appetite and therefore loss of weight.
  36. Freeman R, Hill S, Millard R, Slack M, Sutherst J. Reduced perception of urgency in treatment of overactive bladder with extended-release tolterodine. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:605-11 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect of once-daily, extended-release tolterodine on urinary urgency in patients with overactive bladder...
  37. Kaddoumi A, Mori T, Nakashima M, Wada M, Nakashima K. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of phenylpropanolamine in human plasma and rat's blood and brain microdialysates using DIB-Cl as a label. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004;34:643-50 pubmed
    A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in human plasma and rat's brain and blood microdialysates using fluorescence (FL) detection after precolumn derivatization with 4-(4,5-..
  38. Millard R. Clinical efficacy of tolterodine with or without a simplified pelvic floor exercise regimen. Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23:48-53 pubmed
  39. MacDiarmid S. Overactive bladder: improving the efficacy of anticholinergics by dose escalation. Curr Urol Rep. 2003;4:446-51 pubmed
    ..This paper critically evaluates the pros and cons of dose escalation in the hope to improve efficacy in patients with OAB...
  40. Scott L, Leddy M, Bernay F, Davot J. Evaluation of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch. J Small Anim Pract. 2002;43:493-6 pubmed
    In a multicentre, blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 50 dogs were treated for 28 days with either phenylpropanolamine or a placebo control...
  41. Homma Y, Kawabe K. Health-related quality of life of Japanese patients with overactive bladder treated with extended-release tolterodine or immediate-release oxybutynin: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. World J Urol. 2004;22:251-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Japanese OAB patients receiving tolterodine ER or oxybutynin experienced overall improvement in their quality of life...
  42. Barst R, Abenhaim L. Fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with phenylpropanolamine exposure. Heart. 2004;90:e42 pubmed
    ..increased risk for the development of PAH with exposure to over-the-counter antiobesity agents containing phenylpropanolamine. The first case is reported of fatal PAH in a child heavily treated with cold remedies containing ..
  43. Malone Lee J, Shaffu B, Anand C, Powell C. Tolterodine: superior tolerability than and comparable efficacy to oxybutynin in individuals 50 years old or older with overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol. 2001;165:1452-6 pubmed
  44. Toennes S, Kauert G. Excretion and detection of cathinone, cathine, and phenylpropanolamine in urine after kath chewing. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1715-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a study with kath was carried out to compare the efficiencies of different analytical techniques used to detect drug use...
  45. Kelleher C, Kreder K, Pleil A, Burgess S, Reese P. Long-term health-related quality of life of patients receiving extended-release tolterodine for overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care. 2002;8:S616-30 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the long-term effects of tolterodine on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients diagnosed with overactive bladder with incontinence...
  46. Womack K, Heilman K. Tolterodine and memory: dry but forgetful. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:771-3 pubmed
    ..Anticholinergic drugs are known to produce or enhance cognitive deficits. Tolterodine tartrate is marketed as a bladder-selective anticholinergic drug that is reported to be free of significant cognitive adverse effects...
  47. Toennes S, Harder S, Schramm M, Niess C, Kauert G. Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56:125-30 pubmed
    ..The stimulating herbal drug khat is habitually used in East Africa and the Arabian peninsula but is also imported into other countries. The aim was to study the pharmacokinetics of its alkaloids cathinone, cathine and norephedrine...
  48. Diokno A, Appell R, Sand P, Dmochowski R, Gburek B, Klimberg I, et al. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy and tolerability of the extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine for overactive bladder: results of the OPERA trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:687-95 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release formulations of oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in women with overactive bladder...
  49. Tsao J, Heilman K. Transient memory impairment and hallucinations associated with tolterodine use. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2274-5 pubmed
  50. Zheng W, McGinity J. Influence of Eudragit NE 30 D blended with Eudragit L 30 D-55 on the release of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride from coated pellets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2003;29:357-66 pubmed
    ..was to investigate the influence of Eudragit NE 30 D blended with Eudragit L 30 D-55 on the release of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA x HCl) from coated pellets...
  51. Dmochowski R, Sand P, Zinner N, Gittelman M, Davila G, Sanders S. Comparative efficacy and safety of transdermal oxybutynin and oral tolterodine versus placebo in previously treated patients with urge and mixed urinary incontinence. Urology. 2003;62:237-42 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of an oxybutynin transdermal delivery system (OXY-TDS) and oral, long-acting tolterodine (TOL-LA) with placebo in previously treated patients with urge or mixed urinary incontinence...
  52. Appell R, Sand P, Dmochowski R, Anderson R, Zinner N, Lama D, et al. Prospective randomized controlled trial of extended-release oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate in the treatment of overactive bladder: results of the OBJECT Study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:358-63 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin chloride and tolterodine tartrate at 12 weeks in participants with overactive bladder...
  53. Drutz H, Appell R, Gleason D, Klimberg I, Radomski S. Clinical efficacy and safety of tolterodine compared to oxybutynin and placebo in patients with overactive bladder. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1999;10:283-9 pubmed
    ..Tolterodine has equivalent efficacy to oxybutynin, but with less severe adverse effects. This will allow patients to receive more effective treatment for their condition, with better compliance...