nadolol

Summary

Summary: A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.

Top Publications

  1. Flevari P, Livanis E, Theodorakis G, Zarvalis E, Mesiskli T, Kremastinos D. Vasovagal syncope: a prospective, randomized, crossover evaluation of the effect of propranolol, nadolol and placebo on syncope recurrence and patients' well-being. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:499-504 pubmed
    We sought to assess the relative therapeutic efficacy of propranolol, nadolol and placebo in recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS).
  2. de la Peña J, Brullet E, Sanchez Hernández E, Rivero M, Vergara M, Martin Lorente J, et al. Variceal ligation plus nadolol compared with ligation for prophylaxis of variceal rebleeding: a multicenter trial. Hepatology. 2005;41:572-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of EVL combined with nadolol versus EVL alone as secondary prophylaxis for variceal bleeding...
  3. Beversdorf D, White D, Chever D, Hughes J, Bornstein R. Central beta-adrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility. Neuroreport. 2002;13:2505-7 pubmed
    ..peripherally mediated phenomenon, we compared the effects of propranolol (peripheral and central beta-blocker), nadolol (peripheral beta-blocker), and placebo on anagram task performance...
  4. Romero G, Kravetz D, Argonz J, Vulcano C, Suarez A, Fassio E, et al. Comparative study between nadolol and 5-isosorbide mononitrate vs. endoscopic band ligation plus sclerotherapy in the prevention of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients: a randomized controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24:601-11 pubmed
    ..After variceal bleeding, cirrhotic patients should receive secondary prophylaxis...
  5. Villanueva C, Aracil C, Colomo A, Lopez Balaguer J, Piqueras M, Gonzalez B, et al. Clinical trial: a randomized controlled study on prevention of variceal rebleeding comparing nadolol + ligation vs. hepatic venous pressure gradient-guided pharmacological therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:397-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) monitoring of therapy to prevent variceal rebleeding provides strong prognostic information. Treatment of nonresponders to beta-blockers +/- nitrates has not been clarified...
  6. Garcia Pagan J, Villanueva C, Albillos A, Banares R, Morillas R, Abraldes J, et al. Nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate alone or associated with band ligation in the prevention of recurrent bleeding: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2009;58:1144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was aimed at evaluating this issue in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) and to correlate changes in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) during treatment with clinical outcomes..
  7. Besana A, Wang D, George A, Schwartz P. Nadolol block of Nav1.5 does not explain its efficacy in the long QT syndrome. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;59:249-53 pubmed publisher
    ..are the therapy of choice for the long QT syndrome but their efficacy is not homogeneous: propranolol and nadolol are the most effective, whereas metoprolol is associated with more treatment failures...
  8. Lo G, Chen W, Chen M, Hsu P, Lin C, Tsai W, et al. Banding ligation versus nadolol and isosorbide mononitrate for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:728-34 pubmed
    ..beta-blockers and banding ligation are effective in the prevention of variceal rebleeding. However, the relative efficacy and safety remains unresolved...
  9. Merkel C, Marin R, Angeli P, Zanella P, Felder M, Bernardinello E, et al. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of nadolol in the prophylaxis of growth of small esophageal varices in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:476-84 pubmed
    ..Beta-blockers are extensively used to prevent variceal bleeding in patients with large esophageal varices. It is not established if beta-blockers delay the growth of small varices...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lo G, Chen W, Chen M, Lin C, Lo C, Hsu P, et al. Endoscopic ligation vs. nadolol in the prevention of first variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;59:333-8 pubmed
    ..This study compared the efficacy and safety of band ligation vs. treatment with a beta-blocker for the prophylactic prevention of first bleeding in patients with cirrhosis and high-risk esophageal varices...
  2. Berzigotti A, Rinaldi M, Magalotti D, Morelli M, Zappoli P, Andreone P, et al. Primary prophylaxis with nadolol in cirrhotic patients: Doppler patterns of splanchnic hemodynamics in good and poor responders. J Hepatol. 2006;44:310-6 pubmed
    We aimed to characterize by echo-color-Doppler the splanchnic hemodynamics of patients good and poor responders to primary prophylaxis with nadolol.
  3. Lo G, Lai K, Cheng J, Chen M, Huang H, Hsu P, et al. Endoscopic variceal ligation plus nadolol and sucralfate compared with ligation alone for the prevention of variceal rebleeding: a prospective, randomized trial. Hepatology. 2000;32:461-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, nadolol was administered during the course of the study or until death...
  4. Inama G, Durin O, Pedrinazzi C, Berisso M, Furlanello F. 'Orphan drugs' in cardiology: nadolol and quinidine. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2010;11:143-4 pubmed publisher
    The recent withdrawal from the market of nadolol (Corgard; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Sermoneta, Italy) and quinidine polygalacturonate (Ritmocor; Malesci, Bagno A Ripoli, Italy) has been causing clinical problems to many cardiologists and ..
  5. Goldberg M, Sciberras D, De Smet M, Lowry R, Tomasko L, Lee Y, et al. Influence of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the pharmacokinetics of rizatriptan, a 5-HT1B/1D agonist: differential effects of propranolol, nadolol and metoprolol. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;52:69-76 pubmed
    ..The present studies investigated the potential for pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction between beta-adrenoceptor blockers and rizatriptan...
  6. Villanueva C, Minana J, Ortiz J, Gallego A, Soriano G, Torras X, et al. Endoscopic ligation compared with combined treatment with nadolol and isosorbide mononitrate to prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:647-55 pubmed
    ..We compared two treatments to prevent recurrent bleeding--endoscopic ligation and combined medical therapy with nadolol and isosorbide mononitrate.
  7. Lo G, Chen W, Wang H, Lee C. Controlled trial of ligation plus nadolol versus nadolol alone for the prevention of first variceal bleeding. Hepatology. 2010;52:230-7 pubmed publisher
    Both nadolol and ligation have proved to be effective in the prophylaxis of first variceal bleeding. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects and safety of combining nadolol with ligation...
  8. Mizuno K, Kurokawa K, Shibasaki M, Ohkuma S. ??-adrenergic receptor up-regulation induced by nadolol is mediated via signal transduction pathway coupled to ??-adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 2011;1414:10-21 pubmed publisher
    ..to clarify mechanisms of ?-AR up-regulation using mouse cerebral cortical neurons continuously exposed to nadolol (10 nM), a non-selective ?-AR antagonist, for 24 h...
  9. Sarin S, Wadhawan M, Gupta R, Shahi H. Evaluation of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) versus propanolol plus isosorbide mononitrate/nadolol (ISMN) in the prevention of variceal rebleeding: comparison of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:1538-47 pubmed
    ..However, in view of the small number of NCPH patients, further studies are needed before this can be stated conclusively...
  10. Hanania N, Singh S, El Wali R, Flashner M, Franklin A, GARNER W, et al. The safety and effects of the beta-blocker, nadolol, in mild asthma: an open-label pilot study. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008;21:134-41 pubmed
    ..open-label, pilot study, we evaluated the safety and effects of escalating doses of the beta-blocker, nadolol, administered over 9 weeks to 10 subjects with mild asthma...
  11. Garcia Monco J, Foncea N, Bilbao A, Ruiz de Velasco I, Gomez Beldarrain M. Impact of preventive therapy with nadolol and topiramate on the quality of life of migraine patients. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:920-8 pubmed
    ..We aimed to evaluate the impact of preventive therapy with two widely employed drugs (topiramate and nadolol) on the quality of life of migraine patients...
  12. Sung J, Nguyen N, Park M, Lee S, Lee Y, Choi S, et al. Preparation of 2R, 3S, 2'R-nadolol enantiomer using S-(-)-menthyl chloroformate as a chiral derivatizing reagent. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:1301-6 pubmed publisher
    Stereoisomers of nadolol were derivatized with S-(-)-menthyl chloroformate((-)-MCF) forming their diastereomers, RSR-nadolol-(-)-MCF, SRS-nadolol-(-)-MCF, RRS-nadolol-(-)-MCF and SSRnadolol-(-)-MCF...
  13. Pongratz G, Härle P, Schnellinger G, Janele D, Scholmerich J, Straub R. Norepinephrine in mice inhibits secretion of splenic IL-6 during the dark period but stimulates its secretion in the light period--possible role of the corticosterone tone. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;158:120-7 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that cooperation of endogenous NE and corticosterone are involved in a time-dependent fall or rise of splenic IL-6 secretion...
  14. Schwartz P. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of the congenital long QT syndrome: the rationale. Pharmacol Ther. 2011;131:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5-1% over 20 years. The initial treatment should always involve ?-blockers, with propranolol and nadolol being the two most effective ones...
  15. Massarsky A, Trudeau V, Moon T. ?-blockers as endocrine disruptors: the potential effects of human ?-blockers on aquatic organisms. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2011;315:251-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The main conclusion is that ?-blockers have endocrine-disrupting effects...
  16. Standifer K, Pitha J, Baker S. Carbostyril-based beta-adrenergic agonists: evidence for long lasting or apparent irreversible receptor binding and activation of adenylate cyclase activity in vitro. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1989;339:129-37 pubmed
    ..The beta-antagonist nadolol largely prevented the receptor reduction induced by the carbostyril compounds...
  17. Okada D, Okada R, Bonow R. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade causing severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction during dobutamine stress echocardiography in a patient with no structural heart disease. Echocardiography. 2012;29:E39-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This case suggests that DSE wall motion response may be falsely abnormal in a patient on beta-blockers. Physicians should be aware of this possibility when interpreting dobutamine echocardiography in patients taking beta-blockers...
  18. Huggett D, Khan I, Foran C, Schlenk D. Determination of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking pharmaceuticals in United States wastewater effluent. Environ Pollut. 2003;121:199-205 pubmed
    ..from treatment facilities in Mississippi, Texas, and New York to investigate the occurrence of metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol...
  19. Gracia Naya M, Huerta Villanueva M, Rios C, Garcia Gomara M, Artal Roy J, Sanchez Valiente S, et al. [A study to compare independent groups of patients with episodic migraine who were treated preventively with flunarizine or nadolol]. Rev Neurol. 2012;54:277-83 pubmed
    INTRODUCTION. Flunarizine, with level of evidence A, and nadolol, with evidence level C, would be indicated as preventive treatment of migraine. Yet, no previous studies have been conducted to compare the effectiveness of the two drugs...
  20. Hodgson D, Yirmiya R, Chiappelli F, Taylor A. Intracerebral interleukin-1beta impairs response to tumor invasion: involvement of adrenal catecholamines. Brain Res. 1999;816:200-8 pubmed
    ..The effect of IL-1beta on lung clearance was blocked by pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic antagonist, nadolol (0.5 mg/kg), but not by the alpha-antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg)...
  21. Nguyen L, Singh B, Okulate A, Alfaro V, Tuvim M, Dickey B, et al. Complementary anti-inflammatory effects of a ?-blocker and a corticosteroid in an asthma model. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of co-administration of dexamethasone, a glucocorticosteroid, and nadolol, a ??-inverse agonist, in a murine asthma model...
  22. Blendis L, Wong F. Prevention of varices rebleeding: are drugs better after all?. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:832-3 pubmed
  23. Lo G, Chen W, Chan H, Tsai W, Hsu P, Lin C, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of banding ligation plus drug therapy versus drug therapy alone in the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:982-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relative efficacy and safety of the combined treatment for preventing rebleeding remains unresolved...
  24. Naor R, Domankevich V, Shemer S, Sominsky L, Rosenne E, Levi B, et al. Metastatic-promoting effects of LPS: sexual dimorphism and mediation by catecholamines and prostaglandins. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23:611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..001-1mg/kg i.v.) simultaneously with tumor cell inoculation, and treated with a beta-blocker (nadolol, 0.2-0.3mg/kg s.c.), a COX inhibitor (indomethacin, 4mg/kg s.c.) or both drugs...
  25. Kaan S, Cho C. Study of propranolol and its related adrenoceptor antagonists on changes of gastric electrical parameters induced by ethanol in rats. Pharmacology. 1999;58:8-14 pubmed
    ..Nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blocker, nadolol but not the beta- and alpha-adrenoceptor blocker, labetalol, also significantly preserved the decrease of PD ..
  26. Gonzalez A, Augustin S, Dot J, Perez M, Abu Suboh M, Romero A, et al. Adding banding ligation is effective as rescue therapy to prevent variceal rebleeding in haemodynamic non-responders to pharmacological therapy. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unknown which is the best therapy to treat haemodynamic non-responders to pharmacological therapy after variceal bleeding...
  27. Phillips J, Krist A. Beta-blockers no better than placebo in the treatment of vasovagal syncope. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:921 pubmed
  28. Mann N. Nadolol versus band ligation for prevention of variceal bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60:1036-7; author reply 1037 pubmed
  29. Horinouchi T, Koike K. Functional properties of atypical beta-adrenoceptors on the guinea pig duodenum. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;416:153-63 pubmed
    ..Propranolol and (+/-)-bupranolol had no agonistic effect, whereas (+/-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-nadolol, (+/-)-CGP12177A and (+/-)-carteolol exhibited agonistic activities at atypical beta-adrenoceptors...
  30. Curtin N, Mills K, Connor T. Psychological stress increases expression of IL-10 and its homolog IL-19 via beta-adrenoceptor activation: reversal by the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, pre-treatment of mice with the peripherally acting beta-adrenoceptor antagonist nadolol completely blocked the stress-induced increase in IL-10 and IL-19 mRNA expression...
  31. Misaka S, Knop J, Singer K, Hoier E, Keiser M, Müller F, et al. The Nonmetabolized β-Blocker Nadolol Is a Substrate of OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K, and P-Glycoprotein, but Not of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Mol Pharm. 2016;13:512-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Nadolol is a nonmetabolized β-adrenoceptor antagonist and is a substrate of OATP1A2, but not of OATP2B1. However, other drug transporters involved in translocation of nadolol have not been characterized in detail...
  32. Dang V, Medina B, Das D, Moghadam S, Martin K, Lin B, et al. Formoterol, a long-acting ?2 adrenergic agonist, improves cognitive function and promotes dendritic complexity in a mouse model of Down syndrome. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied whether drugs already available for use in humans can be used to improve cognitive function in these mice...
  33. Avraham R, Benish M, Inbar S, Bartal I, Rosenne E, Ben Eliyahu S. Synergism between immunostimulation and prevention of surgery-induced immune suppression: an approach to reduce post-operative tumor progression. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:952-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested the hypothesis that integration of peri-operative immunostimulation and blockade of immunosuppression could synergistically improve post-operative anti-metastatic immunity and long-term survival...
  34. Krahn A, Yee R, Chauhan V, Skanes A, Wang J, Hegele R, et al. Beta blockers normalize QT hysteresis in long QT syndrome. Am Heart J. 2002;143:528-34 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to evaluate the impact of beta blockers on QT adaptation to heart rate during the exercise and recovery phases of exercise testing in long QT syndrome...
  35. Lo G, Chen W, Lin C, Tsai W, Chan H, Chen T, et al. Improved survival in patients receiving medical therapy as compared with banding ligation for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. Hepatology. 2008;48:580-7 pubmed publisher
    ..history of esophageal variceal bleeding and randomized to receive EVL (EVL group, 60 patients) or drug therapy, nadolol plus isosorbide-5-mononitrate (N+I) (N+I group, 61 patients) to prevent variceal rebleeding...
  36. Fazio G, Novo G, Sutera L, Di Gesaro G, Fazio M, D Angelo L, et al. Sympathetic tone and ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2008;9:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequency domain analyses of the heart rate can be useful to understand autonomic system balance. Therefore we performed this evaluation on a sample of seven children affected by idiopathic monomorphic ventricular tachycardia...
  37. Kelley S, Moynihan J, Stevens S, Grota L, Felten D. Chemical sympathectomy has no effect on the severity of murine AIDS: murine AIDS alone depletes norepinephrine levels in infected spleen. Brain Behav Immun. 2002;16:118-39 pubmed
    ..We tested whether blocking SNS activity using 6-OHDA or the beta-receptor antagonist nadolol alters the typical pattern in production of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines seen in cultures of spleen cells ..
  38. Lin Y, Lai L, Lin T, Lin J. Exercise-provoked bidirectional ventricular tachycardia in a young woman. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004;103:780-3 pubmed
    ..Some cases of CPVT are sporadic and some occur in patients with a family history. The treatment of choice for this disease is beta-blocker and implantation of an internal cardioverter defibrillator...
  39. Fagundes A, DE Magalhaes L, Russo M, Xavier E. Pharmacological treatment of electrical storm in cathecolaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33:e27-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient underwent an electrical storm with multiple shocks and serious compromise of quality of life and risk. The pharmacological options are discussed as well as the strategies of managing ventricular arrhythmias in CPVT...
  40. Mori T, Hashimoto A. Direct positive chronotropic action by angiotensin II in the isolated mouse atrium. Life Sci. 2006;79:637-40 pubmed
    ..selective AT1-receptor antagonist, losartan at concentrations of 10(-6) M, but not by the selective beta-blocker, nadolol at concentration of 10(-5) M...
  41. Smalley J, Kadiyala P, Xin B, Balimane P, Olah T. Development of an on-line extraction turbulent flow chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for cassette analysis of Caco-2 cell based bi-directional assay samples. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006;830:270-7 pubmed
    ..rhodamine 123, dexamethasone, and verapamil and non-substrates: metoprolol, sulfasalazine, propranolol, nadolol, and furosemide) were prepared in a cassette mode (ten-in-one) while Caco-2 cell incubations were performed both ..
  42. Marra S, Hoffman Goetz L. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade during exercise decreases intestinal lymphocyte apoptosis but not cell loss in mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004;82:465-73 pubmed
    ..Mice received an intraperitoneal injection of phentolamine (a nonselective alpha-blocker), nadolol (a nonselective beta-blocker), or saline (vehicle) prior to an exhaustive bout of exercise...
  43. Villanueva C, López Balaguer J, Aracil C, Kolle L, Gonzalez B, Minana J, et al. Maintenance of hemodynamic response to treatment for portal hypertension and influence on complications of cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2004;40:757-65 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the long-term maintenance of hemodynamic response and its influence on complications of cirrhosis...
  44. Vegas O, Garmendia L, Arregi A, Beitia G, Azpiroz A. Effects of antalarmin and nadolol on the relationship between social stress and pulmonary metastasis development in male OF1 mice. Behav Brain Res. 2009;205:200-6 pubmed publisher
    ..later, tumor-bearing mice were inoculated with antalarmin (a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist), nadolol (a beta-adrenergic antagonist) or vehicle...
  45. Jaskari T, Vuorio M, Kontturi K, Manzanares J, Hirvonen J. Ion-exchange fibers and drugs: an equilibrium study. J Control Release. 2001;70:219-29 pubmed
    ..of the fibers were: (i) the lipophilicity of the drug (tacrine and propranolol are lipophilic compounds, nadolol is a relatively hydrophilic molecule), (ii) the ion-exchange capacity of the fibers, which was increased by ..
  46. Laleman W, Nevens F. Cirrhotic portal hypertension: current and future medical therapy for primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding. Minerva Med. 2006;97:325-45 pubmed
    ..This review covers current and future developments in the treatment of PHT with regard to primary and secondary prophylaxis...
  47. Cohen H, Kaplan Z, Koresh O, Matar M, Geva A, Zohar J. Early post-stressor intervention with propranolol is ineffective in preventing posttraumatic stress responses in an animal model for PTSD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Traumatic stress-related processes appear to be affected differently than the others...
  48. Eijkelkamp N, Engeland C, Gajendrareddy P, Marucha P. Restraint stress impairs early wound healing in mice via alpha-adrenergic but not beta-adrenergic receptors. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:409-12 pubmed
    ..Prior to RST, mice were injected with either phentolamine or nadolol: non-specific alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, respectively...
  49. Misaka S, Miyazaki N, Yatabe M, Ono T, Shikama Y, Fukushima T, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of nadolol with itraconazole, rifampicin and grapefruit juice in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53:738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a hydrophilic non-selective ?-adrenoceptor blocker nadolol, we conducted an open-label, four-way crossover study in 10 healthy male volunteers...
  50. Schramm M, Everitt B, Milton A. Bidirectional Modulation of Alcohol-Associated Memory Reconsolidation through Manipulation of Adrenergic Signaling. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41:1103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the importance of adrenergic signaling in alcohol-associated memory reconsolidation, and suggest a pharmacological target for treatments aiming to prevent relapse through the disruption of maladaptive memories. ..
  51. Luther R, Glassman H, Jordan D. A comparison of carteolol and nadolol in the treatment of stable angina pectoris. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;28:634-9 pubmed
    ..diagnosed as having stable angina pectoris were randomly assigned to treatment with carteolol (33 patients) or nadolol (30 patients)...
  52. Sandor P, Morath G, Hess K, Kaube H, Agosti R, Regard M. Prosopagnosia as symptom of migraine with aura: a case report. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:345-8 pubmed
  53. Bhaskar M. Management of cirrhosis and ascites. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:300-1; author reply 300-1 pubmed