Summary: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.

Top Publications

  1. Ito H, Nagatomo Y, Kohno T, Anzai T, Meguro T, Ogawa S, et al. Differential effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on renal function in patients with heart failure. Circ J. 2010;74:1578-83 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of beta-blockers on renal function in patients with heart failure (HF)...
  2. Serpi R, Tolonen A, Tenhunen O, Pieviläinen O, Kubin A, Vaskivuo T, et al. Divergent effects of losartan and metoprolol on cardiac remodeling, c-kit+ cells, proliferation and apoptosis in the left ventricle after myocardial infarction. Clin Transl Sci. 2009;2:422-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and a beta-blocker metoprolol on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, c-kit+ cells, proliferation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis using a ..
  3. Nair A, Vyas H, Shah J, Kumar A. Effect of permeation enhancers on the iontophoretic transport of metoprolol tartrate and the drug retention in skin. Drug Deliv. 2011;18:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A systematic approach to enhance the transdermal delivery of metoprolol tartrate and the subsequent release of the drug depot in the skin was investigated...
  4. Kveiborg B, Hermann T, Major Pedersen A, Christiansen B, Rask Madsen C, Raunsø J, et al. Metoprolol compared to carvedilol deteriorates insulin-stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes - a randomized study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:21 pubmed publisher
    Studies of beta blockade in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown inferiority of metoprolol treatment compared to carvedilol on indices of insulin resistance...
  5. Ma R, Yu J, Xu D, Yang L, Lin X, Zhao F, et al. Effect of felodipine with irbesartan or metoprolol on sexual function and oxidative stress in women with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2012;30:210-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the impact of felodipine with irbesartan on sexual function compared with felodipine with metoprolol in hypertensive women.
  6. Salameh A, Blanke K, Dhein S, Janousek J. Cardiac gap junction channels are upregulated by metoprolol: an unexpected effect of beta-blockers. Pharmacology. 2010;85:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..have been shown to affect cardiac gap junction channels, we wanted to elucidate the possible effect of metoprolol on the gap junction protein connexin-43, using racemic RS-metoprolol or the isomer R-metoprolol (no beta-..
  7. Falskov B, Hermann T, Raunsø J, Christiansen B, Rask Madsen C, Major Pedersen A, et al. Endothelial function is unaffected by changing between carvedilol and metoprolol in patients with heart failure--a randomized study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:91 pubmed publisher
    Carvedilol has been shown to be superior to metoprolol tartrate to improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), yet the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain unclear...
  8. Bauer R, Blain A, Greally E, Bushby K, Lochmuller H, Laval S, et al. Intolerance to ß-blockade in a mouse model of ?-sarcoglycan-deficient muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail. 2010;12:1163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with mutations predisposing to cardiomyopathy often have routine assessments of left ventricular function. It is unclear whether asymptomatic mild cardiomyopathy should be treated with standard heart failure therapies...
  9. Edwards J, Goodman S, Yan R, Welsh R, Kornder J, Deyoung J, et al. Has the ClOpidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial (COMMIT) of early ?-blocker use in acute coronary syndromes impacted on clinical practice in Canada? Insights from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). Am Heart J. 2011;161:291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to assess the short-term impact of this landmark trial by comparing the use of early BB therapy in patients with a broad spectrum of ACS before and after 2005...

More Information


  1. Yoon I, Choi M, Kim J, Shim C, Chung S, Kim D. Pharmacokinetics and first-pass elimination of metoprolol in rats: contribution of intestinal first-pass extraction to low bioavailability of metoprolol. Xenobiotica. 2011;41:243-51 pubmed publisher
    1. The pharmacokinetics of metoprolol after intravenous (IV) (0...
  2. Moltzer E, Mattace Raso F, Karamermer Y, Boersma E, Webb G, Simoons M, et al. Comparison of Candesartan versus Metoprolol for treatment of systemic hypertension after repaired aortic coarctation. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105:217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the effect of candesartan (angiotensin II receptor blockade) and metoprolol (beta-adrenergic receptor blockade) on blood pressure, large artery stiffness, and neurohormonal status in ..
  3. Fasullo S, Cannizzaro S, Maringhini G, Ganci F, Giambanco F, Vitale G, et al. Comparison of ivabradine versus metoprolol in early phases of reperfused anterior myocardial infarction with impaired left ventricular function: preliminary findings. J Card Fail. 2009;15:856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The study investigates the feasibility, tolerability, and the effects after 30 days of follow-up of ivabradine (IVA) versus metoprolol (METO) in early phases of anterior STEMI reperfused by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
  4. Phale M, Hamrapurkar P. Optimization and establishment of a validated stability-indicating HPLC method for study of the stress degradation behavior of metoprolol succinate. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:911-6 pubmed
    A stability-indicating HPLC method has been established for analysis of metoprolol succinate in the presence of products generated in a stress degradation study...
  5. Ablad B, Bjurö T, Björkman J, Brax O, Ewaldsson L, Forshult E, et al. Metoprolol, but not atenolol, reduces stress induced neuropeptide Y release in pigs. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2010;44:273-8 pubmed publisher
    To explore if ?-adrenergic receptors in the brain are involved in acute and delayed cardiovascular responses to a brief emotional stress, by comparing the effects of the ?1-blockers metoprolol (lipophilic) and atenolol (hydrophilic).
  6. Kampus P, Serg M, Kals J, Zagura M, Muda P, Karu K, et al. Differential effects of nebivolol and metoprolol on central aortic pressure and left ventricular wall thickness. Hypertension. 2011;57:1122-8 pubmed publisher was to investigate the effects of the vasodilating ?-blocker nebivolol and the cardioselective ?-blocker metoprolol succinate on aortic blood pressure and left ventricular wall thickness...
  7. Li Y, Shi J, Yang B, Liu L, Han C, Li W, et al. Ketamine-induced ventricular structural, sympathetic and electrophysiological remodelling: pathological consequences and protective effects of metoprolol. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:1748-1756 pubmed publisher
    Growing evidence suggests that long-term abuse of ketamine does harm the heart and increases the risk of sudden death. The present study was performed to explore the cardiotoxicity of ketamine and the protective effects of metoprolol.
  8. Georgakopoulos P, Roussou P, Matsakas E, Karavidas A, Anagnostopoulos N, Marinakis T, et al. Cardioprotective effect of metoprolol and enalapril in doxorubicin-treated lymphoma patients: a prospective, parallel-group, randomized, controlled study with 36-month follow-up. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:894-6 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical or subclinical cardiotoxicity in lymphoma patients after concomitant prophylactic therapy with metoprolol or enalapril or no concomitant treatment...
  9. van den Brandhof E, Montforts M. Fish embryo toxicity of carbamazepine, diclofenac and metoprolol. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:1862-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this FET test 2-h-old zebrafish embryos were exposed for 72 h to carbamazepine, diclofenac and metoprolol to observe effects on embryo mortality, gastrulation, somite formation, tail movement and detachment, ..
  10. Heffernan K, Suryadevara R, Patvardhan E, Mooney P, Karas R, Kuvin J. Effect of atenolol vs metoprolol succinate on vascular function in patients with hypertension. Clin Cardiol. 2011;34:39-44 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of atenolol vs metoprolol succinate on vascular function in patients with essential hypertension.
  11. Lu Y, Li L, Zhao X, Huang W, Wen W. Beta blocker metoprolol protects against contractile dysfunction in rats after coronary microembolization by regulating expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines. Life Sci. 2011;88:1009-15 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effects of metoprolol on expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines and myocardial function in rats following coronary microembolization (CME).
  12. Browne A, Harvey M, Cave G. Intravenous lipid emulsion does not augment blood pressure recovery in a rabbit model of metoprolol toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of ILE on haemodynamic recovery following induction of hypotension with the relatively hydrophilic ?-blocker, metoprolol. Twenty sedated, invasively monitored and mechanically ventilated adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent ..
  13. Price A, Raheja P, Wang Z, Arbique D, Adams Huet B, Mitchell J, et al. Differential effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on functional sympatholysis in hypertensive humans. Hypertension. 2013;61:1263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pressure at rest, and during rhythmic handgrip exercise at baseline, after 12 weeks of nebivolol (5-20 mg/d) or metoprolol (100-300 mg/d), using a double-blind crossover design...
  14. Pizarro G, Fernandez Friera L, Fuster V, Fernández Jiménez R, Garcia Ruiz J, Garcia Alvarez A, et al. Long-term benefit of early pre-reperfusion metoprolol administration in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the METOCARD-CNIC trial (Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:2356-62 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this trial was to study the long-term effects of intravenous (IV) metoprolol administration before reperfusion on left ventricular (LV) function and clinical events.
  15. Kumaravelrajan R, Narayanan N, Suba V, Bhaskar K. Simultaneous delivery of Nifedipine and Metoprolol tartarate using sandwiched osmotic pump tablet system. Int J Pharm. 2010;399:60-70 pubmed publisher
    The sandwiched osmotic tablet system that could deliver Nifedipine and Metoprolol tartarate simultaneously for extended period of time was developed in order to reduce the problems associated with multidrug therapy of hypertension...
  16. Kandavar R, Higashi Y, Chen W, Blackstock C, Vaughn C, Sukhanov S, et al. The effect of nebivolol versus metoprolol succinate extended release on asymmetric dimethylarginine in hypertension. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2011;5:161-5 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to determine if metoprolol succinate ER (MET), and nebivolol (NEB), a ?1-AR with increased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), would have differing effects on plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration in ..
  17. Ostling G, Goncalves I, Wikstrand J, Berglund G, Nilsson J, Hedblad B. Long-term treatment with low-dose metoprolol CR/XL is associated with increased plaque echogenicity: the Beta-blocker Cholesterol-lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS). Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:440-5 pubmed publisher
    To examine whether the decrease in IMT progression rate in the carotid bulb induced by metoprolol CR/XL treatment (25mg once daily) observed in the ?-blocker Cholesterol-lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS) was accompanied by an ..
  18. Dhein S, Rothe S, Busch A, Rojas Gomez D, Boldt A, Reutemann A, et al. Effects of metoprolol therapy on cardiac gap junction remodelling and conduction in human chronic atrial fibrillation. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:607-16 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the influence of metoprolol on gap junction proteins connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin40 (Cx40) in atrial tissue from patients with/without atrial fibrillation (AF).
  19. Shahzamani M, Ghanavati A, Froutagheh A, Foroughi M, Rahimian H, Shahsanaei A, et al. Carvedilol compared with metoprolol on left ventricular ejection fraction after coronary artery bypass graft. J Perianesth Nurs. 2011;26:384-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to compare the effect of postoperative oral carvedilol versus metoprolol on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after CABG compared with metoprolol...
  20. Sharma A, Pibarot P, Pilote S, Dumesnil J, Arsenault M, Bélanger P, et al. Toward optimal treatment in women: the effect of sex on metoprolol-diphenhydramine interaction. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:214-25 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to determine if sex influences the pharmacokinetics and hemodynamics of the CYP2D6 substrate metoprolol and its interaction with diphenhydramine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) in healthy young participants with high (extensive ..
  21. Baranowska I, Wilczek A. Simultaneous RP-HPLC determination of sotalol, metoprolol, alpha-hydroxymetoprolol, paracetamol and its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites in human urine. Anal Sci. 2009;25:769-72 pubmed
    The HPLC method for the determination of sotalol (SOT), metoprolol (MET) and alpha-hydroxymetoprolol metabolite (MET-H), paracetamol (PAR), paracetamol glucuronide (PAR-G) and paracetamol sulfate (PAR-S) in human urine is described...
  22. Ibanez B, Cimmino G, Prat Gonzalez S, Vilahur G, Hutter R, Garcia M, et al. The cardioprotection granted by metoprolol is restricted to its administration prior to coronary reperfusion. Int J Cardiol. 2011;147:428-32 pubmed publisher
    Myocardial infarct size is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. Intravenous metoprolol before coronary reperfusion has been shown to reduce infarct size; however, it is unknown whether oral metoprolol initiated early after ..
  23. Ayers K, Byrne L, Dematteo A, Brown N. Differential effects of nebivolol and metoprolol on insulin sensitivity and plasminogen activator inhibitor in the metabolic syndrome. Hypertension. 2012;59:893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the effect of nebivolol (5 mg/d) and the ?(1)-selective antagonist metoprolol (100 mg/d) on glucose homeostasis and markers of fibrinolysis in 46 subjects with metabolic syndrome...
  24. Dinicolantonio J, Lavie C, Fares H, Menezes A, O Keefe J. Meta-analysis of carvedilol versus beta 1 selective beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol). Am J Cardiol. 2013;111:765-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of randomized, controlled, direct-comparison trials that included adults receiving atenolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, nebivolol, or carvedilol to evaluate the effects of carvedilol compared to other BBs on mortality, ..
  25. Ibanez B, Macaya C, Sánchez Brunete V, Pizarro G, Fernandez Friera L, Mateos A, et al. Effect of early metoprolol on infarct size in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction (METOCARD-CNIC. Circulation. 2013;128:1495-503 pubmed publisher
    The effect of ?-blockers on infarct size when used in conjunction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is unknown. We hypothesize that metoprolol reduces infarct size when administered early (intravenously before reperfusion).
  26. Sen N, Tavil Y, Erdamar H, Yazici H, Cakir E, Akgul E, et al. Nebivolol therapy improves endothelial function and increases exercise tolerance in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2009;9:371-9 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether nebivolol affects coronary endothelial function and exercise induced ischemia in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX)...
  27. Incecayir T, Tsume Y, Amidon G. Comparison of the permeability of metoprolol and labetalol in rat, mouse, and Caco-2 cells: use as a reference standard for BCS classification. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:958-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers...
  28. Cotarlan V, Brofferio A, Gerhard G, Chu X, Shirani J. Impact of ?(1)- and ?(2)-adrenergic receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms on heart rate response to metoprolol prior to coronary computed tomographic angiography. Am J Cardiol. 2013;111:661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the ?(1) (codons 49 and 389) and ?(2) (codons 16, 27, and 164) adrenergic receptor (AR) genes on HR response to metoprolol in 200 adults (mean age 56 ± 11 years) referred for coronary computed tomographic angiography (using a 64-slice ..
  29. Ozaydin M, Icli A, Yucel H, Akcay S, Peker O, Erdogan D, et al. Metoprolol vs. carvedilol or carvedilol plus N-acetyl cysteine on post-operative atrial fibrillation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:597-604 pubmed publisher
    Carvedilol and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim was to evaluate the efficacy of metoprolol, carvedilol, and carvedilol plus NAC on the prevention of post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF).
  30. Jiang Q, Yuan H, Xing X, Liu J, Huang Z, Du X. Methylation of adrenergic ?1 receptor is a potential epigenetic mechanism controlling antihypertensive response to metoprolol. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2011;48:301-7 pubmed
    Although metoprolol is used to treat hypertension, clinical responses are variable and unpredictable...
  31. Parker R, Soberman J. Effects of paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of immediate-release and extended-release metoprolol. Pharmacotherapy. 2011;31:630-41 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effects of paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) formulations of metoprolol.
  32. Espinola Klein C, Weisser G, Jagodzinski A, Savvidis S, Warnholtz A, Ostad M, et al. ?-Blockers in patients with intermittent claudication and arterial hypertension: results from the nebivolol or metoprolol in arterial occlusive disease trial. Hypertension. 2011;58:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects and tolerability of nebivolol in comparison with metoprolol in these patients...
  33. Wang Y, Liu J, Suo F, Hu H, Xue M, Cheng W, et al. Metoprolol-mediated amelioration of sympathetic nerve sprouting after myocardial infarction. Cardiology. 2013;126:50-8 pubmed publisher
    Systemic or local inflammation causes cardiac nerve sprouting and consequent arrhythmia. Metoprolol can prevent sympathetic nerve remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI), but the underlying mechanism is unclear...
  34. Petersen M, Andersen J, Jimenez Solem E, Broedbaek K, Hjelvang B, Henriksen T, et al. Effect of the Arg389Gly ??-adrenoceptor polymorphism on plasma renin activity and heart rate, and the genotype-dependent response to metoprolol treatment. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39:779-85 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphism on plasma renin activity (PRA) and heart rate (HR), as well as genotype-dependent responses to metoprolol and exercise. 2...
  35. Gullestad L, Pernow J, Bjurö T, Aaberge L, Skårdal R, Kjekshus E, et al. Differential effects of metoprolol and atenolol to neuropeptide Y blockade in coronary artery disease. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2012;46:23-31 pubmed publisher
    To explore possible differential effects between metoprolol and atenolol in patients with coronary artery disease.
  36. Wikstrand J, Hjalmarson A, Waagstein F, Fagerberg B, Goldstein S, Kjekshus J, et al. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in chronic heart failure (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:491-8 pubmed
    We performed a post-hoc subgroup analysis in the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Chronic Heart Failure (MERIT-HF) with the aim of reporting on the heart rate (HR) response during the titration phase and clinical outcomes ..
  37. Bakris G, Fonseca V, Katholi R, McGill J, Messerli F, Phillips R, et al. Metabolic effects of carvedilol vs metoprolol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:2227-36 pubmed
    ..Beta-blockers have been shown to decrease cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); however, some components of the metabolic syndrome are worsened by some beta-blockers...
  38. Celik T, Iyisoy A, Acikel C, Yuksel C, Celik M, Yaman H, et al. The comparative effects of metoprolol and perindopril on aortic elasticity in young patients with prehypertension. Blood Press Monit. 2008;13:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to analyze the comparative effects of metoprolol and perindopril on aortic elasticity in young patients with prehypertension after 6 months of therapy.
  39. Haghjoo M, Saravi M, Hashemi M, Hosseini S, Givtaj N, Ghafarinejad M, et al. Optimal beta-blocker for prevention of atrial fibrillation after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: carvedilol versus metoprolol. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:1170-4 pubmed
    ..It has been shown that prophylactic oral beta-blocker administration reduces the incidence of post-CABG AF. However, the optimal beta-blocker has not been identified...
  40. Zhang Y, Wu H, Xia A, Zhu S, Han Q, Yu R. Fluorescence determination of metoprolol in human plasma by trilinear decomposition-based calibration techniques. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:1741-8 pubmed
    In this study a new spectrofluorimetric method for the direct determination of metoprolol in human plasma is presented and discussed...
  41. Narendra C, Srinath M, Prakash Rao B. Development of three layered buccal compact containing metoprolol tartrate by statistical optimization technique. Int J Pharm. 2005;304:102-14 pubmed
    ..and bioadhesive strength in development of three layered buccal compact containing highly water-soluble drug metoprolol tartrate (MT) by statistical optimization technique...
  42. Demircan C, Cikriklar H, Engindeniz Z, Cebicci H, Atar N, Guler V, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of intravenous diltiazem and metoprolol in the management of rapid ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:411-4 pubmed
    To compare the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) diltiazem and metoprolol in the management of rapid ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF).
  43. Maack C, Bohm M, Vlaskin L, Dabew E, Lorenz K, Schäfers H, et al. Partial agonist activity of bucindolol is dependent on the activation state of the human beta1-adrenergic receptor. Circulation. 2003;108:348-53 pubmed
  44. Poole Wilson P, Swedberg K, Cleland J, Di Lenarda A, Hanrath P, Komajda M, et al. Comparison of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure in the Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;362:7-13 pubmed
    ..We aimed to compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcome.
  45. Friedrich M, Dahlof B, Sechtem U, Unger T, Knecht M, Dietz R. Reduction (TELMAR) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension--a prospective, randomised, double-blind comparison of telmisartan with metoprolol over a period of six months rationale and study design. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2003;4:234-43 pubmed
    ..II (Ang II) receptor blocker, telmisartan, on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) compared with the b-blocker, metoprolol, at similar antihypertensive doses...
  46. Vittorio T, Zolty R, Kasper M, Khandwalla R, Hirsh D, Tseng C, et al. Differential effects of carvedilol and metoprolol succinate on plasma norepinephrine release and peak exercise heart rate in subjects with chronic heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2008;13:51-7 pubmed publisher
    Dosing equivalency of carvedilol and metoprolol remains a debate. Degree of beta 1-blockade is best assessed by blunting of the exercise-induced heart rate...
  47. Greenberg B. Nonselective versus selective beta-blockers in the management of chronic heart failure: clinical implications of the carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2004;5 Suppl 1:S10-7 pubmed
    ..The results of the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial indicate that carvedilol, a third-generation, nonselective beta-blocker with additional a-..
  48. Johnson J, Zineh I, Puckett B, McGorray S, Yarandi H, Pauly D. Beta 1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and antihypertensive response to metoprolol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;74:44-52 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that 2 common polymorphisms in the gene for beta(1)-adrenergic receptor are associated with antihypertensive response to metoprolol in patients with uncomplicated hypertension.
  49. Phillips R, Fonseca V, Katholi R, McGill J, Messerli F, Bell D, et al. Demographic analyses of the effects of carvedilol vs metoprolol on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in the Glycemic Effects in Diabetes Mellitus: Carvedilol-Metoprolol Comparison in Hypertensi. J Cardiometab Syndr. 2008;3:211-7 pubmed publisher
    In the Glycemic Effects in Diabetes Mellitus: Carvedilol-Metoprolol Comparison in Hypertensives (GEMINI) trial, carvedilol added to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers had neutral or beneficial ..
  50. Fisher A, Davis M, Jeffery I. Acute delirium induced by metoprolol. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2002;16:161-5 pubmed
    To describe a case of delirium associated with use of metoprolol and to analyse 24 such cases including 22 cases reported to Australian Adverse Drug Reaction Advisory Committee and one case previously published (S...
  51. Nozawa T, Taguchi M, Tahara K, Hashimoto Y, Igarashi N, Nonomura M, et al. Influence of CYP2D6 genotype on metoprolol plasma concentration and beta-adrenergic inhibition during long-term treatment: a comparison with bisoprolol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005;46:713-20 pubmed
    In patients routinely treated with metoprolol, influences of CYP2D6 genotype on the response of heart rate to isoproterenol (IP) were studied at its peak and trough concentrations and were compared with those of bisoprolol...
  52. Pitkänen L, Ranta V, Moilanen H, Urtti A. Binding of betaxolol, metoprolol and oligonucleotides to synthetic and bovine ocular melanin, and prediction of drug binding to melanin in human choroid-retinal pigment epithelium. Pharm Res. 2007;24:2063-70 pubmed
    To characterize the binding of betaxolol, metoprolol and oligonucleotides to synthetic and bovine ocular melanin, and to predict the binding to melanin in human choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
  53. Jin S, Chung H, Chung M, Kim J, Kang J, Woo S, et al. Influence of CYP2D6*10 on the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol in healthy Korean volunteers. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008;33:567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The CYP2D6*10 allele is clinically important in Koreans because of its high frequency in Asians. We investigated whether the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol was altered by the presence of the CYP2D6*10 allele in Korean subjects.