Summary: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.

Top Publications

  1. Saravanan S, Kocarev M, Wilson R, Watkins E, Columb M, Lyons G. Equivalent dose of ephedrine and phenylephrine in the prevention of post-spinal hypotension in Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:95-9 pubmed
    Comparative studies of ephedrine and phenylephrine in prevention of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section have lacked a consensus on dose equivalence...
  2. Ngan Kee W, Lee A, Khaw K, Ng F, Karmakar M, Gin T. A randomized double-blinded comparison of phenylephrine and ephedrine infusion combinations to maintain blood pressure during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: the effects on fetal acid-base status and hemodynamic control. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1295-302 pubmed publisher
    Phenylephrine and ephedrine are both used to maintain arterial blood pressure during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Usually, either drug is given alone but several previous studies have described combining the drugs...
  3. Baba S, Tatsumi M, Ishimori T, Lilien D, Engles J, Wahl R. Effect of nicotine and ephedrine on the accumulation of 18F-FDG in brown adipose tissue. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:981-6 pubmed
    ..This study evaluated the effect of various beta-adrenergic agonists on (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rats using ex vivo biodistribution studies...
  4. Zheng Y, Yang Y, Li Y, Xu L, Wang Y, Guo Z, et al. Ephedrine hydrochloride inhibits PGN-induced inflammatory responses by promoting IL-10 production and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine secretion via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3? pathway. Cell Mol Immunol. 2013;10:330-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ephedrine hydrochloride (EH) is a compound that is widely used in cardiovascular diseases, especially to treat hypotension ..
  5. Carey A, Formosa M, van Every B, Bertovic D, Eikelis N, Lambert G, et al. Ephedrine activates brown adipose tissue in lean but not obese humans. Diabetologia. 2013;56:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, cold-induced BAT activation is impaired in obese humans. To explore the therapeutic potential of BAT, it is essential to determine whether pharmacological agents can activate BAT...
  6. Slocum N, Durrant J, Bailey D, Yoon L, JORDAN H, Barton J, et al. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013;65:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary ..
  7. Zheng Z, Yan T, Chen W, Ye L, Tang L, Liu Z. Pharmacokinetic determination of ephedrine in Herba Ephedrae and Wu Tou Tang decoctions in rats using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Xenobiotica. 2012;42:775-83 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of ephedrine in rat plasma samples. An Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 ?m, 2...
  8. El Hakeem E, Kaki A, Almazrooa A, Al Mansouri N, Alhashemi J. Effects of sitting up for five minutes versus immediately lying down after spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery on fluid and ephedrine requirement; a randomized trial. Can J Anaesth. 2011;58:1083-9 pubmed publisher
    Patient position after spinal anesthesia has had variable effects on blood pressure and ephedrine requirements...
  9. Erkinaro T, Mäkikallio K, Acharya G, Pakkila M, Kavasmaa T, Huhta J, et al. Divergent effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine on cardiovascular hemodynamics of near-term fetal sheep exposed to hypoxemia and maternal hypotension. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:922-8 pubmed
    We hypothesized that the administration of ephedrine and phenylephrine for maternal hypotension modifies cardiovascular hemodynamics in near-term sheep fetuses.

More Information


  1. Faydaci F, Gunaydin B. Different preloading protocols with constant ephedrine infusion in the prevention of hypotension for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2011;62:5-10 pubmed
    ..The operating table was tilted to the left and an IV infusion of ephedrine of 3 mg/min was immediately started and continued until umbilical cord clamping in all groups...
  2. Nissen P, Brassard P, Jørgensen T, Secher N. Phenylephrine but not ephedrine reduces frontal lobe oxygenation following anesthesia-induced hypotension. Neurocrit Care. 2010;12:17-23 pubmed publisher
    Vasopressor agents are used to correct anesthesia-induced hypotension. We describe the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c)O(2)) following anesthesia-induced hypotension.
  3. Gunusen I, Karaman S, Ertugrul V, Firat V. Effects of fluid preload (crystalloid or colloid) compared with crystalloid co-load plus ephedrine infusion on hypotension and neonatal outcome during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010;38:647-53 pubmed
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that ephedrine infusion with crystalloid loading at spinal anaesthesia would reduce hypotension and alter neonatal outcome ..
  4. Magalhães E, Govêia C, de Araújo Ladeira L, Nascimento B, Kluthcouski S. Ephedrine versus phenylephrine: prevention of hypotension during spinal block for cesarean section and effects on the fetus. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2009;59:11-20 pubmed
    ..b>Ephedrine and phenylephrine improve venous return after sympathetic blockade during the spinal block...
  5. Ngan Kee W, Khaw K, Lau T, Ng F, Chui K, Ng K. Randomised double-blinded comparison of phenylephrine vs ephedrine for maintaining blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for non-elective Caesarean section*. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:1319-26 pubmed publisher
    In a randomised, double-blinded study, we compared boluses of phenylephrine 100 microg with ephedrine 10 mg for treating hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg) in 204 patients having non-elective Caesarean section under ..
  6. Ngan Kee W, Khaw K, Tan P, Ng F, Karmakar M. Placental transfer and fetal metabolic effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:506-12 pubmed publisher
    Use of ephedrine in obstetric patients is associated with depression of fetal acid-base status...
  7. Dunnick J, Kissling G, Gerken D, Vallant M, Nyska A. Cardiotoxicity of Ma Huang/caffeine or ephedrine/caffeine in a rodent model system. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:657-64 pubmed
    Ma Huang (equivalent to 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg ephedrine) or ephedrine (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 mg/kg) were administered as one bolus oral dose to male F344 rats with and without caffeine...
  8. Diepvens K, Westerterp K, Westerterp Plantenga M. Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R77-85 pubmed
    ..Tools for obesity management, including caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, since they ..
  9. Li Y, Fu Q, Zhang Q, He L. Preparation and evaluation of uniform-size (-)-ephedrine-imprinted polymeric microspheres by multi-step swelling and suspension polymerization. Anal Sci. 2006;22:1355-60 pubmed
    b>Ephedrine-imprinted polymeric microspheres have been prepared in an aqueous system by multi-step swelling and suspension polymerization, using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as ..
  10. Belyamani L, Azendour H, Elhassouni A, Zidouh S, Atmani M, Kamili N. [Effect of ephedrine on the intubation conditions using rocuronium versus succinylcholine]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2008;27:292-6 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to determine if ephedrine could improve intubating conditions when it is administered before the muscle relaxant (rocuronium and succinylcholine).
  11. Dyer R, Reed A, van Dyk D, Arcache M, Hodges O, Lombard C, et al. Hemodynamic effects of ephedrine, phenylephrine, and the coadministration of phenylephrine with oxytocin during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:753-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared the effects of bolus phenylephrine and ephedrine on maternal cardiac output (CO)...
  12. Osseyran Samper F, Errando C, Plaza Lloret M, Díaz Cambronero O, García Gregorio N, de Andrés Ibáñez J. [Prophylaxis for hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: a randomized trial comparing hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 to ephedrine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2011;58:17-24 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to compare the efficacy of a colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch [HES] 130/0.4) to ephedrine for preventing hypotension.
  13. Ansell R, Wang D, Kuah J. Imprinted polymers for chiral resolution of +/--ephedrine. Part 2: Probing pre-polymerisation equilibria in different solvents by NMR. Analyst. 2008;133:1673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of the pre-polymerisation association of monomer and template for the molecular imprinting of (-)-ephedrine (template) using methacrylic acid (monomer) has been performed using NMR titrations and data analysis with the ..
  14. Lecoq J, Brichant J, Lamy M, Joris J. Norepinephrine and ephedrine do not counteract the increase in cutaneous microcirculation induced by spinal anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 2010;105:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the effect of i.v. norepinephrine and ephedrine on skin perfusion using laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in patients during spinal anaesthesia...
  15. Berman J, Setty A, Steiner M, Kaufman K, Skotzko C. Complicated hypertension related to the abuse of ephedrine and caffeine alkaloids. J Addict Dis. 2006;25:45-8 pubmed
    ..We present a case of hypertensive encephalopathy with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizure secondary to concomitant use of two OTC supplements containing a mixture of ephedrine and caffeine alkaloids.
  16. Meng L, Cannesson M, Alexander B, Yu Z, Kain Z, Cerussi A, et al. Effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine bolus treatment on cerebral oxygenation in anaesthetized patients. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107:209-17 pubmed publisher
    How phenylephrine and ephedrine treatments affect global and regional haemodynamics is of major clinical relevance. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (Sct(O2) )-guided management may improve postoperative outcome...
  17. Kol I, Kaygusuz K, Gursoy S, Cetin A, Kahramanoglu Z, Ozkan F, et al. The effects of intravenous ephedrine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:883-8 pubmed publisher
    We designed a randomized, double-blinded study to determine the efficacy and safety of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery...
  18. Lashley D, Palace J, Jayawant S, Robb S, Beeson D. Ephedrine treatment in congenital myasthenic syndrome due to mutations in DOK7. Neurology. 2010;74:1517-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients usually do not respond to or worsen with the standard CMS treatments: cholinesterase inhibitors and 3,4-diaminopyridine. However, anecdotal reports suggest they may improve with ephedrine.
  19. Matsunari I, Aoki H, Nomura Y, Takeda N, Chen W, Taki J, et al. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging and carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography compared in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:595-603 pubmed publisher
  20. Greenway F, Bray G. Treatment of hypothalamic obesity with caffeine and ephedrine. Endocr Pract. 2008;14:697-703 pubmed
    To investigate the hypothesis that the peripheral actions of caffeine and ephedrine to increase sympathetic tone and metabolic rate and to preserve lean tissue will cause weight loss in patients with hypothalamic obesity.
  21. Han D, Chun D, Kweon T, Shin Y. Significance of the injection timing of ephedrine to reduce the onset time of rocuronium. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:856-60 pubmed publisher
    ..the onset time of rocuronium can be accelerated effectively if it is administered at the time when the effect of ephedrine on cardiac output has reached its maximum...
  22. Jia J, Zeng X, Li Y, Ma S, Bai J. Ephedrine induced thioredoxin-1 expression through ?-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A/dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein signaling pathway. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1194-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Ephedrine (Eph) is one of alkaloids that has been isolated from the ancient herb ephedra (ma huang) and is used as the treatment of asthma, hypotension and fatigue. However, its molecular mechanism remains unknown...
  23. Webster R, Cossins J, Lashley D, Maxwell S, Liu W, Wickens J, et al. A mouse model of the slow channel myasthenic syndrome: Neuromuscular physiology and effects of ephedrine treatment. Exp Neurol. 2013;248:286-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We use our model to investigate ephedrine as a potential treatment...
  24. Mazzotta E, Picca R, Malitesta C, Piletsky S, Piletska E. Development of a sensor prepared by entrapment of MIP particles in electrosynthesised polymer films for electrochemical detection of ephedrine. Biosens Bioelectron. 2008;23:1152-6 pubmed
    A voltammetric sensor for (-)-ephedrine has been prepared by a novel approach based on immobilisation of an imprinted polymer for ephedrine (MIPE) in an electrosynthesised polypyrrole (PPY) film...
  25. Gopalakrishna M, Krishna H, Shenoy U. The effect of ephedrine on intubating conditions and haemodynamics during rapid tracheal intubation using propofol and rocuronium. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:191-4 pubmed
    We compared the effect of pre-treatment with ephedrine 75, 100, 150 microg kg(-1) and saline on intubating conditions and haemodynamics during rapid tracheal intubation using propofol and rocuronium.
  26. Leykin Y, Dalsasso M, Setti T, Pellis T. The effects of low-dose ephedrine on intubating conditions following low-dose priming with cisatracurium. J Clin Anesth. 2010;22:425-31 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether low-dose ephedrine plus priming with low-dose cisatracurium improves intubating conditions.
  27. Noël S, Massart L, Hamaide A. Urodynamic and haemodynamic effects of a single oral administration of ephedrine or phenylpropanolamine in continent female dogs. Vet J. 2012;192:89-95 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the effects of a single oral administration of ephedrine (2 mg/kg) or phenylpropanolamine (PPA) (1.5 mg/kg) on the vesico-urethral and cardiovascular functions in continent female dogs...
  28. Krizevski R, Bar E, Shalit O, Sitrit Y, Ben Shabat S, Lewinsohn E. Composition and stereochemistry of ephedrine alkaloids accumulation in Ephedra sinica Stapf. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:895-903 pubmed publisher
    ..are the unique and taxonomically restricted adrenergic agonists phenylpropylamino alkaloids, also known as ephedrine alkaloids: (1R,2S)-norephedrine (1S,2S)-norpseudoephedrine, (1R,2S)-ephedrine, (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine, (1R,2S)-..
  29. Hallas J, Bjerrum L, Støvring H, Andersen M. Use of a prescribed ephedrine/caffeine combination and the risk of serious cardiovascular events: a registry-based case-crossover study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:966-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Ephedrine and herbal ephedra preparations have been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss. Owing to reports on serious cardiovascular events, they were banned from the US market in 2004...
  30. Horng H, Chen F, Ho C, Kuo C, Wu C, Wong C. Bradycardia and hypotension refractory to ephedrine and atropine treatment: severe autonomic dysfunction with abnormal heart rate variability. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2006;44:109-12 pubmed
    ..with diabetes mellitus who suffered from intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia which did not respond to ephedrine and atropine treatment and eventuated in cardiac arrest...
  31. Liu A, Smith S, Fujioka K, Greenway F. The effect of leptin, caffeine/ephedrine, and their combination upon visceral fat mass and weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:1991-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effects of combination caffeine/ephedrine and leptin A-200 on visceral fat mass and weight loss over 24 weeks.
  32. Mercier F, Riley E, Frederickson W, Roger Christoph S, Benhamou D, Cohen S. Phenylephrine added to prophylactic ephedrine infusion during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 2001;95:668-74 pubmed
    Because ephedrine infusion (2 mg/min) does not adequately prevent spinal hypotension during cesarean delivery, the authors investigated whether adding phenylephrine would improve its efficacy.
  33. Dulloo A. Herbal simulation of ephedrine and caffeine in treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:590-2 pubmed
  34. De Matteis R, Arch J, Petroni M, Ferrari D, Cinti S, Stock M. Immunohistochemical identification of the beta(3)-adrenoceptor in intact human adipocytes and ventricular myocardium: effect of obesity and treatment with ephedrine and caffeine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:1442-50 pubmed
    ..in intact human white and brown adipocytes and other human tissues, and to investigate the influence of obesity and its treatment with ephedrine and caffeine on the expression of the beta(3)-adrenoceptor in adipocytes.
  35. Ezri T, Szmuk P, Warters R, Gebhard R, Pivalizza E, Katz J. Changes in onset time of rocuronium in patients pretreated with ephedrine and esmolol--the role of cardiac output. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47:1067-72 pubmed
    We investigated the hypothesis that manipulation of cardiac output (CO) with esmolol (Es) or ephedrine (E) affects the onset time of rocuronium.
  36. Xiu L, Miura A, Yamamoto K, Kobayashi T, Song Q, Kitamura H, et al. Pancreatic islet regeneration by ephedrine in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29:493-500 pubmed
    In this experiment, we investigated the effects of crude Ephedrae herba, alkaloid extract of Ephedrae herba and 1-ephedrine, a major alkaloid component, on diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ)...
  37. Nyska A, Murphy E, Foley J, Collins B, Petranka J, Howden R, et al. Acute hemorrhagic myocardial necrosis and sudden death of rats exposed to a combination of ephedrine and caffeine. Toxicol Sci. 2005;83:388-96 pubmed
    Because of possible side effects of herbal medicines containing ephedrine and guarana-derived caffeine, including increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, the Food and Drug Administration recently banned the ..
  38. Lee A, Ngan Kee W, Gin T. Prophylactic ephedrine prevents hypotension during spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery but does not improve neonatal outcome: a quantitative systematic review. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49:588-99 pubmed
    The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of ephedrine compared with control when given prophylactically to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery.
  39. Munarriz R, Hwang J, Goldstein I, Traish A, Kim N. Cocaine and ephedrine-induced priapism: case reports and investigation of potential adrenergic mechanisms. Urology. 2003;62:187-92 pubmed
    To investigate the direct effect of ephedrine and cocaine on neurogenic contraction of penile trabecular smooth muscle...
  40. Kobayashi S, Endou M, Sakuraya F, Matsuda N, Zhang X, Azuma M, et al. The sympathomimetic actions of l-ephedrine and d-pseudoephedrine: direct receptor activation or norepinephrine release?. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1239-45 pubmed
    The basic mechanisms by which ephedrine is preferred over other vasopressors in obstetric anesthesia have not been clearly defined...
  41. Miller S. Safety concerns regarding ephedrine-type alkaloid-containing dietary supplements. Mil Med. 2004;169:87-93 pubmed
    ..In light of growing public and medical debate over the safety and efficacy of ephedrine-type alkaloid-containing dietary supplements, a review of the literature and assessment of the data were ..
  42. Blechman K, Karch S, Stephens B. Demographic, pathologic, and toxicological profiles of 127 decedents testing positive for ephedrine alkaloids. Forensic Sci Int. 2004;139:61-9 pubmed
    ..of the problem, we reviewed all autopsies in our Medical Examiner's jurisdiction, from 1994 to 2001, where ephedrine or any its isomers (E+) were detected...
  43. Ittichaikulthol W, Sriswasdi S, Nual on S, Hongpuang S, Sornil A. The effect of ephedrine on the onset time of rocuronium in Thai patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87:264-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ephedrine on the onset time of rocuronium...
  44. Erkinaro T, Kavasmaa T, Pakkila M, Acharya G, Mäkikallio K, Alahuhta S, et al. Ephedrine and phenylephrine for the treatment of maternal hypotension in a chronic sheep model of increased placental vascular resistance. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:231-7 pubmed
    We hypothesized that ephedrine and phenylephrine are equal with respect to uterine and placental haemodynamics and fetal acid-base status after exposure to maternal hypoxaemia and hypotension in a chronic sheep model of increased ..
  45. Lee A, Ngan Kee W, Gin T. A dose-response meta-analysis of prophylactic intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2004;98:483-90, table of contents pubmed
    We systematically reviewed available studies to determine the dose-response characteristics of prophylactic i.v. ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery...
  46. Bengel F, Ueberfuhr P, Ziegler S, Nekolla S, Reichart B, Schwaiger M. Serial assessment of sympathetic reinnervation after orthotopic heart transplantation. A longitudinal study using PET and C-11 hydroxyephedrine. Circulation. 1999;99:1866-71 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to describe individual growth of sympathetic terminals after HTX by a longitudinal quantitative assessment...
  47. Roman M. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in botanicals and dietary supplements by HPLC-UV: collaborative study. J AOAC Int. 2004;87:1-14 pubmed
    ..was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the major (ephedrine [EP] and pseudoephedrine [PS]) and minor (norephedrine [NE], norpseudoephedrine [NP], methylephedrine [ME], and ..
  48. Chen Z, Zhang L, Wang M, Huang Y. [Simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine, paracetamol and pseudo-ephedrine hydrochloride in composite tablets by high performance liquid chromatography]. Se Pu. 2001;19:236-8 pubmed
    ..The detection limits of chlorpheniramine, paracetamol and pseudo-ephedrine hydrochloride were 1.16 mg/L, 0.15 mg/L and 1...
  49. Ozkocak I, Altunkaya H, Ozer Y, Ayoglu H, Demirel C, Cicek E. Comparison of ephedrine and ketamine in prevention of injection pain and hypotension due to propofol induction. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2005;22:44-8 pubmed
    This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study compares the effects of ephedrine and ketamine on injection pain, and hypotension from propofol.
  50. Bestue Cardiel M, Sáenz de Cabezón Alvarez A, Capablo Liesa J, Lopez Pison J, Pena Segura J, Martin Martinez J, et al. Congenital endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency responsive to ephedrine. Neurology. 2005;65:144-6 pubmed
    ..In Patient 1, a Prostigmin (neostigmine bromide) test failed to distinguish between AChE deficiency and a slow-channel CMS. Both patients responded dramatically to ephedrine therapy.
  51. Cleary Goldman J, Negron M, Scott J, Downing R, Camann W, Simpson L, et al. Prophylactic ephedrine and combined spinal epidural: maternal blood pressure and fetal heart rate patterns. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:466-72 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to estimate whether prophylactic intramuscular ephedrine before combined spinal epidural prevents these complications.
  52. Wang M, Marriott P, Chan W, Lee A, Huie C. Enantiomeric separation and quantification of ephedrine-type alkaloids in herbal materials by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1112:361-8 pubmed
    The separation of ephedrine-type alkaloids and their enantiomers in raw herbs and commercial herbal products was investigated by carrying out enantioselective separation in the first-dimension column (containing beta-cyclodextrin as the ..
  53. Molnar D, Torok K, Erhardt E, Jeges S. Safety and efficacy of treatment with an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. The first double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study in adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1573-8 pubmed
    The present study was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a caffeine/ephedrine (CE) mixture in obese adolescents.