nordefrin

Summary

Summary: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.

Top Publications

  1. Mito R, Yagiela J. Hypertensive response to levonordefrin in a patient receiving propranolol: report of case. J Am Dent Assoc. 1988;116:55-7 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  2. Krum H, Louis W, Brown D, Howes L. Pressor dose responses and baroreflex sensitivity in quadriplegic spinal cord injury patients. J Hypertens. 1992;10:245-50 pubmed
    ..To assess the relative contribution of impaired baroreceptor reflexes and enhanced cardiovascular reactivity to the exaggerated blood pressure rises which occur in quadriplegic spinal cord injury patients with automatic hyperreflexia...
  3. Nöhammer C, Brunner F, Wölkart G, Staber P, Steyrer E, Gonzalez F, et al. Myocardial dysfunction and male mortality in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha knockout mice overexpressing lipoprotein lipase in muscle. Lab Invest. 2003;83:259-69 pubmed
  4. Sugawara A, Miguel T, Pereira D, Menani J, De Luca L. Effects of central imidazolinergic and alpha2-adrenergic activation on water intake. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:1185-90 pubmed
    ..The results show that selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-AR activation suppresses water intake, and suggest that the action on imidazoline sites by non-adrenergic ligands is not sufficient to inhibit water intake...
  5. Nürnberger J, Opazo Saez A, Dammer S, Mitchell A, Wenzel R, Philipp T, et al. Left ventricular ejection time: a potential determinant of pulse wave velocity in young, healthy males. J Hypertens. 2003;21:2125-32 pubmed
    ..Recent studies showed that heart rate is an important determinant of PWV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of myocardial function in determining PWV under resting conditions and under adrenergic stimulation...
  6. Boomsma F, Alberts G, van Eijk L, Man in t Veld A, Schalekamp M. Optimal collection and storage conditions for catecholamine measurements in human plasma and urine. Clin Chem. 1993;39:2503-8 pubmed
    ..CA are stable at 4 degrees C for 1 month in unpreserved urine and for 4 months in urine preserved with EDTA and sodium metabisulfite. In acidified urine, CA were nearly unchanged after 1 year at 4 and -20 degrees C...
  7. Li G, Abdel Rahman A. Direct evidence for imidazoline (I1) receptor modulation of ethanol action on norepinephrine-containing neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:684-93 pubmed
  8. Allen A, Guyenet P. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of bulbospinal barosensitive cells of rat rostral medulla. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:R1065-75 pubmed
  9. Kapocsi J, Zimanyi I, Farsang C, Vizi E. Presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors exclusively sensitive to agonists of phenylethylamine structure on the sympathetic nerves of the human gall bladder artery. Neurosci Res. 1987;4:413-8 pubmed
    ..This receptor is sensitive to alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists which have a phenylethylamine structure, but is insensitive to imidazolines and guanfacine...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Handley S, Thomas K. Potentiation of startle response by d- and l-amphetamine: the possible involvement of pre- and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoreceptors and other transmitter systems in the modulation of a tactile startle response. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1979;64:105-11 pubmed
  2. Sy G, Bruban V, Bousquet P, Feldman J. Nitric oxide discriminates the sites and mechanisms of action of centrally acting anti-hypertensive drugs in rabbits. Neuropharmacology. 2002;43:1330-8 pubmed
  3. Hondrum S, Ezell J. The relationship between pH and concentrations of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic solutions. Anesth Prog. 1996;43:85-91 pubmed
    ..pH may be an inexpensive, readily available screening test for efficacy of local anesthetics...
  4. Chin K, Yagiela J, Quinn C, Henderson K, Duperon D. Serum mepivacaine concentrations after intraoral injection in young children. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003;31:757-64 pubmed
    ..The authors conclude that 3 percent mepivacaine should not be used when relatively large volumes of local anesthetic must be administered to small children and recommend that the maximum dose of mepivacaine not exceed 5 mg/kg...
  5. Ding Y, Lin K, Logan J, Benveniste H, Carter P. Comparative evaluation of positron emission tomography radiotracers for imaging the norepinephrine transporter: (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers of reboxetine analogs ([11C]methylreboxetine, 3-Cl-[11C]methylreboxetine and [18F]fluororeboxetine), (R)-[11C]. J Neurochem. 2005;94:337-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, to our knowledge (S,S)-[11C]MRB remains by far the most promising NET ligand for PET studies...
  6. Matsukawa M, Imada M, Aizawa S, Sato T. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice. Brain Res. 2016;1631:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD. ..
  7. Hersh E, Giannakopoulos H. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents and dental vasoconstrictors. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54:687-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with significant cardiovascular disease may be especially vulnerable to the most serious sequelae resulting from the pressor reactions of the drug combination...
  8. Chen D, Dai X, Bache R. Postsynaptic adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in coronary and femoral vascular beds. Am J Physiol. 1988;254:H984-92 pubmed
  9. Klouche K, Weil M, Sun S, Tang W, Zhao D. A comparison of alpha-methylnorepinephrine, vasopressin and epinephrine for cardiac resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2003;57:93-100 pubmed
    ..Both post-resuscitation myocardial function and survival were most improved after administration of the selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist, intermediate after vasopressin and least after epinephrine and saline placebo...
  10. Lawaty I, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of 2% mepivacaine with 1?:?20,000 levonordefrin versus 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine for maxillary infiltrations. Anesth Prog. 2010;57:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, neither anesthetic agent provided an hour of pulpal anesthesia...
  11. Guglielmo A, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999;87:284-93 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of a supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin...
  12. Dietz D, Pletnikov M. Postnatal weight gain inhibition does not account for neurobehavioral consequences of neonatal Borna disease virus infection. Physiol Behav. 2003;80:359-66 pubmed
  13. Meyer S, Strittmatter M, Fischer C, Georg T, Schmitz B. Lateralization in autonomic dysfunction in ischemic stroke involving the insular cortex. Neuroreport. 2004;15:357-61 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate a hemispheric lateralization in autonomic activity which is mediated by the right-sided insular cortex. Patients with RH stroke involving the insular cortex are most susceptible to develop cardio-autonomic dysfunction...
  14. Owens M, Krulewicz S, Simon J, Sheehan D, Thase M, Carpenter D, et al. Estimates of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter inhibition in depressed patients treated with paroxetine or venlafaxine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:3201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..NET antagonism has been posited to contribute to the antidepressant effects of these compounds. The clinical significance of the magnitude of NET antagonism by both medications remains unclear at present...
  15. Cai H, Fang P, Li H, Zhang X, Hu L, Yang W, et al. Abnormal plasma monoamine metabolism in schizophrenia and its correlation with clinical responses to risperidone treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2011;188:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with an involvement of these systems in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia as well as in the responses to treatment, and the usefulness of certain biochemical indices as markers for subgrouping...
  16. Kubo T, Goshima Y, Hata H, Misu Y. Evidence that endogenous catecholamines are involved in alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of the aortic baroreceptor reflex in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat. Brain Res. 1990;526:313-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that endogenous catecholamines in the rat NTS are involved in alpha 2 adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of the aortic baroreceptor reflex...
  17. Zheng H, Zhan H. Sleep apnea and heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1086-9; author reply 1086-9 pubmed
  18. Colucci R, Blandizzi C, Carignani D, Lazzeri G, Natale G, Crema F, et al. Determination on functional basis of presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes in guinea-pig duodenum. Neurosci Lett. 1996;210:29-32 pubmed
    ..According to the current classification, it is suggested that alpha 2-heteroadrenoceptors involved in the modulation of duodenal cholinergic neurotransmission belong to the alpha ZD subtype...
  19. Kitada T, Tong Y, Gautier C, Shen J. Absence of nigral degeneration in aged parkin/DJ-1/PINK1 triple knockout mice. J Neurochem. 2009;111:696-702 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also support the notion that mammalian Parkin and PINK1 may function in the same genetic pathway as in Drosophila...
  20. Karas M, Larochelle P, LeBlanc R, Dubé B, Nadeau R, Champlain J. Attenuation of autonomic nervous system functions in hypertensive patients at rest and during orthostatic stimulation. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008;10:97-104 pubmed
    ..These observations could reflect a decreased sensitivity of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors with aging...
  21. Nies A, Andros E, Gerber J. Platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is increased in elderly men but not in elderly women. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;52:605-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the increase in alpha 2-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is gender specific...
  22. Head G, Burke S. Comparison of renal sympathetic baroreflex effects of rilmenidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline in the ventrolateral medulla of the rabbit. J Hypertens. 2000;18:1263-76 pubmed
    ..To determine the influence of imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on the renal sympathetic baroreflex...
  23. Kamphoven J, Stubenitsky R, Reuser A, Van der Ploeg A, Verdouw P, Duncker D. Cardiac remodeling and contractile function in acid alpha-glucosidase knockout mice. Physiol Genomics. 2001;5:171-9 pubmed
  24. Pérusse R, Goulet J, Turcotte J. Contraindications to vasoconstrictors in dentistry: Part I. Cardiovascular diseases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;74:679-86 pubmed
    ..Extensive survey of the literature has been completed, giving specific guidelines for a rational use of vasoconstrictors in this category of medically compromised patients...
  25. Wang X, Li G, Abdel Rahman A. Site-dependent inhibition of neuronal c-jun in the brainstem elicited by imidazoline I1 receptor activation: role in rilmenidine-evoked hypotension. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;514:191-9 pubmed
  26. Herkes S, Smith C, Sarr M. Jejunal responses to absorptive and secretory stimuli in the neurally isolated jejunum in vivo. Surgery. 1994;116:576-86 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to assess changes in transport of water and electrolytes under basal, proabsorptive, and prosecretory conditions after an in situ neural isolation of the jejunoileum...
  27. Kaufman E, Solomon V, Rozen L, Peltz R. Pulpal anesthesia efficacy of four lidocaine solutions injected with an intraligamentary syringe. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;78:17-21 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that the nature of vasoconstrictors when added to the local anesthetic can affect the efficacy of pulpal anesthesia using the intraligamentary model...
  28. Lebrun C, Ghetau G, Candito M, Chatel M. [Acute polyradiculoneuritis and dysautonomia: contribution of assaying catecholamines and their methoxylated metabolites]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2001;157:304-8 pubmed
    ..The elevated level of urinary methoxylated metabolites is statistically correlated to clinical dysautonomia and can be used as a biological marker to monitoring demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis...
  29. Tung C, Goldberg M, Hollister A, Sweetman B, Robertson D. Depletion of brainstem epinephrine stores by alpha-methyldopa: possible relation to attenuated sympathetic outflow. Life Sci. 1988;42:2365-71 pubmed
    ..If this selective epinephrine depletion occurs in the bulbospinal tract neurons responsible for maintaining sympathetic tone, then this effect could contribute to the antihypertensive effect of MD...
  30. Hao W, Yang R, Yang Y, Jin S, Li Y, Yuan F, et al. Stellate ganglion block ameliorates vascular calcification by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. Life Sci. 2018;193:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sympathetic over-activation might play critical role in the pathogenesis of VC, which provides new strategy and target for therapy and prevention of VC. ..
  31. Hou Q, Wang J, Gao J, Liu Y, Liu C. QM/MM studies on the catalytic mechanism of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These calculation results can be used to explain the experimental observations and make a good complementarity for the previous QM study...
  32. Jaakkola U, Kuusela T, Jartti T, Pesonen U, Koulu M, Vahlberg T, et al. The Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with decreased insulin secretion, delayed ghrelin suppression, and increased cardiovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine during oral glucose tolerance test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3646-52 pubmed
    ..The leucine7 to proline7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with vascular diseases and has an impact on hormone levels in healthy subjects...
  33. Limberger N, Mayer A, Zier G, Valenta B, Starke K, Singer E. Estimation of pA2 values at presynaptic alpha 2-autoreceptors in rabbit and rat brain cortex in the absence of autoinhibition. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1989;340:639-47 pubmed
    ..pA2 values determined with stimulation by 4 pulses/100 Hz were by 0.53-0.80 log units higher than those determined with stimulation by 36 pulses/3 Hz.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  34. Klouche K, Weil M, Tang W, Povoas H, Kamohara T, Bisera J. A selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist for cardiac resuscitation. J Lab Clin Med. 2002;140:27-34 pubmed
    ..alpha-MNE, a selective alpha-adrenergic agonist, was as effective as epinephrine in restoring spontaneous circulation after 7 minutes of untreated VF in a porcine model for CPR and demonstrated lesser postresuscitation myocardial injury...
  35. Ruffolo R, Goldberg M, Morgan E. Interactions of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and their corresponding alpha-methyl-substituted derivatives with alpha and beta adrenoceptors in the pithed rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984;230:595-600 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results show that alpha-methylepinephrine is a potent beta adrenoceptor agonist, with an apparent 500-fold selectivity for beta-2 adrenoceptors over beta-1 adrenoceptors...
  36. Schafers R, Nurnberger J, Herrmann B, Wenzel R, Philipp T, Michel M. Adrenoceptors mediating the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of alpha-methylnoradrenaline in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;289:918-25 pubmed
    ..Whereas alpha-methylnoradrenaline is selective for alpha2- over alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta-adrenoceptor blockade is required to unmask alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction...
  37. Simone J, Tortamano N, Armonia P, Rocha R. Cardiovascular alterations caused by the administration of 2% mepivacaine HCl with 1:20,000 levonordefrin (Carbocain) in dogs. Braz Dent J. 1997;8:85-90 pubmed
    ..514 and 1.542 mg/kg body weight corresponding to one and three 1.8-ml cartridges, respectively, in 70-kg average weight adult men. A statistically significant increase was observed in the systolic and the mean arterial blood pressures...
  38. Tseng C, Ger L, Tung C. Interrelation between alpha 2-adrenoreceptor system and neuropeptide Y in rat nucleus tractus solitarii. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 1991;15:86-91 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a reciprocal potentiation of NPY and alpha 2 agonists in the brainstem, and suggest that NPY and catecholamines interact in central cardiovascular regulation...
  39. Hinkley S, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An evaluation of 4% prilocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2% mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin compared with 2% lidocaine with:100,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog. 1991;38:84-9 pubmed
    ..No statistically significant differences in onset, success, failure, or incidence were found among the solutions. We conclude that the three preparations are equivalent for inferior alveolar nerve block of 50-min duration...
  40. Schmidt M, Krieger J, Giesen Crouse E, Imbs J. Characterisation of the alpha-adrenoceptors of the rat renal vascular bed. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1987;1:7-22 pubmed
    ..B-HT 920, the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, only induced renal vasoconstriction in vitro under concomitant infusion of rabbit plasma...
  41. Bohmann C, Schollmeyer P, Rump L. Effects of imidazolines on noradrenaline release in rat isolated kidney. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1994;349:118-24 pubmed
    ..01 mumol/l) shifted the concentration response curves for clonidine and moxonidine to the right with pKB's of 9.46 and 9.18, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  42. Vardolov L, Pennefather J. Regional variation in the distribution of alpha-adrenoreceptors in the vas deferens of the rat. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1976;221:212-2 pubmed
    ..These experiments confirm a density gradient of excitatory alpha-adrenoreceptors along the length of the rat vas deferens...
  43. Goulet J, Pérusse R, Turcotte J. Contraindications to vasoconstrictors in dentistry: Part III. Pharmacologic interactions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;74:692-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, special considerations are expressed concerning patients who abuse illicit drugs such as cocaine...
  44. Hamilton C, Howie C, Reid J. Desensitization of vascular and platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors in rabbits with perinephritis hypertension. J Hypertens. 1988;6:277-82 pubmed
    ..It might also contribute to the lability in blood pressure observed in these animals...
  45. Li S, Scanlon M, Jarai Z, Varga K, Gantenberg N, Lazar Wesley E, et al. alpha-2-Adrenergic activation of proopiomelanocortin-containing neurons in the arcuate nucleus causes opioid-mediated hypotension and bradycardia. Neuroendocrinology. 1996;63:275-83 pubmed
  46. Wahl C, Trendelenburg A, Starke K. Presynaptic alpha 2-autoreceptors in mouse heart atria: evidence for the alpha 2D subtype. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1996;354:253-61 pubmed
    ..This identification supports the hypothesis that at least the majority of alpha 2-autoreceptors belong to the alpha 2A/D pair of orthologous alpha 2-adrenoceptors...
  47. Benoit J. Effects of alpha-adrenergic stimuli on mesenteric collecting lymphatics in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:R331-6 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that conditions characterized by increased sympathetic outflow may augment lymphatic function through alpha 1- but not alpha 2-adrenoceptors...
  48. de Andrade C, de Andrade G, de Paula P, De Luca L, Menani J. Involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on renal responses to central moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;607:60-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present data suggest that moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline acting on central imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors, respectively, activate central alpha1-adrenergic mechanisms to increase renal excretion. ..
  49. Svensson A, Carlsson M, Carlsson A. Crucial role of the accumbens nucleus in the neurotransmitter interactions regulating motor control in mice. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1995;101:127-48 pubmed
    ..Both glutamatergic, muscarine cholinergic, dopaminergic and alpha-adrenergic systems are involved in the control of motor functions in the accumbens nucleus...
  50. Yeh S, Hsu F. The neurochemical and stimulatory effects of putative metabolites of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991;39:787-90 pubmed
    ..In stimulatory studies, MDA and MDMA, but not their metabolites except alpha-methylepinephrine, which increased activity at 15 and 30 min, increased locomotor activity from 15 to 180 min following the drug administration...
  51. Castillo E, Valencia I, Bobadilla R, Villalon C, Castillo C. alpha-Methylnoradrenaline-induced contractions in rat aorta are mediated via alpha 1D-adrenoceptors. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1997;11:339-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the alpha 1D-subtype plays a determining role in rat aorta contractions induced by alpha-methylnoradrenaline...
  52. Schafers R, Nurnberger J, Rutz A, Siffert W, Wenzel R, Mitchell A, et al. Haemodynamic characterization of young normotensive men carrying the 825T-allele of the G-protein beta3 subunit. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:461-70 pubmed
    ..Our study does not support the idea of increased vasoconstrictor tone in T-allele carriers either at rest or during stimulation of alpha2-adrenoceptors. However, this allele may be associated with elevated cardiac stroke volume...
  53. Bruban V, Estato V, Schann S, Ehrhardt J, Monassier L, Renard P, et al. Evidence for synergy between alpha(2)-adrenergic and nonadrenergic mechanisms in central blood pressure regulation. Circulation. 2002;105:1116-21 pubmed
    ..Both alpha(2)-adrenergic and non--alpha(2)-adrenergic mechanisms seem to be involved in the hypotensive effect of imidazoline-like drugs. This study aimed at investigating how these 2 mechanisms work together to modify blood pressure (BP)...