ethanolamine

Summary

Summary: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.

Top Publications

  1. Modica Napolitano J, Renshaw P. Ethanolamine and phosphoethanolamine inhibit mitochondrial function in vitro: implications for mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis in depression and bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:273-7 pubmed
  2. Starai V, Garrity J, Escalante Semerena J. Acetate excretion during growth of Salmonella enterica on ethanolamine requires phosphotransacetylase (EutD) activity, and acetate recapture requires acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta) activities. Microbiology. 2005;151:3793-801 pubmed publisher
    This report shows that Salmonella enterica catabolizes ethanolamine to acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA), which enters the glyoxylate bypass and tricarboxylic acid cycle for the generation of energy and central metabolites...
  3. Houweling M, Tijburg L, Vaartjes W, van Golde L. Phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism in rat liver after partial hepatectomy. Control of biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine by the availability of ethanolamine. Biochem J. 1992;283 ( Pt 1):55-61 pubmed
    ..In line with the increase in PE mass, the rate of PE synthesis in vivo from [14C]ethanolamine was stimulated 1.6- and 1.3-fold at 22 and 48 h after partial hepatectomy respectively...
  4. da Silva E, Kuznetsova T, Kvamme B, Merz K. Molecular dynamics study of ethanolamine as a pure liquid and in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:3695-703 pubmed
    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for ethanolamine as a pure liquid and in aqueous solution at 298 and 333 K...
  5. Rifkin M, Strobos C, Fairlamb A. Specificity of ethanolamine transport and its further metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16160-6 pubmed
    b>Ethanolamine is found in trypanosomes as an integral component of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)...
  6. Iwamoto K, Hayakawa T, Murate M, Makino A, Ito K, Fujisawa T, et al. Curvature-dependent recognition of ethanolamine phospholipids by duramycin and cinnamycin. Biophys J. 2007;93:1608-19 pubmed
    ..The present study indicates that both duramycin and cinnamycin exclusively bind to ethanolamine phospholipids (PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen)...
  7. Smith T, Gerken J, Jog P, Roberts J. Conformational equilibria of ethanolamine and its hydrochloride in solution. Org Lett. 2007;9:4555-7 pubmed
    The conformational preferences of ethanolamine and its hydrochloride in solution were estimated by comparing experimental NMR vicinal proton-proton coupling constants to semiemprical coupling constants for each staggered rotamer, derived ..
  8. Anotai J, Chen C, Bellotindos L, Lu M. Treatment of TFT-LCD wastewater containing ethanolamine by fluidized-bed Fenton technology. Bioresour Technol. 2012;113:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..fluidized-bed Fenton process and Fenton process, (2) to determine the optimal conditions for the degradation of ethanolamine from TFT-LCD wastewater by fluidized-bed Fenton process...
  9. Baker K, Perego M. Transcription antitermination by a phosphorylated response regulator and cobalamin-dependent termination at a B?? riboswitch contribute to ethanolamine utilization in Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2575-86 pubmed publisher
    The ability of bacteria to utilize ethanolamine (EA) as a carbon and nitrogen source may confer an advantage for survival, colonization, and pathogenicity in the human intestinal tract...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kelly R, Lamont K, Somers S, Hacking D, Lacerda L, Thomas P, et al. Ethanolamine is a novel STAT-3 dependent cardioprotective agent. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:763-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethanolamine is a biogenic amine found naturally in the body as part of membrane lipids and as a metabolite of the cardioprotective substances, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and anandamide...
  2. Bertin Y, Girardeau J, Chaucheyras Durand F, Lyan B, Pujos Guillot E, Harel J, et al. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:365-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because ..
  3. Zhang K, Pompey J, Hsu F, Key P, Bandhuvula P, Saba J, et al. Redirection of sphingolipid metabolism toward de novo synthesis of ethanolamine in Leishmania. EMBO J. 2007;26:1094-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that unlike other organisms, the Leishmania SL pathway has evolved to be the major route for ethanolamine (EtN) synthesis, as EtN supplementation completely reversed the viability and differentiation defects of both ..
  4. Mann D, Reinemann C, Stoltenburg R, Strehlitz B. In vitro selection of DNA aptamers binding ethanolamine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1928-34 pubmed
    We have identified aptamers (synthetic oligonucleotides) binding to the very small molecule ethanolamine with high affinity down to the low nanomolar range...
  5. Penrod J, Mace C, Roth J. A pH-sensitive function and phenotype: evidence that EutH facilitates diffusion of uncharged ethanolamine in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6885-90 pubmed
    The eutH gene is part of an operon that allows Salmonella enterica to use ethanolamine as a sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy...
  6. Reinemann C, Stoltenburg R, Strehlitz B. Investigations on the specificity of DNA aptamers binding to ethanolamine. Anal Chem. 2009;81:3973-8 pubmed publisher
    In our previous work, we selected aptamers binding to ethanolamine, one of the smallest molecular aptamer targets so far (Mann, D., Reinemann, C., Stoltenburg, R. and Strehlitz, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005, 338, 1928-1934)...
  7. Leonardi R, Frank M, Jackson P, Rock C, Jackowski S. Elimination of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway disrupts hepatic lipid homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27077-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The elimination of diacylglycerol utilization by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway led to a 10-fold increase in triacylglycerols in the ECT-deficient hepatocytes that became engorged ..
  8. Takenoya M, Nikolakakis K, Sagermann M. Crystallographic insights into the pore structures and mechanisms of the EutL and EutM shell proteins of the ethanolamine-utilizing microcompartment of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:6056-63 pubmed publisher
    The ethanolamine-utilizing bacterial microcompartment (Eut-BMC) of Escherichia coli is a polyhedral organelle that harbors specific enzymes for the catabolic degradation of ethanolamine...
  9. Stojiljkovic I, Bäumler A, Heffron F. Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium: nucleotide sequence, protein expression, and mutational analysis of the cchA cchB eutE eutJ eutG eutH gene cluster. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1357-66 pubmed
    A fragment of the Salmonella typhimurium ethanolamine utilization operon was cloned and characterized. The 6.3-kb nucleotide sequence encoded six complete open reading frames, termed cchA, cchB, eutE, eutJ, eutG, and eutH...
  10. Thiennimitr P, Winter S, Winter M, Xavier M, Tolstikov V, Huseby D, et al. Intestinal inflammation allows Salmonella to use ethanolamine to compete with the microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that use of a specific nutrient (ethanolamine) confers a marked growth advantage on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
  11. Mrklas O, Chu A, Lunn S. Determination of ethanolamine, ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol by ion chromatography for laboratory and field biodegradation studies. J Environ Monit. 2003;5:336-40 pubmed
    ..Using ion chromatography offered significant advantages for the analyses of groundwater samples and laboratory bioreactor monitoring...
  12. Buan N, Suh S, Escalante Semerena J. The eutT gene of Salmonella enterica Encodes an oxygen-labile, metal-containing ATP:corrinoid adenosyltransferase enzyme. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5708-14 pubmed
    ..Lack of CobA and EutT blocked ethanolamine utilization. EutT was necessary and sufficient for growth of an S...
  13. Garsin D. Ethanolamine utilization in bacterial pathogens: roles and regulation. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:290-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethanolamine is a compound that can be readily derived from cell membranes and that some bacteria can use as a source of carbon and/or nitrogen...
  14. Signorell A, Jelk J, Rauch M, Bütikofer P. Phosphatidylethanolamine is the precursor of the ethanolamine phosphoglycerol moiety bound to eukaryotic elongation factor 1A. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One amino acid modification, which so far has only been found in eukaryotic elongation factor 1A, consists of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol attached to two glutamate residues that are conserved between mammals and plants...
  15. Srikumar S, Fuchs T. Ethanolamine utilization contributes to proliferation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in food and in nematodes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..species, Salmonella enterica, Clostridium perfringens, and Listeria monocytogenes, are able to utilize both ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol as a sole carbon source...
  16. Brinsmade S, Paldon T, Escalante Semerena J. Minimal functions and physiological conditions required for growth of salmonella enterica on ethanolamine in the absence of the metabolosome. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8039-46 pubmed
    During growth on ethanolamine, Salmonella enterica synthesizes a multimolecular structure that mimics the carboxysome used by some photosynthetic bacteria to fix CO(2). In S...
  17. Bender G, Poyner R, Reed G. Identification of the substrate radical intermediate derived from ethanolamine during catalysis by ethanolamine ammonia-lyase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..resonance (EPR) spectroscopy have been used to characterize the steady-state radical in the deamination of ethanolamine catalyzed by adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL)...
  18. Del Papa M, Perego M. Ethanolamine activates a sensor histidine kinase regulating its utilization in Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the ability of E. faecalis to utilize ethanolamine as the sole carbon source is shown to be dependent upon the RR-HK17 (EF1633-EF1632) TCS...
  19. Tanaka S, Sawaya M, Yeates T. Structure and mechanisms of a protein-based organelle in Escherichia coli. Science. 2010;327:81-4 pubmed publisher
    ..EutS, EutL, EutK, and EutM) that are thought to be the major shell constituents of a functionally complex ethanolamine utilization (Eut) microcompartment...
  20. Garsin D. Ethanolamine: a signal to commence a host-associated lifestyle?. MBio. 2012;3:e00172-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethanolamine (EA) is a compound prevalent in the gastrointestinal (GI) environment. The ability to catabolize this compound has been associated with important GI pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC)...
  21. Menon A, Stevens V. Phosphatidylethanolamine is the donor of the ethanolamine residue linking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor to protein. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:15277-80 pubmed
    ..In this paper we describe metabolic labeling experiments aimed at identifying the biosynthetic origin of the ethanolamine residue in the phosphoethanolamine bridge...
  22. Price Carter M, Tingey J, Bobik T, Roth J. The alternative electron acceptor tetrathionate supports B12-dependent anaerobic growth of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium on ethanolamine or 1,2-propanediol. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2463-75 pubmed
    ..The cofactor is required for degradation of 1,2-propanediol and ethanolamine. However, cofactor synthesis occurs only anaerobically, and neither of these carbon sources supports anaerobic ..
  23. Penrod J, Roth J. Conserving a volatile metabolite: a role for carboxysome-like organelles in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2865-74 pubmed
    Salmonellae can use ethanolamine (EA) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This ability is encoded by an operon (eut) containing 17 genes, only 6 of which are required under standard conditions (37 degrees C; pH 7.0)...
  24. Whiteheart S, Shenbagamurthi P, Chen L, Cotter R, Hart G. Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is posttranslationally modified by novel amide-linked ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol moieties. Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:14334-41 pubmed
    ..Metabolic radiolabeling with [3H] ethanolamine shows that, in all cells examined, EF-1 alpha is the major radiolabeled protein...
  25. McGee T, Skinner H, Bankaitis V. Functional redundancy of CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline pathway enzymes in phospholipid biosynthesis: ethanolamine-dependent effects on steady-state membrane phospholipid composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6861-8 pubmed
    ..We now describe conditions under which ethanolamine can exert significant influence on yeast membrane phospholipid composition...
  26. Bürgermeister M, Birner Grünberger R, Nebauer R, Daum G. Contribution of different pathways to the supply of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine to mitochondrial membranes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1686:161-8 pubmed
    ..in mitochondria; (ii) decarboxylation of PtdSer by Psd2p in a Golgi/vacuolar compartment; and (iii) the CDP-ethanolamine (CDP-Etn) branch of the Kennedy pathway...
  27. Fox K, Ramesh A, Stearns J, Bourgogne A, Reyes Jara A, Winkler W, et al. Multiple posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms partner to control ethanolamine utilization in Enterococcus faecalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4435-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethanolamine, a product of the breakdown of phosphatidylethanolamine from cell membranes, is abundant in the human intestinal tract and in processed foods...
  28. Swanson M, Keshari K, Tabatabai Z, Simko J, Shinohara K, Carroll P, et al. Quantification of choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues using 1H HR-MAS total correlation spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 2008;60:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiment was developed to resolve and quantify the choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues in approximately 1 hr prior to pathologic analysis...
  29. Sheppard D, Penrod J, Bobik T, Kofoid E, Roth J. Evidence that a B12-adenosyl transferase is encoded within the ethanolamine operon of Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7635-44 pubmed publisher
    Adenosylcobalamin (Ado-B12) is both the cofactor and inducer of ethanolamine ammonia lyase (EA-lyase), a catabolic enzyme for ethanolamine. De novo synthesis of Ado-B12 by Salmonella enterica occurs only under anaerobic conditions...
  30. Tsoy O, Ravcheev D, Mushegian A. Comparative genomics of ethanolamine utilization. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7157-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC...
  31. Lawhon S, Frye J, Suyemoto M, Porwollik S, McClelland M, Altier C. Global regulation by CsrA in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1633-45 pubmed
    ..milieu also showed reduced expression: the pdu operon for utilization of 1,2-propanediol and the eut operon for ethanolamine catabolism. Reduced expression of reporter fusions in these two operons confirmed the microarray data...
  32. Roof D, Roth J. Functions required for vitamin B12-dependent ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3316-23 pubmed
    When B12 is available, Salmonella typhimurium can degrade ethanolamine to provide a source of carbon and nitrogen. B12 is essential since it is a cofactor for ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, the first enzyme in ethanolamine breakdown. S...
  33. Mintz A, Wang L, Ponde D. Comparison of radiolabeled choline and ethanolamine as probe for cancer detection. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:742-7 pubmed
    ..9 +/- 1.0 (n = 11). The objective of this work was to compare radiolabeled choline with ethanolamine as an agent for cancer detection using various cancer cell lines.
  34. Farrell E, Chen Y, Barazanji M, Jeffries K, Cameroamortegui F, Merkler D. Primary fatty acid amide metabolism: conversion of fatty acids and an ethanolamine in N18TG2 and SCP cells. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the data support a role for the N-acylethanolamines as precursors for the PFAMs and provide valuable new kinetic results useful in modeling the metabolic flux through the pathways for PFAM biosynthesis and degradation...
  35. Matas D, Juknat A, Pietr M, Klin Y, Vogel Z. Anandamide protects from low serum-induced apoptosis via its degradation to ethanolamine. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7885-92 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the ethanolamine (EA) generated in this reaction is the metabolite responsible for the protective response...
  36. Zhukalin M, Blanksma M, Silva T, Suyehira S, Harvey W, Heggland S, et al. Characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity testing of ethanolamine-derived cadmium chelating agents. Biometals. 2007;20:61-72 pubmed
    ..Thus 1 appears more effective than 2 in the ability to mediate the cytotoxic effects of cadmium in vitro upon concomitant administration...
  37. Trotter P, Voelker D. Identification of a non-mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity (PSD2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:6062-70 pubmed
    ..of this enzyme activity (denoted psd2) in cells containing the psd1-delta 1::TRP1 null allele also result in ethanolamine auxotrophy...
  38. Harkins T, Grissom C. Magnetic field effects on B12 ethanolamine ammonia lyase: evidence for a radical mechanism. Science. 1994;263:958-60 pubmed
    ..The kinetic parameter Vmax/Km (where Km is the Michaelis constant) for the coenzyme B12-dependent enzyme ethanolamine ammonia lyase was decreased 25 percent by a static magnetic field near 0...
  39. Roof D, Roth J. Autogenous regulation of ethanolamine utilization by a transcriptional activator of the eut operon in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:6634-43 pubmed
    The genes required for use of ethanolamine as a carbon and nitrogen source are encoded by a single operon (eut) whose expression is induced by the simultaneous presence of both ethanolamine and cobalamin (vitamin B12)...
  40. Kofoid E, Rappleye C, Stojiljkovic I, Roth J. The 17-gene ethanolamine (eut) operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes five homologues of carboxysome shell proteins. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5317-29 pubmed
    The eut operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes proteins involved in the cobalamin-dependent degradation of ethanolamine. Previous genetic analysis revealed six eut genes that are needed for aerobic use of ethanolamine; one (eutR), ..
  41. Rontein D, Nishida I, Tashiro G, Yoshioka K, Wu W, Voelker D, et al. Plants synthesize ethanolamine by direct decarboxylation of serine using a pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:35523-9 pubmed
    The established pathways from serine to ethanolamine are indirect and involve decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. Here we show that plants can decarboxylate serine directly...
  42. Rontein D, Rhodes D, Hanson A. Evidence from engineering that decarboxylation of free serine is the major source of ethanolamine moieties in plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:1185-91 pubmed
    Plants form ethanolamine (Etn) moieties by decarboxylating serine or phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), and use them to make phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, choline, and glycine betaine...
  43. Hauser I, Colaço A, Skjæran J, Einbu A, Ostgaard K, Svendsen H, et al. Biological N removal from wastes generated from amine-based CO2 capture: case monoethanolamine. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;169:1449-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the removal of MEA, the removal efficiency of total nitrogen as well as organic matter was high without additional carbon source supplied...
  44. Bowling J, Scarisbrick J, Warin A, Downs A. Allergic contact dermatitis from trideceth-2-carboxamide monoethanolamine (MEA) in a hair dye. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;47:116-7 pubmed
  45. Keshari K, Tsachres H, Iman R, Delos Santos L, Tabatabai Z, Shinohara K, et al. Correlation of phospholipid metabolites with prostate cancer pathologic grade, proliferative status and surgical stage - impact of tissue environment. NMR Biomed. 2011;24:691-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Steffens M, Schulze Bonhage A, Surges R, Feuerstein T. Fatty acid amidohydrolase in human neocortex-activity in epileptic and non-epileptic brain tissue and inhibition by putative endocannabinoids. Neurosci Lett. 2005;385:13-7 pubmed
    ..AEA hydrolysis was measured by the formation of the product [(3)H]-ethanolamine after separation from the substrate using activated charcoal...
  47. Huang C, Xu T, Yang X. Regenerating fuel-gas desulfurizing agents by using bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED): effect of molecular structure of alkanolamines on the regeneration performance. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:984-9 pubmed
    ..BMED is not only feasible for alkanolamine regeneration but also environmental-friendly and economically attractive, especially as the bipolar membrane cost decreases and pollution control is strengthened...
  48. Jagadevan S, Graham N, Thompson I. Treatment of waste metalworking fluid by a hybrid ozone-biological process. J Hazard Mater. 2013;244-245:394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a near-complete degradation of three non-biodegradable compounds (viz. benzotriazole, monoethanolamine, triethanolamine), commonly added as biocides and corrosion inhibitors in MWF formulations, under ozonation was observed...
  49. El Alaoui H, Bata J, Peyret P, Vivares C. Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Microspora): characterization of a phospholipid metabolic pathway potentially linked to therapeutics. Exp Parasitol. 2001;98:171-9 pubmed
    ..This is strong evidence for the functionality of a metabolic pathway which could be a potential target against microsporidia which infect humans...
  50. Malygin A, Sultanova D. Air carbon dioxide prevents proteins from being developed by silver staining in polyacrylamide gel. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2002;386:245-7 pubmed
  51. Fournier M, Lesage J, Ostiguy C, Van Tra H. Sampling and analytical methodology development for the determination of primary and secondary low molecular weight amines in ambient air. J Environ Monit. 2008;10:379-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These amines are diethanolamine, ethanolamine, methylamine, isopropylamine, morpholine, dimethylamine, and aniline...
  52. Mawatari S, Okuma Y, Fujino T. Separation of intact plasmalogens and all other phospholipids by a single run of high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 2007;370:54-9 pubmed
    ..This article describes a high-performance liquid chromatographic method that can separate intact ethanolamine plasmalogens (pl-PEs) and choline plasmalogens (pl-PCs) as well as all other phospholipid classes usually found ..
  53. Shin K, Lee Y. Simultaneous analysis of mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine in cosmetic products using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Arch Pharm Res. 2016;39:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..96 ppb for TEA, respectively. This novel quantification method simplified sample preparation and allowed accurate and reproducible quantification of alkanolamines in the ng/g cosmetic weight (ppb) range for several cosmetic products. ..