isogeneic transplantation


Summary: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.

Top Publications

  1. Zhai W, Cardell M, De Meester I, Augustyns K, Hillinger S, Inci I, et al. Ischemia/reperfusion injury: The role of CD26/dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV-inhibition in lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:3369-71 pubmed
    ..0 micromol/L vs 13.8 +/- 1.8, P < .01). Inhibition of intragraft DPP IV enzymatic activity significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion-associated pulmonary injury, allowing for successful transplantation after 18 hours of ischemia. ..
  2. Kim S, Doudet D, Studenov A, Nian C, Ruth T, Gambhir S, et al. Quantitative micro positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for the in vivo determination of pancreatic islet graft survival. Nat Med. 2006;12:1423-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that quantitative in vivo PET imaging is a valid method for facilitating the development of protocols for prolonging islet survival, with the potential for tracking human transplants. ..
  3. Stegall M, Park W, Kim D, Kremers W. Gene expression during acute allograft rejection: novel statistical analysis of microarray data. Am J Transplant. 2002;2:913-25 pubmed
    ..Results were reproducible and correlated well with both RT-PCR and prior studies. Most importantly, these results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of acute rejection and suggest new molecules for future studies. ..
  4. Erickson L, Pan F, Ebbs A, Kobayashi M, Jiang H. Microarray-based gene expression profiles of allograft rejection and immunosuppression in the rat heart transplantation model. Transplantation. 2003;76:582-8 pubmed
    ..The differences and similarities of the gene expression profiles relative to the two immunosuppressants may provide more detailed therapeutic approaches for optimal immunosuppression. ..
  5. Inaki N, Tsunezuka Y, Kawakami K, Sato H, Takino T, Oda M, et al. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activity and expression in heterotopically transplanted murine tracheas. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23:218-27 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that MMP-2, together with its activator MT1-MMP, may have an important role in the development of BOS, which is associated with destruction of the tracheal epithelium, leading to fibrosis. ..
  6. Saiura A, Mataki C, Murakami T, Umetani M, Wada Y, Kohro T, et al. A comparison of gene expression in murine cardiac allografts and isografts by means DNA microarray analysis. Transplantation. 2001;72:320-9 pubmed
    ..IFN-gamma-inducible genes are specifically up-regulated in murine cardiac allografts, suggesting that signaling mediated by IFN-gamma may play an important role in the late phase of acute rejection in vivo. ..
  7. Mahesh B, Leong H, Nair K, McCormack A, Sarathchandra P, Rose M. Autoimmunity to vimentin potentiates graft vasculopathy in murine cardiac allografts. Transplantation. 2010;90:4-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated whether autoimmunity to Vim contributes to development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV)...
  8. Ruud J, Backhed F, Engblom D, Blomqvist A. Deletion of the gene encoding MyD88 protects from anorexia in a mouse tumor model. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:554-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that MyD88-dependent mechanisms are involved in the metabolic derangement during cancer anorexia-cachexia and that innate immune signaling is important for the development of this syndrome. ..
  9. Wen Y, Ouyang J, Li W, Chen J, Liu Y, Meng L, et al. Time point is important for effects of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation for type 1 diabetes in mice. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:1801-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that syn-BMT should be performed, when diabetes is neither too new-onset nor too late-stage. Tregs represent one mechanism for syn-BMT-induced restoration of immune tolerance in STZ-diabetic mice. ..

More Information


  1. Schenk A, Nozaki T, Rabant M, Valujskikh A, Fairchild R. Donor-reactive CD8 memory T cells infiltrate cardiac allografts within 24-h posttransplant in naive recipients. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:1652-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that strategies for optimal inhibition of alloimmunity should include neutralization of infiltrating CD8 memory T cells within a very narrow window after transplantation. ..
  2. Backhed F, Crawford P, O Donnell D, Gordon J. Postnatal lymphatic partitioning from the blood vasculature in the small intestine requires fasting-induced adipose factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:606-11 pubmed
    ..This organ-specific lymphovascular abnormality can be rescued by allowing embryonic Fiaf-/- intestinal isografts to develop in Fiaf+/+ recipients. ..
  3. Savikko J, Rintala J, von Willebrand E. Early short-term platelet-derived growth factor inhibition prevents the development of chronic allograft nephropathy in experimental rat kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:3231-2 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrated that early short-term imatinib treatment significantly prevented CAN. This indicated that early PDGF induction has an important role in the pathogenesis of CAN. ..
  4. Toso C, Zaidi H, Morel P, Armanet M, Wojtusciszyn A, Mai G, et al. Assessment of 18F-FDG-leukocyte imaging to monitor rejection after pancreatic islet transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:3033-4 pubmed
    ..The liver showed a relatively high spontaneous tracer uptake; the related background prevented detection of a potential increase in tracer uptake in cases of islet rejection. ..
  5. Chen Y, Chen J, Liu Z, Liang S, Luan X, Long F, et al. Relationship between TH1/TH2 cytokines and immune tolerance in liver transplantation in rats. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:2691-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The dynamic equilibrium of Th1/Th2 cytokines is critically involved in immune tolerance. The deviation of Th1 to Th2 may be one mechanism of immune tolerance. ..
  6. Hess A, Thoburn C. Immune tolerance to self-major histocompatibility complex class II antigens after bone marrow transplantation: role of regulatory T cells. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:518-29 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this process can be mimicked by peptide antigen in the absence of the pathogenic effector lymphocytes leading to the development of functional regulatory T-cell activity. ..
  7. Shi Q, Fahs S, Wilcox D, Kuether E, Morateck P, Mareno N, et al. Syngeneic transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells that are genetically modified to express factor VIII in platelets restores hemostasis to hemophilia A mice with preexisting FVIII immunity. Blood. 2008;112:2713-21 pubmed publisher
  8. Pearl Yafe M, Yolcu E, Stein J, Kaplan O, Shirwan H, Yaniv I, et al. Expression of Fas and Fas-ligand in donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is dissociated from the sensitivity to apoptosis. Exp Hematol. 2007;35:1601-12 pubmed
    ..Resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis evolves as a functional characteristic of hematopoietic reconstituting stem and progenitor cells, providing them competitive engraftment advantage over committed progenitors. ..
  9. Klein I, Gassel H, Thiede A, Crispe I, Steger U. A microsurgical approach to hepatic and extrahepatic antigen presentation and its effects on the migration pattern of activated CD8(+) T cells. Microsurgery. 2007;27:289-94 pubmed
    ..This illustrates that orthotopic liver transplantation is a powerful technique for addressing issues of antigen presentation. ..
  10. Thomas D, Stauffer C, Zhao K, Yang H, Sharma V, Szeto H, et al. Mitochondrial targeting with antioxidant peptide SS-31 prevents mitochondrial depolarization, reduces islet cell apoptosis, increases islet cell yield, and improves posttransplantation function. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:213-22 pubmed
    ..Because SS-31 was effective with "extended" islet donors, it is hypothesized that the antioxidant SS-31 may serve to increase the pool of eligible organ donors. ..
  11. Kutschka I, Chen I, Kofidis T, von Degenfeld G, Sheikh A, Hendry S, et al. In vivo optical bioluminescence imaging of collagen-supported cardiac cell grafts. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26:273-80 pubmed
    ..Optical bioluminescence is a powerful method for assessment of cardiac cell graft survival in vivo. Collagen matrices support early survival of cardiomyoblasts after transplantation into injured musculature. ..
  12. Drukker M. Immunogenicity of human embryonic stem cells: can we achieve tolerance?. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2004;26:201-13 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the routes of immune recognition that can identify these antigens and the proposed ways for overcoming the rejection of human embryonic stem cell derivatives. ..
  13. Tomita R, Fujisaki S. Physiological studies on neurotensin in rat small bowel isografts. Hepatogastroenterology. 2008;55:1360-4 pubmed
    ..The increase of the NT in mediating NANC excitatory nerves and decrease of the NANC inhibitory nerves may be largely related to the peristaltic abnormalities seen in the isografted LEW rat ileum. ..
  14. Kusaka M, Fukami N, Sasaki H, Higuchi T, Ishikawa K, Shiroki R, et al. IP-10, apoptotic genes, and calcineurin subtype messenger RNA kinetics occurring in rat renal isografts from brain-dead donors. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:361-3 pubmed
    ..Apoptotic gene changes may lead kidney grafts to a preapoptotic condition and up-regulate renal toxicity caused by Cn inhibitors. This initial antigen-independent donor circumstance may be one risk factor for chronic rejection. ..
  15. Stagner J, Ahren B, Sundler F, White K. Reconstructing the pancreas: restoration of normoglycemia, exocrine function, and islet innervation by islet transplantation to the pancreas. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:452-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of growth factors and the pancreatic site may allow the use of fewer islets than conventional islet transplant sites and promote more normal transplanted islet function by the enhancement of islet reinnervation. ..
  16. Damous L, Silva S, Carbonel A, Simões R, Simoes M, Montero E. Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on rat estradiol serum levels and follicular development after ovarian transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:830-3 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Functioning corpora lutea number was increased as well. R-IPC increased the estradiol levels in autologous ovarian transplants associated with better graft morphology and more mature follicles. ..
  17. Aigner F, Maier H, Schwelberger H, Wallnöfer E, Amberger A, Obrist P, et al. Lipocalin-2 regulates the inflammatory response during ischemia and reperfusion of the transplanted heart. Am J Transplant. 2007;7:779-88 pubmed
    ..Moreover, an increase in Lcn-2 is not only restricted to the transplanted heart, but is also observed in the kidney, hinting at a possible involvement of Lcn-2 in the systemic response to IR. ..
  18. Interewicz B, Olszewski W, Stanislawska J, Sikora M, Durlik M, Maksymowicz M. DNA released from rejecting organs is an indicator of the degree of graft cellular damage. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:98-101 pubmed
    ..Real-time polymerase chain reaction for donor DNA in recipient serum and blood leukocytes that have engulfed donor cell debris may be useful for clinical diagnostic application. ..
  19. Aloman C, Gehring S, Wintermeyer P, Kuzushita N, Wands J. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs cellular immune responses against HCV NS5 protein due to dendritic cell dysfunction. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:698-708 pubmed
    ..Altered DC function is one of the major changes induced by long-term ethanol consumption, which subsequently impairs the cellular immune response necessary for viral clearance. ..
  20. Tanaka M, Swijnenburg R, Gunawan F, Cao Y, Yang Y, Caffarelli A, et al. In vivo visualization of cardiac allograft rejection and trafficking passenger leukocytes using bioluminescence imaging. Circulation. 2005;112:I105-10 pubmed
    ..BLI is a useful modality for the quantitative assessment of in vivo cardiac graft viability and tracking of passenger leukocytes in vivo during the course of acute rejection. ..
  21. Hayashi M, Li T, Ito H, Mikamo A, Hamano K. Comparison of intramyocardial and intravenous routes of delivering bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic heart disease: an experimental study. Cell Transplant. 2004;13:639-47 pubmed
    ..m. and 10xi.v. groups than in the PBS and i.v. groups (p < 0.01). Our results showed that BMCs were more effective delivered intramyocardially than intravenously for inducing angiogenesis and repairing injured myocardium. ..
  22. Wei H, Chen S, Chang Y, Hwang S, Lin W, Lai P, et al. Porous acellular bovine pericardia seeded with mesenchymal stem cells as a patch to repair a myocardial defect in a syngeneic rat model. Biomaterials. 2006;27:5409-19 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the MSC patch may preserve the structure of the ventricular wall while providing the potential for myocardial tissue regeneration. ..
  23. Zimecki M, Artym J, Kocieba M, Weber Dabrowska B, Borysowski J, Gorski A. Prophylactic effect of bacteriophages on mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplant upon infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2010;199:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a potential benefit of phage therapy in immunocompromised patients subjected to bone marrow transplant procedures...
  24. Gewartowska M, Olszewski W. Preservation of molecular structure of arterial grafts in pulverized sodium chloride: an experimental study. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:2917-9 pubmed
    ..The tensile strength and maximum intraluminal pressures did not significantly differ from freshly harvested, transplanted aortic segments. ..
  25. Sakata N, Tan A, Chan N, Obenaus A, Mace J, Peverini R, et al. Efficacy comparison between intraportal and subcapsular islet transplants in a murine diabetic model. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:346-9 pubmed publisher
    ..50 +/- 0.81 days; P = .007). The efficacy of islet transplantation in murine diabetic models was significantly greater under the kidney capsule. Clinical islet transplantation could benefit from trials of alternative transplant sites. ..
  26. Laschke M, Schwender C, Vollmar B, Menger M. Genistein does not affect vascularization and blood perfusion of endometriotic lesions and ovarian follicles in dorsal skinfold chambers of Syrian golden hamsters. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, genistein may not be considered for the development of antiangiogenic treatment strategies in the therapy of endometriosis. ..
  27. Schaefer N, Tahara K, Schuchtrup S, Websky M, Overhaus M, Schmidt J, et al. Perioperative glycine treatment attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury and ameliorates smooth muscle dysfunction in intestinal transplantation. Transplantation. 2008;85:1300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the glycine-activated chloride channel on resident and infiltrating leukocytes could be a promising pharmacologic target to attenuate ischemia/reperfusion injury after ITx. ..
  28. Brilliant K, Mills D, Callanan H, Hixson D. Engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic endothelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes into partially hepatectomized rats previously treated with mitomycin C. Transplantation. 2009;88:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Shortcomings are length of protocol and carcinogenicity of retrorsine...
  29. Asano A, Tsubomatsu K, Jung C, Sasaki N, Agui T. A deletion mutation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (Ptprk) gene is responsible for T-helper immunodeficiency (thid) in the LEC rat. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:779-86 pubmed
    ..It is confirmed by this result that the Ptprk gene is responsible for the thid mutation in the LEC rat. Our results further suggest that RPTPkappa plays a critical role in the development of CD4 SP cells in the thymus...
  30. Tsuneyoshi H, Oriyanhan W, Kanemitsu H, Shiina R, Nishina T, Matsuoka S, et al. Does the beta2-agonist clenbuterol help to maintain myocardial potential to recover during mechanical unloading?. Circulation. 2005;112:I51-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, beta2-AR stimulation is reported to improve Ca2+ handling and contribute to antiapoptosis. However, there is little information on the effects of clenbuterol during LV unloading...
  31. Rintala S, Savikko J, Rintala J, von Willebrand E. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligand and receptor induction in rat renal allograft rejection. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:3236-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggested that VEGF may have an important role in the pathology of chronic rejection. Based on our findings VEGF inhibition could be a potential intervention to prevent CAN in clinical kidney transplantation. ..
  32. Tu C, Kuo C, Juang J. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 transgenic islets on transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:3463-7 pubmed
    ..05). Body weight was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Our data indicate transgenic islets with high HO-1 expression did not improve transplantation outcome. ..
  33. Desrois M, Caus T, Belles P, Dalmasso C, Lan C, Cozzone P, et al. Limitation of myocardial and endothelial injury of the rat heart graft after preservation with Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale (CRMB) solution. Transpl Int. 2008;21:276-83 pubmed
    ..0001 for CRMBM and P < 0.0001 for Celsior). We showed limitation of both myocardial and endothelial damage with CRMBM compared with Celsior during heterotopic rat heart transplantation in vivo. ..
  34. Zhu L, Gong D, Zou Y, Li Y, Wu Y, Guan L, et al. Cervical heterotopic kidney transplantation in rats using non-suturing and preserving-bag techniques. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:2708-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed an easy and reliable model of cervical heterotopic kidney transplantation that may provide a useful tool for investigating kidney transplantation rejection and retransplantation pathology. ..
  35. Chachques J, Trainini J, Lago N, Masoli O, Barisani J, Cortes Morichetti M, et al. Myocardial assistance by grafting a new bioartificial upgraded myocardium (MAGNUM clinical trial): one year follow-up. Cell Transplant. 2007;16:927-34 pubmed
    ..quot; Efficacy and safety of this approach should be evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial. ..
  36. Peranteau W, Endo M, Adibe O, Flake A. Evidence for an immune barrier after in utero hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Blood. 2007;109:1331-3 pubmed
    ..In contrast, all congenic recipients maintain stable, long-term, multilineage chimerism. These results strongly support an immune barrier to allogeneic engraftment after IUHCT. ..
  37. Wu K, Zhang J, Fu J, Wu S, Philipp T, Uwe H, et al. Novel technique for blood circuit reconstruction in mouse heart transplantation model. Microsurgery. 2006;26:594-8 pubmed
    ..1+/-0.2 min) was significantly shortened as compared to 2.1+/-0.4 min using the traditional method. This novel technique facilitated abdominal heart transplantation in mice with reduced warm ischemia and grafted heart rebeating time. ..
  38. Correale P, Del Vecchio M, Di Genova G, Savellini G, La Placa M, Terrosi C, et al. 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy enhances the antitumor activity of a thymidylate synthase-directed polyepitopic peptide vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1437-45 pubmed
    ..The multiepitopic TS/PP vaccine induces a tumor-specific immune response in mice and is especially potent when used in combination with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. ..
  39. Tian C, Ansari M, Paez Cortez J, Bagley J, Godwin J, Donnarumma M, et al. Induction of robust diabetes resistance and prevention of recurrent type 1 diabetes following islet transplantation by gene therapy. J Immunol. 2007;179:6762-9 pubmed
  40. Kienzl K, Sarg B, Golderer G, Obrist P, Werner E, Werner Felmayer G, et al. Proteomic profiling of acute cardiac allograft rejection. Transplantation. 2009;88:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These identified proteins may constitute novel biomarkers of acute cardiac allograft rejection and might hold great potential as surrogate markers for monitoring in vivo alloimmune response. ..
  41. Daydé D, Ternant D, Ohresser M, Lerondel S, Pesnel S, Watier H, et al. Tumor burden influences exposure and response to rituximab: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling using a syngeneic bioluminescent murine model expressing human CD20. Blood. 2009;113:3765-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, rituximab exposure influenced response and survival. Finally, using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model, we demonstrated that tumor burden significantly influenced rituximab efficacy. ..
  42. Obara H, Nagasaki K, Hsieh C, Ogura Y, Esquivel C, Martinez O, et al. IFN-gamma, produced by NK cells that infiltrate liver allografts early after transplantation, links the innate and adaptive immune responses. Am J Transplant. 2005;5:2094-103 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, graft survival was significantly prolonged. These data suggest that IFN-gamma-producing NK cells are an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses early after transplantation. ..
  43. Fujimoto M, Isobe M, Yamaguchi S, Amagasa T, Watanabe A, Ooya T, et al. Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels cross-linked by hydrolyzable polyrotaxane containing hydroxyapatite particles as scaffolds for bone regeneration. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2005;16:1611-21 pubmed
    ..This study strongly suggests the great potential of the PRX-HAp as scaffolds for bone regeneration. ..
  44. Yoon I, Choi S, Kim Y, Yang S, Park J, Park C, et al. Pancreatic islets induce CD4(+) [corrected] CD25(-)Foxp3(+) [corrected] T-cell regulated tolerance to HY-mismatched skin grafts. Transplantation. 2008;86:1352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Unmanipulated pancreatic islets can induce immunologic tolerance associated with peripherally induced CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs, a significant proportion of which notably are CD25-. ..
  45. Chang K, Huang S, Lin C, Chang L, Lin S, Lai C. An alternative model of composite tissue allotransplantation: groin-thigh flap. Transpl Int. 2008;21:564-71 pubmed publisher
  46. Yang Z, Ho D, Ngai P, Lau C, Zhao Y, Poon R, et al. Antiinflammatory properties of IL-10 rescue small-for-size liver grafts. Liver Transpl. 2007;13:558-65 pubmed
  47. Hazani R, Coots B, Buntic R, Brooks D. Bilateral breast reconstruction: the simultaneous use of autogenous tissue and identical twin isograft. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;63:496-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As our understanding of immunology evolves, allotransplantation may further increase our reconstructive options for other postmastectomy patients. ..
  48. Asada H, Kishida T, Hirai H, Shin Ya M, Imanishi J, Takeuchi M, et al. Combination vaccine of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells effectively suppressed preestablished malignant melanoma in mice. Cancer Lett. 2006;240:83-93 pubmed
    ..Compared with the CD8(+) cells, the CD4(+)T cells more remarkably improved the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy. The present system may be a feasible therapeutic modality to eradicate malignancies including melanoma. ..
  49. Kim T, Jung M, Cho D, Cohen E. Prolongation of the survival of breast cancer-bearing mice immunized with GM-CSF-secreting syngeneic/allogeneic fibroblasts transfected with a cDNA expression library from breast cancer cells. Vaccine. 2006;24:6564-73 pubmed
    ..As the transferred DNA is replicated as the transfected cells divide, the vaccine could be prepared from microgram quantities of tumor tissue. ..
  50. Ji J, Xu F, Li L, Chen R, Wang J, Hu W. Activation of adventitial fibroblasts in the early stage of the aortic transplant vasculopathy in rat. Transplantation. 2010;89:945-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that adventitial fibroblasts are activated and can produce cytokines and chemokines before the neointimal hyperplasia. They may exert a potential effect on the development of neointimal hyperplasia in TV. ..
  51. Passineau M, Siegal G, Everts M, Pereboev A, Jhala D, Wang M, et al. The natural history of a novel, systemic, disseminated model of syngeneic mouse B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:1627-1638 pubmed
    ..The present study therefore describes a high-fidelity model of disseminated lymphoma with implications for novel targeted therapeutics. ..
  52. Biallas S, Wilker S, Lips K, Kummer W, Grando S, Padberg W, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha9 and alpha10 in rat lung isografts and allografts. Life Sci. 2007;80:2286-9 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic application of nicotinic agonists might down-modulate pro-inflammatory functions of alveolar macrophages and protect pulmonary transplants. ..
  53. Montolio M, Biarnés M, Téllez N, Escoriza J, Soler J, Montanya E. Interleukin-1beta and inducible form of nitric oxide synthase expression in early syngeneic islet transplantation. J Endocrinol. 2007;192:169-77 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data suggest that IL-1beta plays a role in the extensive beta-cell death found in the initial days after islet transplantation. ..