thymectomy

Summary

Summary: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Okumura M, Inoue M, Kadota Y, Hayashi A, Tokunaga T, Kusu T, et al. Biological implications of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Surg Today. 2010;40:102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is often treated by thymectomy. We review recent studies to investigate the biological implications of thymectomy...
  2. Datt V, Tempe D, Singh B, Tomar A, Banerjee A, Dutta D, et al. Anesthetic management of patient with myasthenia gravis and uncontrolled hyperthyroidism for thymectomy. Ann Card Anaesth. 2010;13:49-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacotherapy for three months neither improved the myasthenic symptoms nor the thyroid function tests. Thymectomy resulted in control of MG as well as hyperthyroidism...
  3. Odaka M, Akiba T, Yabe M, Hiramatsu M, Matsudaira H, Hirano J, et al. Unilateral thoracoscopic subtotal thymectomy for the treatment of stage I and II thymoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;37:824-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of thoracoscopic thymectomy for the treatment of Masaoka stage I and II thymoma...
  4. Wagner O, Louie B, Vallieres E, Aye R, Farivar A. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging can help identify the contralateral phrenic nerve during robotic thymectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94:622-5 pubmed publisher
    Unilateral robotic thymectomy is gaining popularity. Identifying the contralateral phrenic nerve is a key limitation to achieving maximal thymic tissue resection...
  5. Toolabi K, Aminian A, Javid M, Harirchian M, Rabani A, Darabnia J. Mid-term results of thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Neurol India. 2009;57:402-5 pubmed publisher
    ..VATS provides an effective alternative approach to thymectomy and has several advantages over open techniques...
  6. Klimek Piotrowska W, Mizia E, Kuzdzał J, Lazar A, Lis M, Pankowski J. Ectopic thymic tissue in the mediastinum: limitations for the operative treatment of myasthenia gravis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;42:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of ectopic thymic tissue in the mediastinum and to evaluate the possible relevance of this distribution to the therapeutic yield of thymectomies in patients with myasthenia gravis...
  7. Sakamoto M, Murakawa T, Konoeda C, Inoue Y, Kitano K, Sano A, et al. Survival after extended thymectomy for thymoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:623-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thymoma is a relatively rare tumour and is uniquely associated with autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the factors involved in the prognosis of thymoma remain under discussion...
  8. Fleck T, Fleck M, Muller M, Hager H, Klepetko W, Wolner E, et al. Extended videoscopic robotic thymectomy with the da Vinci telemanipulator for the treatment of myasthenia gravis: the Vienna experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009;9:784-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete endoscopic thymus surgery with the da Vinci surgical system enables a complete and extended resection of all thymic tissue in the mediastinum. Due to the minimal trauma, patients can return to full activity within a short time. ..
  9. Bachmann K, Burkhardt D, Schreiter I, Kaifi J, Schurr P, Busch C, et al. Thymectomy is more effective than conservative treatment for myasthenia gravis regarding outcome and clinical improvement. Surgery. 2009;145:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Controversies over which patients should be operated on because they may benefit most from thymectomy are still ongoing...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gagnerault M, Lanvin O, Pasquier V, Garcia C, Damotte D, Lucas B, et al. Autoimmunity during thymectomy-induced lymphopenia: role of thymus ablation and initial effector T cell activation timing in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:4913-20 pubmed publisher
    Autoimmune diseases develop in selected normal mouse strains when thymectomy (Tx) is performed at 3 days of age (d3-Tx)...
  2. Zlamy M, Prelog M. Thymectomy in early childhood: a model for premature T cell immunosenescence?. Rejuvenation Res. 2009;12:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This review demonstrates that, despite some limitations, childhood thymectomy may serve as an useful model for premature immunosenescence, mimicking changes expected after physiological ..
  3. Tracy M, McRae W, Millichap J. Graded response to thymectomy in children with myasthenia gravis. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:454-9 pubmed publisher
    Response to thymectomy in children with juvenile myasthenia gravis was evaluated using severity and response to therapy rating scales and objective measures of hospital, intensive care, and intubation days, prethymectomy and ..
  4. Yeh C, Chen H, Chou C, Hsu C. Hybrid combination of small subxiphoid incision and thoracoscopic thymectomy for juvenile myasthenia gravis. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:780-783 pubmed publisher
    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that usually responds positively to treatment with thymectomy. Various approaches via video-assisted thoracic thymectomy as a substitute for conventional sternotomy have been reported...
  5. Uludag M, Yetkin G, Citgez B, Ozguven B, Cengiz A, Ozsahin H, et al. The role of cervical thymectomy in surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2011;112:385-9 pubmed
    ..From January 2004 to September 2008, subtotal parathyroidectomy and cervical thymectomy was performed in 25 consecutive patients...
  6. del Rio R, Sun Y, Alard P, Tung K, Teuscher C. H2 control of natural T regulatory cell frequency in the lymph node correlates with susceptibility to day 3 thymectomy-induced autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2011;186:382-9 pubmed publisher
    Day 3 thymectomy (D3Tx) results in a loss of peripheral tolerance mediated by natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) and development of autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis (AOD) and autoimmune dacryoadenitis (ADA) in A/J and (C57BL/6J × A/J) F(1) ..
  7. Mashoof S, Goodroe A, Du C, Eubanks J, Jacobs N, Steiner J, et al. Ancient T-independence of mucosal IgX/A: gut microbiota unaffected by larval thymectomy in Xenopus laevis. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:358-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We have employed larval thymectomy in Xenopus to study the gut microbiota with and without the influence of T lymphocytes...
  8. Waldmann J, Lopez C, Langer P, Rothmund M, Bartsch D. Surgery for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism. Br J Surg. 2010;97:1528-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 47 patients were identified. Twenty-three patients underwent total parathyroidectomy with thymectomy and autotransplantation (TPTX + AT), 11 patients subtotal parathyroidectomy (3-3...
  9. Yu L, Zhang X, Ma S, Li F, Zhang Y. Thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis with and without thymoma: a single-center experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:240-4 pubmed publisher
    The treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may include thymectomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the outcome of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) extended thymectomy and to compare characteristics of ..
  10. Weksler B, Tavares J, Newhook T, Greenleaf C, Diehl J. Robot-assisted thymectomy is superior to transsternal thymectomy. Surg Endosc. 2012;26:261-6 pubmed publisher
    Complete thymectomy is the procedure of choice in the treatment of thymomas and in treating selected patients with myasthenia gravis. Transsternal thymectomy is the gold standard for most patients...
  11. Schneider R, Waldmann J, Ramaswamy A, Fernández E, Bartsch D, Schlosser K. Frequency of ectopic and supernumerary intrathymic parathyroid glands in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism: analysis of 461 patients undergoing initial parathyroidectomy with bilateral cervical thymectomy. World J Surg. 2011;35:1260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, routine bilateral cervical thymectomy (BCT) is still discussed, although controversially.
  12. Kostera Pruszczyk A, Kwiecinski H. Juvenile seropositive myasthenia gravis with anti-MuSK antibody after thymectomy. J Neurol. 2009;256:1780-1 pubmed publisher
    ..56 nmol/l, n < 0.4 nmol/l), anti-MuSK antibodies were not tested at that time. She was treated with a thymectomy. After the operation a gradual worsening of her MG was seen; she reported pirydostygmine intolerance...
  13. Hennessey I, Long A, Hughes I, Humphrey G. Thymectomy for inducing remission in juvenile myasthenia gravis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:591-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of thymectomy to induce remission in juvenile myasthenia gravis...
  14. Halnon N, Cooper P, Chen D, Boechat M, Uittenbogaart C. Immune dysregulation after cardiothoracic surgery and incidental thymectomy: maintenance of regulatory T cells despite impaired thymopoiesis. Clin Dev Immunol. 2011;2011:915864 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymectomy is performed in infants during cardiothoracic surgery leaving many patients with reduced thympopoiesis. An association between immune disorders and regulatory T cells (Treg) after incidental thymectomy has not been investigated...
  15. Ishikawa Y, Matsuguma H, Nakahara R, Suzuki H, Ui A, Kondo T, et al. Multimodality therapy for patients with invasive thymoma disseminated into the pleural cavity: the potential role of extrapleural pneumonectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;88:952-7 pubmed publisher
    ..was induction chemotherapy with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and methylprednisolone (CAMP therapy), followed by thymectomy combined with resection of the visible disseminated nodules and postoperative radiotherapy...
  16. Onuki T, Ishikawa S, Iguchi K, Goto Y, Sakai M, Inagaki M, et al. Limited thymectomy for stage I or II thymomas. Lung Cancer. 2010;68:460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Total thymectomy was performed in 61 patients (Total Thymectomy Group), whereas resection of tumors with only the surrounding ..
  17. Mussi A, Fanucchi O, Davini F, Lucchi M, Picchi A, Ambrogi M, et al. Robotic extended thymectomy for early-stage thymomas. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:e43-6; discussion e47 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to report a single referral centre experience in robotic extended thymectomy for clinical early-stage thymomas, evaluating its safety, feasibility and efficacy, with special regard to oncological outcomes.
  18. Gritti P, Carrara B, Khotcholava M, Bortolotti G, Giardini D, Lanterna L, et al. The use of desflurane or propofol in combination with remifentanil in myasthenic patients undergoing a video-assisted thoracoscopic-extended thymectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..both combined with remifentanil, in patients with MG undergoing a video-assisted thoracoscopic-extended thymectomy (VATET). Thirty-six MG patients who underwent VATET were enrolled...
  19. Omar H, Alzahrani M, Al Bshabshe A, Assiri A, Shalaby M, Dwedar A, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus in a 13-year-old girl who developed the disease 3 years after thymectomy performed for the treatment of myasthenia gravis...
  20. Chen Z, Luo H, Peng Y, Cai L, Zhang J, Su C, et al. Comparative clinical features and immune responses after extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis in patients with atrophic versus hyperplastic thymus. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:212-8 pubmed publisher
    Although extended thymectomy is believed to be suitable for myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with hyperplastic thymus, it is not clear whether surgical treatment is indicated for MG patients with atrophic thymus...
  21. Afifi A, Raja S, Pennington D, Tsang V. For neonates undergoing cardiac surgery does thymectomy as opposed to thymic preservation have any adverse immunological consequences?. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010;11:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The question addressed was whether neonatal thymectomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has any adverse immunological consequences...
  22. Ng C, Wan I, Yim A. Video-assisted thoracic surgery thymectomy: the better approach. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:S2135-41 pubmed publisher
    Minimally invasive video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) thymectomy has evolved significantly over the last decade. The most common indication for VATS thymectomy is the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG)...
  23. Lin M, Chang Y, Huang P, Lee Y. Thymectomy for non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis: a comparison of surgical methods and analysis of prognostic factors. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;37:7-12 pubmed publisher
    While thymectomy is an accepted treatment for myasthenia gravis (MG), video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) thymectomy has recently become a popular surgical treatment, especially for non-thymomatous MG (NTMG)...
  24. Zielinski M, Hauer L, Hauer J, Pankowski J, Nabialek T, Szlubowski A. Comparison of complete remission rates after 5 year follow-up of three different techniques of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;37:1137-43 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of treatment of myasthenia gravis with three different techniques of thymectomy. Results of complete remission rates after 5-year follow-up of 60 patients who underwent basic transsternal ..
  25. El Khatib Z, Lamblin J, Aubert S, Arnalsteen L, Leteurtre E, Caiazzo R, et al. Is thymectomy worthwhile in central lymph node dissection for differentiated thyroid cancer?. World J Surg. 2010;34:1181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..which is related to the resection or devascularization of the inferior parathyroids together with bilateral thymectomy. Some authors perform unilateral thymectomy in order to minimize this complication...
  26. Tsukamoto H, Clise Dwyer K, Huston G, Duso D, Buck A, Johnson L, et al. Age-associated increase in lifespan of naive CD4 T cells contributes to T-cell homeostasis but facilitates development of functional defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the intrinsic increase in longevity helps maintain naïve T-cell homeostasis but facilitates the development of functional defects in mice. ..
  27. Parikh K, Vaidya A, Jain R. Preliminary results of VATS thymectomy for pediatric myasthenia gravis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:595-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thymectomy has not been a popular option among treating clinicians...
  28. Ogaki K, Hirayama T, Chijiiwa K, Fukae J, Furuya T, Noda K, et al. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive definite neuromyelitis optica in a patient with thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Neurologist. 2012;18:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a rare coexistence of NMO and myasthenia gravis (MG) has been documented. Here, we provide further evidence of the association of these 2 immunologic disorders and review the literature...
  29. Silvestri N, Wolfe G. Myasthenia gravis. Semin Neurol. 2012;32:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thymectomy is a key component of management in appropriately chosen MG patients and those with thymoma...
  30. Mineo T, Ambrogi V. Outcomes after thymectomy in class I myasthenia gravis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145:1319-24 pubmed publisher
    The role of extended thymectomy in the treatment of class I myasthenia gravis is still controversial. This study compared the long-term outcomes of operated and nonoperated patients allocated according to their will.
  31. Pennathur A, Qureshi I, Schuchert M, Dhupar R, Ferson P, Gooding W, et al. Comparison of surgical techniques for early-stage thymoma: feasibility of minimally invasive thymectomy and comparison with open resection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;141:694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of VATS thymectomy for the treatment of early-stage thymoma and to compare the outcomes with those after open resection.
  32. Tseng Y, Hsieh C, Huang H, Huang C, Hsu W, Huang B, et al. Is thymectomy necessary in nonmyasthenic patients with early thymoma?. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:952-8 pubmed publisher
    In thymoma patients without myasthenia gravis, it is debatable whether thymectomy should be performed in addition to thymomectomy, the procedure in which the thymoma alone is resected...
  33. van Gent R, Schadenberg A, Otto S, Nievelstein R, Sieswerda G, Haas F, et al. Long-term restoration of the human T-cell compartment after thymectomy during infancy: a role for thymic regeneration?. Blood. 2011;118:627-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymectomy during early childhood is generally thought to have serious consequences for the establishment of the T-cell compartment...
  34. Agasthian T, Lin S. Clinical outcome of video-assisted thymectomy for myasthenia gravis and thymoma. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2010;18:234-9 pubmed publisher
    We reviewed our experience of video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis and thymomas in 119 patients, aged 12-83 years, who were treated between 1998 and 2007...
  35. Kohsaka M, Tanaka M, Tahara M, Araki Y, Mori S, Konishi T. [A case of subacute myelitis with anti-aquaporin 4 antibody after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: review of autoimmune diseases after thymectomy]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2010;50:111-3 pubmed
    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis (MG) and Basedow's disease who seven years after thymectomy developed subacute myelitis, a limited form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  36. Sauce D, Larsen M, Fastenackels S, Duperrier A, Keller M, Grubeck Loebenstein B, et al. Evidence of premature immune aging in patients thymectomized during early childhood. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3070-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data highlight the importance of the thymus in maintaining the integrity of T cell immunity during adult life. ..
  37. Meriggioli M, Sanders D. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis: emerging clinical and biological heterogeneity. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:475-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we provide current information about the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of MG, including emerging therapeutic strategies. ..
  38. Zahid I, Sharif S, Routledge T, Scarci M. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or transsternal thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis?. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..34 g; P>0.05). One study comparing video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy to transsternal thymectomy in only thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis (T-MG) patients found equivalent CSR (11...
  39. Mineo T, Pompeo E, Ambrogi V, Sabato A, Bernardi G, Casciani C. Adjuvant pneumomediastinum in thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62:1210-2 pubmed
    ..adjuvant pneumomediastinum was preoperatively induced in 4 patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy. Neither mortality nor technique-related morbidity was observed...
  40. Machens A, Löliger C, Pichlmeier U, Emskotter T, Busch C, Izbicki J. The impact of HLA on long-term outcome after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;88:177-81 pubmed
    ..with myasthenia gravis, the only factors predictive of improvement in muscular strength after transsternal thymectomy were preoperative severity of myasthenia (90% versus 54%, p = 0.0014) and HLA-B8 (79% versus 50%, p = 0...
  41. de Perrot M, Bril V, McRae K, Keshavjee S. Impact of minimally invasive trans-cervical thymectomy on outcome in patients with myasthenia gravis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;24:677-83 pubmed
    To study the impact of minimally invasive trans-cervical thymectomy on the incidence of remission of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in a single institution over a 10-year period...
  42. D Amelio P, Grimaldi A, Bernabei P, Pescarmona G, Isaia G. Immune system and bone metabolism: Does thymectomy influence postmenopausal bone loss in humans?. Bone. 2006;39:658-65 pubmed
    ..Among them are TNF alpha and IL-7. The present study investigates the role of thymectomy (THX) and IL-7 in bone metabolism in humans...
  43. Tan Q, Wang R, Jiang Y, Deng B, Ma Z, Gong T, et al. [Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery through right anterior-lateral approach]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;46:408-10 pubmed
    To evaluate the feasibility and curative effect of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG) by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) through right anterior-lateral approach...
  44. Liu H, Li J, Wu Y, Xie M, Liu Y, Jiang G, et al. [Video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: analysis of 107 cases]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2005;43:625-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the results of video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. We retrospectively reviewed data from 107 patients received thoracoscopic extended thymectomy from June 1995 to June 2004...
  45. Huang C, Hsu H, Huang B, Lee H, Kao K, Hsu W, et al. Factors influencing the outcome of transsternal thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;112:108-14 pubmed
    b>Thymectomy is one of the current treatment strategies for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG); however, the selection criteria for surgery remain controversial...
  46. Mirsadraee S, Shah S, Kumar B, Kaul P. Incidental locally infiltrating malignant thymoma and coronary artery bypass surgery-excision should always be considered. J Card Surg. 2005;20:291-2 pubmed
    ..Total thymectomy and enbloc excision of tumor with adjacent involved pericardium, pleura, and phrenic nerve was performed...
  47. Glinjongol C, Paiboonpol S. Outcome after transsternal radical thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: 14-year review at Ratchaburi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87:1304-10 pubmed
    To determine predictability factors, clinical features and outcome in the patients after transsternal radical thymectomy (TRT) for Myasthenia Gravis (MG)...
  48. Romi F, Gilhus N, Varhaug J, Myking A, Skeie G, Aarli J. Thymectomy and antimuscle antibodies in nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;998:481-90 pubmed
    The clinical effect of thymectomy in early- and late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG) and the correlation to MG severity, pharmacological treatment, and antimuscle antibodies were examined in two series of consecutive acetylcholine receptor (..
  49. Sperling B, Marschall J, Kennedy R, Pahwa P, Chibbar R. Thymoma: a review of the clinical and pathological findings in 65 cases. Can J Surg. 2003;46:37-42 pubmed
    ..Thymoma is a rare tumour with a variable clinical presentation. Clinical outcome correlates with clinical stage and the ability to achieve complete tumour resection. ..
  50. Novak L, Castro C, Listinsky C. Multiple Langerhans cell nodules in an incidental thymectomy. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:218-20 pubmed
    ..the finding of multiple small Langerhans cell nodules in the thymus of an 11-month-old infant who had undergone thymectomy in the course of surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot...
  51. Loehrer P, Wick M. Thymic malignancies. Cancer Treat Res. 2001;105:277-302 pubmed
    ..Further information regarding the molecular nature of these neoplasms and immunologic aspects is needed in future investigation. ..
  52. van den Dool C, de Boer R. The effects of age, thymectomy, and HIV Infection on alpha and beta TCR excision circles in naive T cells. J Immunol. 2006;177:4391-401 pubmed
    ..Because our model is consistent with current data on the effects of age and thymectomy on TRECs in peripheral T cells, we conclude that aging may well affect thymocyte division, which markedly ..
  53. Savitt M, Gao G, Furnary A, Swanson J, Gately H, Handy J. Application of robotic-assisted techniques to the surgical evaluation and treatment of the anterior mediastinum. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:450-5; discussion 455 pubmed
    ..Fourteen patients underwent successful robotic-assisted thymectomy. One patient underwent robotic-assisted biopsy of a mass that was later determined to be a poorly differentiated ..