Summary: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Top Publications

  1. Petejova N, Zahalkova J, Duricová J, Kacirova I, Brozmanova H, Urbanek K, et al. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics during continuous venovenous hemofiltration in critically ill septic patients. J Chemother. 2012;24:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..for administration of gentamicin to septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) on continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) at a filtration rate of 45 ml/kg/h are missing...
  2. Nurmohamed S, Jallah B, Vervloet M, Yldirim G, ter Wee P, Groeneveld A. Continuous venovenous haemofiltration with citrate-buffered replacement solution is safe and efficacious in patients with a bleeding tendency: a prospective observational study. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:89 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk for citrate accumulation is 9% and best predicted by levels of transaminases. It carries, when citrate is discontinued, no attributable mortality. ..
  3. Rimmelé T, Kellum J. Clinical review: blood purification for sepsis. Crit Care. 2011;15:205 pubmed publisher
    ..sepsis and how they relate to current concepts of disease, and we review the current evidence for high-volume hemofiltration, cascade hemofiltration, hemoadsorption, coupled plasma filtration adsorption, high-adsorption hemofiltration, ..
  4. Nurmohamed S, Jallah B, Vervloet M, Beishuizen A, Groeneveld A. Predilution versus postdilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration: no effect on filter life and azotemic control in critically ill patients on heparin. ASAIO J. 2011;57:48-52 pubmed publisher
    In continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH), the delivery of replacement fluid in pre- or postdilution mode remains the subject of controversy. We compared both modes in terms of filter life, dose, and azotemic control...
  5. Bilgrami I, Roberts J, Wallis S, Thomas J, Davis J, Fowler S, et al. Meropenem dosing in critically ill patients with sepsis receiving high-volume continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2974-8 pubmed publisher
    Use of high ultrafiltrate flow rates with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) in critically ill patients is an emerging setting, for which there are few data to guide drug dosing...
  6. Delaney E, Rosinski D, Ellis H, Samolyk K, Riley J. An in-vitro comparison between Hemobag and non-Hemobag ultrafiltration methods of salvaging circuit blood following cardiopulmonary bypass. J Extra Corpor Technol. 2010;42:128-33 pubmed
    ..The recirculating HB method to process residual extracorporeal circuit blood is consistent and superior to the most common single pass concentrating method. ..
  7. Peng Z, Pai P, Han Min W, Jun Z, Hong Bao L, Rong L, et al. Evaluation of the effects of pulse high-volume hemofiltration in patients with severe sepsis: a preliminary study. Int J Artif Organs. 2010;33:505-11 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulse high-volume hemofiltration (PHVHF) in patients with severe sepsis.
  8. Hetzel G, Schmitz M, Wissing H, Ries W, Schott G, Heering P, et al. Regional citrate versus systemic heparin for anticoagulation in critically ill patients on continuous venovenous haemofiltration: a prospective randomized multicentre trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, neither citrate nor heparin anticoagulation should be regarded as a therapeutic standard, since there is no advantage of one of these substances with regard to patient mortality. ..
  9. Morabito S, Pistolesi V, Tritapepe L, Zeppilli L, Polistena F, Fiaccadori E, et al. Regional citrate anticoagulation in CVVH: a new protocol combining citrate solution with a phosphate-containing replacement fluid. Hemodial Int. 2013;17:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case report, we evaluated safety and effects on acid-base balance of a new RCA- continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) protocol using an 18 mmol/L citrate solution combined with a phosphate-containing replacement fluid...

More Information


  1. Zhu Y, Zhang P, Yuan J, He Q, Jiang H, Hu X, et al. Adjunctive continuous high-volume hemofiltration in acute severe pancreatitis patients: a retrospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:1363-9 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the efficacy of continuous high-volume hemofiltration for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis patients and the impact of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score on the efficacy of ..
  2. Peng Z, Singbartl K, Simon P, Rimmelé T, Bishop J, Clermont G, et al. Blood purification in sepsis: a new paradigm. Contrib Nephrol. 2010;165:322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..New devices specifically target the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these conditions. High-volume hemofiltration, hemoadsorption, coupled plasma filtration adsorption, and high cutoff membrane are now being tested in septic ..
  3. Oda S, Sadahiro T, Hirayama Y, Nakamura M, Watanabe E, Tateishi Y, et al. Non-renal indications for continuous renal replacement therapy: current status in Japan. Contrib Nephrol. 2010;166:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..g. cytokines). IL-6 blood level appears to be useful as a variable for this evaluation. It is expected that evidence endorsing the validity of these methods now being attempted in Japan will be reported near future. ..
  4. Joannes Boyau O, Honore P, Perez P, Bagshaw S, Grand H, Canivet J, et al. High-volume versus standard-volume haemofiltration for septic shock patients with acute kidney injury (IVOIRE study): a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:1535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..HVHF, as applied in this trial, cannot be recommended for treatment of septic shock complicated by AKI. ..
  5. Wang H, Zhang M, Wang X, Mao H, Ying X, Zhu W, et al. Improvement of cytokine response and survival time by bioartificial kidney therapy in acute uremic pigs with multi-organ dysfunction. Int J Artif Organs. 2010;33:526-34 pubmed
    ..90% compared to Groups B and C (p<0.01), respectively. The addition of renal tubule cell therapy to hemofiltration in an acutely uremic animal model with MODS altered systemic cytokine balance, ameliorated MAP, and prolonged ..
  6. Sanechika N, Sawada K, Usui Y, Hanai K, Kakuta T, Suzuki H, et al. Development of bioartificial renal tubule devices with lifespan-extended human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:2761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Requiring no oncogenes, vectors or cell cloning, the RNAi-mediated lifespan extension can help advance tissue-replacement therapy as well as basic research. ..
  7. Tiranathanagul K, Jearnsujitwimol O, Susantitaphong P, Kijkriengkraikul N, Leelahavanichkul A, Srisawat N, et al. Regional citrate anticoagulation reduces polymorphonuclear cell degranulation in critically ill patients treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Ther Apher Dial. 2011;15:556-64 pubmed publisher
    Citrate which chelates ionized calcium can be used as regional anticoagulation in continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)...
  8. Shum H, Chan K, Yan W. Regional citrate anticoagulation in predilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration using prismocitrate 10/2 solution. Ther Apher Dial. 2012;16:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study describes a simple predilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) protocol utilizing a commercially prepared replacement solution containing citrate (Prismocitrate 10/2)...
  9. Guastoni C, Bellotti N, Poletti F, Covella P, Gidaro B, Stasi A, et al. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration after coronary procedures for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with severe chronic renal failure. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:588-92 pubmed publisher
    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is a renal replacement therapy that has been successfully used in patients with severe chronic renal failure to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI)...
  10. Nurmohamed S, Koning M, Vervloet M, Groeneveld A. Delivered dose of continuous venovenous hemofiltration predicts outcome in septic patients with acute kidney injury: a retrospective study. J Crit Care. 2011;26:213-20 pubmed publisher
    In continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) issues like timing and dose remain controversial, particularly in sepsis...
  11. Cirillo I, Vaccaro N, Balis D, Redman R, Matzke G. Influence of continuous venovenous hemofiltration and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration on the disposition of doripenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..kidney disease undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) via 12-hour continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) (n = 6) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) (n = 5)...
  12. Akers K, Cota J, Frei C, Chung K, Mende K, Murray C. Once-daily amikacin dosing in burn patients treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:4639-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the impact of renal replacement therapies, such as continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH), on amikacin pharmacokinetics...
  13. Yumoto M, Nishida O, Moriyama K, Shimomura Y, Nakamura T, Kuriyama N, et al. In vitro evaluation of high mobility group box 1 protein removal with various membranes for continuous hemofiltration. Ther Apher Dial. 2011;15:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed experimental hemofiltration in vitro using four types of hemofilters composed of different membranes specifically designed for continuous ..
  14. Schilder L, Nurmohamed S, ter Wee P, Girbes A, Beishuizen A, Paauw N, et al. Effect of anticoagulation regimens on handling of interleukin-6 and -8 during continuous venovenous hemofiltration in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Cytokine. 2012;60:601-7 pubmed publisher
    During continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) to replace renal function in acute kidney injury (AKI), anticoagulation of the filter is routinely required...
  15. Chua H, Baldwin I, Ho L, Collins A, Allsep H, Bellomo R. Biochemical effects of phosphate-containing replacement fluid for continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Blood Purif. 2012;34:306-12 pubmed publisher
    To examine biochemical effects of phosphate-containing replacement fluid (Phoxilium(®)) for continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH).
  16. Oudemans van Straaten H, van Schilfgaarde M, Molenaar P, Wester J, Leyte A. Hemostasis during low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a randomized cross-over trial comparing two hemofiltration rates. Crit Care. 2009;13:R193 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) removes LMWHs is unsettled...
  17. Peng Z, Wang H, Carter M, DiLeo M, Bishop J, Zhou F, et al. Acute removal of common sepsis mediators does not explain the effects of extracorporeal blood purification in experimental sepsis. Kidney Int. 2012;81:363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may have important implications for the design and conduct of future trials in sepsis including defining alternative targets for extracorporeal blood purification and other therapies. ..
  18. Lentini P, Cruz D, Nalesso F, De Cal M, Bobek I, Garzotto F, et al. [A pilot study comparing pulse high volume hemofiltration (pHVHF) and coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) in septic shock patients]. G Ital Nefrol. 2009;26:695-703 pubmed
    High-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) and coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) have shown potential to improve the treatment of sepsis in animals, but there have been no studies comparing these two treatments in humans...
  19. Joannidis M, Kountchev J, Rauchenzauner M, Schusterschitz N, Ulmer H, Mayr A, et al. Enoxaparin vs. unfractionated heparin for anticoagulation during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration: a randomized controlled crossover study. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:1571-9 pubmed
    ..efficacy and safety of the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin as anticoagulant in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) compared with unfractionated heparin. Prospective randomized controlled crossover study...
  20. Isla A, Gascón A, Maynar J, Arzuaga A, Corral E, Martin A, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of enoxaparin removal by continuous renal replacement therapies with acrylonitrile and polysulfone membranes. Clin Ther. 2005;27:1444-51 pubmed
    ..or fresh human plasma as enoxaparin vehicle, using AN69 or PS membranes, and following continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) or continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD)...
  21. Chertow G, Waikar S. Toward the promise of renal replacement therapy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:839-40 pubmed publisher
  22. Pea F, Viale P, Lugano M, Pavan F, Scudeller L, Della Rocca G, et al. Linezolid disposition after standard dosages in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a report of 2 cases. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;44:1097-102 pubmed
    ..Its pharmacokinetic ability was assessed during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in 2 anuric patients with severe postsurgical intraabdominal infections who were receiving standard ..
  23. Harvey B, Hickman C, Hinson G, Ralph T, Mayer A. Severe lactic acidosis complicating metformin overdose successfully treated with high-volume venovenous hemofiltration and aggressive alkalinization. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:598-601 pubmed
    In this report of a near-fatal metformin ingestion successfully treated with alkalinization and high-volume hemofiltration, we discuss the management of severe lactic acidosis and demonstrate that early aggressive intervention resulted in ..
  24. Ronco C, Ricci Z. Renal replacement therapies: physiological review. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:2139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvement in renal recovery and survival from AKI will be achieved from optimization of therapy and increased awareness of potential benefits and dangers deriving from different RRT modalities. ..
  25. Tetta C, Bellomo R, Kellum J, Ricci Z, Pohlmeiere R, Passlick Deetjen J, et al. High volume hemofiltration in critically ill patients: why, when and how?. Contrib Nephrol. 2004;144:362-75 pubmed
  26. Baldwin I, Bellomo R, Koch B. Blood flow reductions during continuous renal replacement therapy and circuit life. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:2074-9 pubmed
    ..Such reductions are frequent, and when sufficiently severe appear to be correlated with filter life more strongly than the blood coagulation variables typically used to monitor adequacy of anticoagulation and promote filter longevity. ..
  27. Davies H, Leslie G. Maintaining the CRRT circuit: non-anticoagulant alternatives. Aust Crit Care. 2006;19:133-8 pubmed
    ..This requires the development of evidence-based practice guidelines which include strategies that are known to promote circuit life. ..
  28. de Pont A, Hofstra J, Pik D, Meijers J, Schultz M. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of danaparoid during continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a pilot study. Crit Care. 2007;11:R102 pubmed
    ..renal failure, especially in patients dependent on renal replacement therapy such as continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)...
  29. Bouman C, de Pont A, Meijers J, Bakhtiari K, Roem D, Zeerleder S, et al. The effects of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on coagulation activation. Crit Care. 2006;10:R150 pubmed
    The mechanism of coagulation activation during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) has not yet been elucidated...
  30. Hörner C, Schuster S, Plachky J, Hofer S, Martin E, Weigand M. Hemofiltration and immune response in severe sepsis. J Surg Res. 2007;142:59-65 pubmed
    ..Additionally, similar measurements were performed with ultrafiltrate gained from continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH)...
  31. Mao H, Yu S, Yu X, Zhang B, Zhang L, Xu X, et al. Effects of coupled plasma filtration adsorption on immune function of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32:31-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) on the immune function of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
  32. Arzuaga A, Maynar J, Gascón A, Isla A, Corral E, Fonseca F, et al. Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in intensive care unit patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45:168-76 pubmed
    ..intravenous infusion) were studied in 14 patients with acute renal failure who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration with AN69 membranes...
  33. du Cheyron D, Bouchet B, Bruel C, Daubin C, Ramakers M, Charbonneau P. Antithrombin supplementation for anticoagulation during continuous hemofiltration in critically ill patients with septic shock: a case-control study. Crit Care. 2006;10:R45 pubmed
    ..5 versus 33.4 hours; p = 0.0045). The hemofiltration dose, assessed by the ratio of delivered to prescribed ultrafiltration, increased during intervention...
  34. de Pont A, Bouman C, Bakhtiari K, Schaap M, Nieuwland R, Sturk A, et al. Predilution versus postdilution during continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a comparison of circuit thrombogenesis. ASAIO J. 2006;52:416-22 pubmed
    During continuous venovenous hemofiltration, predilution can prolong circuit survival time, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated...
  35. Cointault O, Kamar N, Bories P, Lavayssiere L, Angles O, Rostaing L, et al. Regional citrate anticoagulation in continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration using commercial solutions. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004;19:171-8 pubmed
    ..The monitoring of patients was as intensive as during heparin anticoagulation for CRRT. Because of the higher cost of this method, it should be proposed only for patients with high bleeding risk. ..
  36. Page B, Vieillard Baron A, Chergui K, Peyrouset O, Rabiller A, Beauchet A, et al. Early veno-venous haemodiafiltration for sepsis-related multiple organ failure. Crit Care. 2005;9:R755-63 pubmed
    ..Early CVVHDF may improve the prognosis of sepsis-related multiple organ failure. Failure to correct metabolic acidosis rapidly during the procedure was a strong predictor of mortality. ..
  37. Huang H, Yao T, Wang W, Zhu D, Zhang W, Chen H, et al. Continuous ultrafiltration attenuates the pulmonary injury that follows open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;76:136-40 pubmed
  38. Payen D, Mateo J, Cavaillon J, Fraisse F, Floriot C, Vicaut E. Impact of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on organ failure during the early phase of severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:803-10 pubmed publisher
    The impact of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on sepsis-induced multiple organ failure severity is controversial...
  39. Venkataraman R, Subramanian S, Kellum J. Clinical review: extracorporeal blood purification in severe sepsis. Crit Care. 2003;7:139-45 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss the various modalities of extracorporeal blood purification, the existing evidence, and future prospects. ..
  40. Lasocki S, Ajzenberg N, Quintard H, Plantefeve G, Desmonts J, Montravers P. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia suspected because of repeated hemofiltration filter clotting. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:1305-1307 pubmed publisher
  41. Nurmohamed S, Vervloet M, Girbes A, ter Wee P, Groeneveld A. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with or without predilution regional citrate anticoagulation: a prospective study. Blood Purif. 2007;25:316-23 pubmed
    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) requires anticoagulation to prevent circuit clotting and its use is contraindicated in patients with high bleeding risk...
  42. Saito A. Research into the development of a wearable bioartificial kidney with a continuous hemofilter and a bioartificial tubule device using tubular epithelial cells. Artif Organs. 2004;28:58-63 pubmed
    ..to overcome the loss of tubular function, a bioartificial kidney has been developed consisting of continuous hemofiltration (CHF) with 10 L/day of filtrate and a bioartificial tubule device using proximal tubular epithelial cells and ..
  43. Kellum J, Song M, Venkataraman R. Hemoadsorption removes tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, reduces nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding, and improves short-term survival in lethal endotoxemia. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:801-5 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that inflammatory mediators can be removed from the circulation with hemofiltration and that adsorption plays an important role...
  44. Brendolan A, D Intini V, Ricci Z, Bonello M, Ratanarat R, Salvatori G, et al. Pulse high volume hemofiltration. Int J Artif Organs. 2004;27:398-403 pubmed
    ..High volume hemofiltration (HVHF) has had the most dramatic effect conferring benefits in hemodynamics, reduction in vasopressor doses ..
  45. Bihorac A, Ross E. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with citrate-based replacement fluid: efficacy, safety, and impact on nutrition. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;46:908-18 pubmed
    Citrate-based continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) replacement fluids provide effective and simple regional anticoagulation...
  46. Rimmelé T, Wey P, Bernard N, Monchi M, Semenzato N, Benatir F, et al. Hemofiltration with the Cascade system in an experimental porcine model of septic shock. Ther Apher Dial. 2009;13:63-70 pubmed publisher
    High-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) has been suggested as an adjuvant treatment of septic shock because of its capacities to remove inflammatory mediators from blood...
  47. Choi K, Lee J, Kim Y, Kim D, Kim K, Ko Y, et al. Efficacy of continuous venovenous hemofiltration with chemotherapy in patients with Burkitt lymphoma and leukemia at high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Ann Hematol. 2009;88:639-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) with prephase chemotherapy using the modified LMB-89 regimen in patients with Burkitt lymphoma and ..
  48. Lins R, Elseviers M, Van Der Niepen P, Hoste E, Malbrain M, Damas P, et al. Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury patients admitted to the intensive care unit: results of a randomized clinical trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both modalities need to be considered as complementary in the treatment of AKI (Clinical Trial: SHARF 4, NCT00322933, http://ClinicalTrials.gov). ..
  49. Li C, Chen J, Zhang P, He Q, Yuan J, Chen R, et al. Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration attenuates myocardial mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity in porcine septic shock. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:911-9 pubmed
    ..03 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.04, P = 0.04). These results suggest that high-volume CVVH improves haemodynamics and heart dysfunction in septic shock and the improvement may be attributed to amelioration of myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  50. Sun I, Lee S, Lin S, Lai C. Continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration in burn patients with acute renal failure. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2007;23:344-51 pubmed
    ..received continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis (CAVHD) and the other three received continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). The patients were all males, with a mean age of 49...
  51. Baas M, Bouman C, Hoek F, Krediet R, Schultz M. Cystatin C in critically ill patients treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Hemodial Int. 2006;10 Suppl 2:S33-7 pubmed
    ..renal function in critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is difficult. Cystatin C (CysC) is a low-molecular-weight protein (13...
  52. van der Voort P, Postma S, Kingma W, Boerma E, van Roon E. Safety of citrate based hemofiltration in critically ill patients at high risk for bleeding: a comparison with nadroparin. Int J Artif Organs. 2006;29:559-63 pubmed
    To study the incidence and severity of bleeding in high risk critically ill patients during high volume, citrate based continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH).
  53. Morgera S, Klonower D, Rocktäschel J, Haase M, Priem F, Ziemer S, et al. TNF-alpha elimination with high cut-off haemofilters: a feasible clinical modality for septic patients?. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:1361-9 pubmed
    ..Due to the high protein loss in haemofiltration, dialysis in combination with balanced protein substitution seems to be a suitable approach for clinical trials. ..