Summary: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.

Top Publications

  1. Kotiguda G, Kapnoor S, Kulkarni D, Mulimani V. Degradation of raffinose oligosaccharides in soymilk by immobilized alpha-galactosidase of Aspergillus oryzae. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;17:1430-6 pubmed
    ..The immobilized enzyme was used in batch, repeated batch, and continuous modes to degrade the raffinose-family sugars present in soymilk...
  2. Rauen U, de Groot H. Inherent toxicity of organ preservation solutions to cultured hepatocytes. Cryobiology. 2008;56:88-92 pubmed
    ..These potential toxicities should be taken into account in the development of future preservation solutions. ..
  3. Guaragnella N, Zdralević M, Lattanzio P, Marzulli D, Pracheil T, Liu Z, et al. Yeast growth in raffinose results in resistance to acetic-acid induced programmed cell death mostly due to the activation of the mitochondrial retrograde pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:2765-2774 pubmed publisher
    ..yeast sensitivity to programmed cell death (PCD) induced by acetic acid (AA-PCD), yeast cells were grown on raffinose, as a sole carbon source, which, differently from glucose, favours mitochondrial respiration...
  4. Sui X, Meng F, Wang H, Wei Y, Li R, Wang Z, et al. Molecular cloning, characteristics and low temperature response of raffinose synthase gene in Cucumis sativus L. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1883-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Raffinose synthase (RS, EC2.4.1.82) is one of the key enzymes that channels sucrose into the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) biosynthetic pathway...
  5. Teixeira J, McNeill V, Ganzle M. Levansucrase and sucrose phoshorylase contribute to raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose metabolism by lactobacilli. Food Microbiol. 2012;31:278-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in food are considered anti-nutritional factors. This study elucidated the role of ?-galactosidase (?-Gal), levansucrase, and sucrose phosphorylase for conversion of RFOs by lactobacilli...
  6. Tyx R, Roche Hakansson H, Hakansson A. Role of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in regulation of raffinose transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3512-24 pubmed publisher
    ..strains lacking the enzyme dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) show markedly reduced ability to grow on raffinose and stachyose as sole carbon sources...
  7. Dierking E, Bilyeu K. Raffinose and stachyose metabolism are not required for efficient soybean seed germination. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:1329-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which include raffinose and stachyose, are thought to be an important source of energy during seed germination...
  8. Nishizawa A, Yabuta Y, Shigeoka S. Galactinol and raffinose constitute a novel function to protect plants from oxidative damage. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1251-63 pubmed publisher
    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides that function as osmoprotectants in plant cells...
  9. Van Camp B, Crow R, Peng Y, Varela M. Amino acids that confer transport of raffinose and maltose sugars in the raffinose permease (RafB) of Escherichia coli as implicated by spontaneous mutations at Val-35, Ser-138, Ser-139, Gly-389 and Ile-391. J Membr Biol. 2007;220:87-95 pubmed
    In order to identify amino acid residues in the Escherichia coli raffinose-H(+) permease (RafB) that play a role in sugar selection and transport, we first incubated E...

More Information


  1. Wei L, Hata K, Doorschodt B, Buttner R, Minor T, Tolba R. Experimental small bowel preservation using Polysol: a new alternative to University of Wisconsin solution, Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution?. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:3684-91 pubmed
    ..Cold storage using Polysol resulted in significantly better integrity and function of small bowel grafts than UW. Hence, Polysol may be a novel alternative for the small bowel preservation. ..
  2. Peters S, Egert A, Stieger B, Keller F. Functional identification of Arabidopsis ATSIP2 (At3g57520) as an alkaline ?-galactosidase with a substrate specificity for raffinose and an apparent sink-specific expression pattern. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:1815-9 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis ATSIP2 has recently been suggested to be a raffinose synthase gene. However, it has high amino acid identity to functionally characterized alkaline ?-galactosidases from Cucumis melo and Zea mays...
  3. Schneider T, Keller F. Raffinose in chloroplasts is synthesized in the cytosol and transported across the chloroplast envelope. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:2174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The trisaccharide raffinose (alpha-1,6-galactosyl sucrose) is such a carbohydrate but has received little attention...
  4. Abbas R, Kombu R, DIGNAM D, Gunning W, Stulberg J, Brunengraber H, et al. Polyethylene glycol modified-albumin enhances the cold preservation properties of University of Wisconsin solution in rat liver and a hepatocyte cell line. J Surg Res. 2010;164:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Peg-Alb-UW solution improved the integrity of the glutathione redox buffer system of a hepatocyte cell line after cold storage and reperfusion. ..
  5. Pileggi A, Ribeiro M, Hogan A, Molano R, Cobianchi L, Ichii H, et al. Impact of pancreatic cold preservation on rat islet recovery and function. Transplantation. 2009;87:1442-50 pubmed publisher
  6. Mosbah I, Franco Gou R, Abdennebi H, Hernandez R, Escolar G, Saidane D, et al. Effects of polyethylene glycol and hydroxyethyl starch in University of Wisconsin preservation solution on human red blood cell aggregation and viscosity. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:1229-35 pubmed
    ..These results were consistent with reduced viscosity for PEG-containing solutions. In conclusion, the use of PEG did not change the physiologic function of human RBCs and thus may be an alternative to HES in UW liquids. ..
  7. McCaskill A, Turgeon R. Phloem loading in Verbascum phoeniceum L. depends on the synthesis of raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19619-24 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that loading occurs symplastically in species that translocate carbohydrate primarily as raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs)...
  8. Li X, Zhuo J, Jing Y, Liu X, Wang X. Expression of a GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene is positively associated with desiccation tolerance of Brassica napus seeds during development. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:1761-70 pubmed publisher
    Desiccation tolerance of seeds is positively correlated with raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). However, RFOs' role in desiccation tolerance is still a matter of controversy...
  9. Peters S, Keller F. Frost tolerance in excised leaves of the common bugle (Ajuga reptans L.) correlates positively with the concentrations of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Plant Cell Environ. 2009;32:1099-107 pubmed publisher
    Mass increases in raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, alpha1,6-galactosyl extensions of sucrose) are well documented in the generative tissues of many plants upon cold acclimation, and they (i.e...
  10. Wille T, de Groot H, Rauen U. Improvement of the cold storage of blood vessels with a vascular preservation solution. Study in porcine aortic segments. J Vasc Surg. 2008;47:422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, iron chelators, but also optimized base solutions, are options to improve the storage of vascular endothelium. The optimized solution should now be tested in in vivo animal experiments. ..
  11. Maluf D, Mas V, Yanek K, Stone J, Weis R, Massey D, et al. Molecular markers in stored kidneys using perfluorocarbon-based preservation solution: preliminary results. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:1243-6 pubmed
    ..These preliminary data suggest that increasing oxygen delivery by PFC added to the perfusion solution triggers cytoprotective mechanism in kidney transplantation. ..
  12. Alberto F, Jordi E, Henrissat B, Czjzek M. Crystal structure of inactivated Thermotoga maritima invertase in complex with the trisaccharide substrate raffinose. Biochem J. 2006;395:457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..a member of the glycoside hydrolase family GH-32, readily releases beta-D-fructose from sucrose, raffinose and fructan polymers such as inulin...
  13. Dai N, Petreikov M, Portnoy V, Katzir N, Pharr D, Schaffer A. Cloning and expression analysis of a UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase from melon fruit provides evidence for the major metabolic pathway of galactose metabolism in raffinose oligosaccharide metabolizing plants. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:294-304 pubmed publisher
    The Cucurbitaceae translocate a significant portion of their photosynthate as raffinose and stachyose, which are galactosyl derivatives of sucrose...
  14. Hannah M, Zuther E, Buchel K, Heyer A. Transport and metabolism of raffinose family oligosaccharides in transgenic potato. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:3801-11 pubmed
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are involved in the storage and transport of carbon and serve as compatible solutes for protection against abiotic stresses like drought or cold...
  15. Ben Mosbah I, Massip Salcedo M, Fernández Monteiro I, Xaus C, Bartrons R, Boillot O, et al. Addition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activators to University of Wisconsin solution: a way of protecting rat steatotic livers. Liver Transpl. 2007;13:410-25 pubmed
    ..TMZ and AICAR may constitute new additives to UW solution in steatotic liver preservation, whereas a combination of both seems unnecessary. ..
  16. Kaplan F, Kopka J, Sung D, Zhao W, Popp M, Porat R, et al. Transcript and metabolite profiling during cold acclimation of Arabidopsis reveals an intricate relationship of cold-regulated gene expression with modifications in metabolite content. Plant J. 2007;50:967-81 pubmed
    ..The present findings demonstrate that regulatory processes independent of transcript abundance represent a key part of the metabolic adjustments that occur during cold acclimation. ..
  17. Liu H, Dai X, Xu Y, Chong K. Over-expression of OsUGE-1 altered raffinose level and tolerance to abiotic stress but not morphology in Arabidopsis. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:1384-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, transgenic plants showed a higher level of the soluble sugar raffinose than did wild-type plants...
  18. Peters S, Mundree S, Thomson J, Farrant J, Keller F. Protection mechanisms in the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa (Baker): both sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) accumulate in leaves in response to water deficit. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:1947-56 pubmed
    ..Sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), particularly raffinose, increased under these conditions, with the highest ..
  19. Andersen J, Barrangou R, Hachem M, Lahtinen S, Goh Y, Svensson B, et al. Transcriptional analysis of prebiotic uptake and catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44409 pubmed publisher
    ..such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS)...
  20. Philippe R, Ralph S, Mansfield S, Bohlmann J. Transcriptome profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) reveal rapid changes in undamaged, systemic sink leaves after simulated feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria). New Phytol. 2010;188:787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Induced changes of galactinol and raffinose oligosaccharides were detected by anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography...
  21. Zhang X, Vrijenhoek J, Bonten M, Willems R, van Schaik W. A genetic element present on megaplasmids allows Enterococcus faecium to use raffinose as carbon source. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..faecium gene cluster that is responsible for the metabolism of the ?-galactoside sugar raffinose. Phenotypic testing of seven E...
  22. Ostrowska A, Gu K, Bode D, Van Buskirk R. Hypothermic storage of isolated human hepatocytes: a comparison between University of Wisconsin solution and a hypothermosol platform. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the use of HTS-FRS eliminates the need for serum in preservation solutions. HTS-FRS represents an improved solution compared to HTS-Base and UW for extending the shipping/storage time of human hepatocytes. ..
  23. Marsolais F, Pajak A, Yin F, Taylor M, Gabriel M, Merino D, et al. Proteomic analysis of common bean seed with storage protein deficiency reveals up-regulation of sulfur-rich proteins and starch and raffinose metabolic enzymes, and down-regulation of the secretory pathway. J Proteomics. 2010;73:1587-600 pubmed publisher
    ..starch composition, whereas increased levels of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase were correlated with a 30% increase in raffinose content. Induction of cell division cycle protein 48 and ubiquitin suggested enhanced ER-associated degradation...
  24. Liu C, Hsu P, Huang W, Huang M, Hsu H. Two-layer method (UW solution/perfluorochemical plus O2) for lung preservation in rat lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:3019-23 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination revealed more inflammatory cell aggregates in the lung graft preserved using a two-layer method. ..
  25. Fang W, St Leger R. Mrt, a gene unique to fungi, encodes an oligosaccharide transporter and facilitates rhizosphere competency in Metarhizium robertsii. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides in root exudates are important for rhizosphere competence in the insect pathogen ..
  26. Hirayama Y, Sakanaka M, Fukuma H, Murayama H, Kano Y, Fukiya S, et al. Development of a double-crossover markerless gene deletion system in Bifidobacterium longum: functional analysis of the ?-galactosidase gene for raffinose assimilation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4984-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Markerless gene deletion was tested using the aga gene, which encodes ?-galactosidase, whose substrates include raffinose. Almost all the pTBR101-CM-transformed strains became double-crossover recombinants after subculture, and 4 out ..
  27. Dos Santos T, Budzinski I, Marur C, Petkowicz C, Pereira L, Vieira L. Expression of three galactinol synthase isoforms in Coffea arabica L. and accumulation of raffinose and stachyose in response to abiotic stresses. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:441-8 pubmed publisher
    Galactinol synthase (EC; GolS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Their accumulation in response to abiotic stresses implies a role for RFOs in stress adaptation...
  28. Fernando W, Hill J, Zello G, Tyler R, Dahl W, van Kessel A. Diets supplemented with chickpea or its main oligosaccharide component raffinose modify faecal microbial composition in healthy adults. Benef Microbes. 2010;1:197-207 pubmed publisher
    The effects of diets supplemented with either chickpea or its main oligosaccharide raffinose on the composition of the faecal microbial community were examined in 12 healthy adults (18-65 years) in a randomised crossover intervention ..
  29. Hernandez Hernandez O, Côté G, Kolida S, Rastall R, Sanz M. In vitro fermentation of alternansucrase raffinose-derived oligosaccharides by human gut bacteria. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:10901-6 pubmed publisher
    In this work, in vitro fermentation of alternansucrase raffinose-derived oligosaccharides, previously fractionated according to their degree of polymerization (DP; from DP4 to DP10), was carried out using small-scale pH-controlled batch ..
  30. Blöchl A, Peterbauer T, Richter A. Inhibition of raffinose oligosaccharide breakdown delays germination of pea seeds. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:1093-6 pubmed
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are almost ubiquitous in seeds and have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy source during germination...
  31. Dinoto A, Suksomcheep A, Ishizuka S, Kimura H, Hanada S, Kamagata Y, et al. Modulation of rat cecal microbiota by administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:784-92 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192T cells on the rat cecal microbiota, in a preclinical synbiotic study groups of male WKAH/Hkm Slc rats were fed for 3 weeks with ..
  32. Zhou M, Zhang Q, Zhou M, Sun Z, Zhu X, Shao J, et al. Genome-wide identification of genes involved in raffinose metabolism in Maize. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1775-85 pubmed publisher
    The raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), such as raffinose and stachyose, are synthesized by a set of distinct galactosyltransferases, which sequentially add galactose units to sucrose...
  33. Noguchi H, Ueda M, Hayashi S, Kobayashi N, Okitsu T, Iwanaga Y, et al. Ductal injection of preservation solution increases islet yields in islet isolation and improves islet graft function. Cell Transplant. 2008;17:69-81 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, this technique is now used for clinical islet transplantation from non-heart-beating donor pancreata or living donor pancreas. ..
  34. Marada T, Zacharovova K, Saudek F. Perfluorocarbon improves post-transplant survival and early kidney function following prolonged cold ischemia. Eur Surg Res. 2010;44:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We demonstrated for the first time that conservation with TLM significantly improves the outcome of kidney transplantation in a rat model and should therefore be further studied in larger animals. ..
  35. Noguchi H, Ueda M, Nakai Y, Iwanaga Y, Okitsu T, Nagata H, et al. Modified two-layer preservation method (M-Kyoto/PFC) improves islet yields in islet isolation. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:496-504 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the advantages of M-Kyoto solution are trypsin inhibition and less collagenase inhibition. Based on these data, we now use M-Kyoto solution for clinical islet transplantation from nonheart-beating donor pancreata. ..
  36. Maathuis M, Ottens P, van Goor H, Zwaagstra J, Wiersema Buist J, Schuurs T, et al. Static cold storage preservation of ischemically damaged kidneys. a comparison between IGL-1 and UW solution. Transpl Int. 2008;21:473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present experiment, static CS preservation of ischemically damaged rat kidneys in either IGL-1 or UW-CSS rendered equal results after transplantation. ..
  37. Manekeller S, Schuppius A, Stegemann J, Hirner A, Minor T. Role of perfusion medium, oxygen and rheology for endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death after hypothermic machine preservation of the liver. Transpl Int. 2008;21:169-77 pubmed
    ..The simple insufflation of gaseous O2 may be considered a feasible alternative, apparently indifferent to the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  38. Salahudeen A, Joshi M, Jenkins J. Apoptosis versus necrosis during cold storage and rewarming of human renal proximal tubular cells. Transplantation. 2001;72:798-804 pubmed
    ..Inclusion of antioxidants in the storage solution confers protection against both cold storage and rewarming-induced necrosis and apoptosis. ..
  39. Peterbauer T, Mach L, Mucha J, Richter A. Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis. Planta. 2002;215:839-46 pubmed
    b>Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase (EC 2.4.1...
  40. Bartels Stringer M, Kramers C, Wetzels J, Russel F, Groot H, Rauen U. Hypothermia causes a marked injury to rat proximal tubular cells that is aggravated by all currently used preservation solutions. Cryobiology. 2003;47:82-91 pubmed
    ..Iron-dependent MPT is suggested to play a role in this damage. Strategies to prevent cold-induced injury should aim at reducing the availability of "free" iron. ..
  41. Trindade M, Abratt V, Reid S. Induction of sucrose utilization genes from Bifidobacterium lactis by sucrose and raffinose. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:24-32 pubmed
    ..In B. lactis, total sucrase activity was induced by the presence of sucrose, raffinose, or oligofructose in the culture medium and was repressed by glucose...
  42. Auger S, Vallerand D, Haddad P. Cold preservation-warm reperfusion perturbs cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Liver Transpl. 2003;9:150-9 pubmed
    ..Cold preservation does not significantly affect changes in SEC steady-state Ca(2+) levels, but greatly impairs the capacity of SECs to subsequently respond to Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists. ..
  43. Rosenow C, Maniar M, Trias J. Regulation of the alpha-galactosidase activity in Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterization of the raffinose utilization system. Genome Res. 1999;9:1189-97 pubmed
    ..the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome sequence that contains eight genes involved in regulation and metabolism of raffinose. The genes rafR and rafS are transcribed as one operon, and their gene products regulate the raffinose-dependent ..
  44. Peterbauer T, Mucha J, Mach L, Richter A. Chain Elongation of raffinose in pea seeds. Isolation, characterization, and molecular cloning of mutifunctional enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of stachyose and verbascose. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:194-200 pubmed
    b>Raffinose oligosaccharides are major soluble carbohydrates in seeds and other tissues of plants...
  45. Hincha D, Zuther E, Heyer A. The preservation of liposomes by raffinose family oligosaccharides during drying is mediated by effects on fusion and lipid phase transitions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1612:172-7 pubmed
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) have been implicated as protective agents in the cellular dehydration tolerance, especially of many plant seeds...
  46. Peterbauer T, Lahuta L, Blöchl A, Mucha J, Jones D, Hedley C, et al. Analysis of the raffinose family oligosaccharide pathway in pea seeds with contrasting carbohydrate composition. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:1764-72 pubmed
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are synthesized by a set of galactosyltransferases, which sequentially add galactose units from galactinol to sucrose...
  47. Taji T, Ohsumi C, Iuchi S, Seki M, Kasuga M, Kobayashi M, et al. Important roles of drought- and cold-inducible genes for galactinol synthase in stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2002;29:417-26 pubmed
    b>Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulating during seed development are thought to play a role in the desiccation tolerance of seeds. However, the functions of RFO in desiccation tolerance have not been elucidated...
  48. Lakey J, Tsujimura T, Shapiro A, Kuroda Y. Preservation of the human pancreas before islet isolation using a two-layer (UW solution-perfluorochemical) cold storage method. Transplantation. 2002;74:1809-11 pubmed
  49. Lieberthal W, Fuhro R, Freedman J, Toolan G, Loscalzo J, Valeri C. O-raffinose cross-linking markedly reduces systemic and renal vasoconstrictor effects of unmodified human hemoglobin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;288:1278-87 pubmed
    ..We compared unmodified hemoglobin with hemoglobin cross-linked with O-raffinose. Unmodified hemoglobin increased systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure more than the O-..
  50. Bessems M, Doorschodt B, van Vliet A, van Gulik T. Improved rat liver preservation by hypothermic continuous machine perfusion using polysol, a new, enriched preservation solution. Liver Transpl. 2005;11:539-46 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, machine perfusion using Polysol results in better quality liver preservation than cold storage with UW and machine perfusion using UW-G. ..
  51. van der Plaats A, T Hart N, Morariu A, Verkerke G, Leuvenink H, Ploeg R, et al. Effect of University of Wisconsin organ-preservation solution on haemorheology. Transpl Int. 2004;17:227-33 pubmed
    ..The aggregates are larger than the diameter of the sinusoids. Initial washout could be optimised by pre-flushing to improve the viability of the liver and to decrease delayed graft function. ..
  52. LeBlanc J, Garro M, Savoy de Giori G. Effect of pH on Lactobacillus fermentum growth, raffinose removal, alpha-galactosidase activity and fermentation products. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;65:119-23 pubmed
    ..Growth was similar under all conditions assayed except at pH 4.5. These microorganisms were able to eliminate raffinose, a nondigestible alpha-oligosaccharide (NDO) found in soy products, showing a consumption rate of 0...
  53. Sawada T, Matsumoto I, Nakano M, Kirchhof N, Sutherland D, Hering B. Improved islet yield and function with ductal injection of University of Wisconsin solution before pancreas preservation. Transplantation. 2003;75:1965-9 pubmed
    ..05, group 2 vs. group 3 and group 4 vs. group 5). Ductal preservation improved islet yield and function after 6 and 24 hr of preservation. Well-preserved pancreatic ducts maintained good distribution of collagenase solution. ..