Summary: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.

Top Publications

  1. Kadirvelraj R, Grant O, Goldstein I, Winter H, Tateno H, Fadda E, et al. Structure and binding analysis of Polyporus squamosus lectin in complex with the Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc human-type influenza receptor. Glycobiology. 2011;21:973-84 pubmed publisher
  2. Abdel Motal U, Guay H, Wigglesworth K, Welsh R, Galili U. Immunogenicity of influenza virus vaccine is increased by anti-gal-mediated targeting to antigen-presenting cells. J Virol. 2007;81:9131-41 pubmed
    ..We suggest that a similar method for increasing immunogenicity may be applicable to avian influenza vaccines. ..
  3. Le Roy K, Lammens W, Verhaest M, De Coninck B, Rabijns A, Van Laere A, et al. Unraveling the difference between invertases and fructan exohydrolases: a single amino acid (Asp-239) substitution transforms Arabidopsis cell wall invertase1 into a fructan 1-exohydrolase. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:616-25 pubmed
    ..The presence or absence of such an Asp-239 homolog is proposed as a reliable determinant to discriminate between real invertases and defective invertases/FEHs. ..
  4. Tang C, Schwieters C, Clore G. Open-to-closed transition in apo maltose-binding protein observed by paramagnetic NMR. Nature. 2007;449:1078-82 pubmed
    ..Using ensemble simulated annealing refinement against the PRE data we are able to determine a <r(-6)> ensemble average structure of the minor apo species and show that it is distinct from the sugar-bound state. ..
  5. Alves S, Herberts R, Hollatz C, Trichez D, Miletti L, de Araujo P, et al. Molecular analysis of maltotriose active transport and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a determinant role for the AGT1 permease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1494-501 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae yeasts, highlighting the importance of this permease for breeding and/or selection programs aimed at improving sluggish maltotriose fermentations. ..
  6. Galili U, Wigglesworth K, Abdel Motal U. Accelerated healing of skin burns by anti-Gal/alpha-gal liposomes interaction. Burns. 2010;36:239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Since anti-Gal is abundant in all humans, it is suggested that treatment with alpha-gal liposomes will be effective also in patients with burns and other skin wounds. ..
  7. Daikoku S, Widmalm G, Kanie O. Analysis of a series of isomeric oligosaccharides by energy-resolved mass spectrometry: a challenge on homobranched trisaccharides. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2009;23:3713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In our endeavor to address the issue, we analyzed a series of homo-substituted trisaccharides consisting only of glucose by collision-induced dissociation (CID), especially energy-resolved mass ..
  8. Grahn E, Winter H, Tateno H, Goldstein I, Krengel U. Structural characterization of a lectin from the mushroom Marasmius oreades in complex with the blood group B trisaccharide and calcium. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, in this work, Ca(2+) was included in the crystals, and binding of Ca(2+) to the MOA homodimer altered the conformation of the C-terminal domain by opening up the cleft containing a putative catalytic site. ..
  9. Lee W, Pathanibul P, Quarterman J, Jo J, Han N, Miller M, et al. Whole cell biosynthesis of a functional oligosaccharide, 2'-fucosyllactose, using engineered Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:48 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvement of microbial production of 2-FL from lactose by engineered E. coli would increase the feasibility of utilizing 2-FL as a prebiotic in various foods. ..

More Information


  1. Nihira T, Saito Y, Kitaoka M, Otsubo K, Nakai H. Identification of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 maltose phosphorylase possessing synthetic ability for branched ?-D-glucosyl trisaccharides. Carbohydr Res. 2012;360:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..65 from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10, which possesses synthetic ability for ?-D-glucosyl disaccharides and trisaccharides through the reverse phosphorolysis with ?-D-glucose 1-phosphate as the donor...
  2. Totten S, Zivkovic A, Wu S, Ngyuen U, Freeman S, Ruhaak L, et al. Comprehensive profiles of human milk oligosaccharides yield highly sensitive and specific markers for determining secretor status in lactating mothers. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:6124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Also in this study, four specific fucosylated structures (2'FL, LNFP I, LDFT, and LNDFH I) were determined to be specific and sensitive glycan markers for rapidly determining secretor status without the need for serological testing. ..
  3. Macher B, Galili U. The Galalpha1,3Galbeta1,4GlcNAc-R (alpha-Gal) epitope: a carbohydrate of unique evolution and clinical relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:75-88 pubmed
    ..This review covers these topics and new avenues of clinical importance related to this unique antigen/antibody system (alpha-gal epitope/anti-Gal) in improving the efficacy of viral vaccines and in immunotherapy against cancer. ..
  4. Chang C, Fosso M, Kawasaki Y, Shrestha S, Bensaci M, Wang J, et al. Antibacterial to antifungal conversion of neamine aminoglycosides through alkyl modification. Strategy for reviving old drugs into agrofungicides. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2010;63:667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this strategy is an example of reviving a clinically obsolete drug by simple chemical modification to yield a new application. ..
  5. Deguchi T, Tanemura M, Miyoshi E, Nagano H, Machida T, Ohmura Y, et al. Increased immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigen, mucin 1, engineered to express alpha-gal epitopes: a novel approach to immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:5259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that vaccination using cells engineered to express alpha-gal epitopes is a novel strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. ..
  6. Roslund M, Säwén E, Landström J, Rönnols J, Jonsson K, Lundborg M, et al. Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift assignments of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides as basis for NMR chemical shift predictions of polysaccharides using the computer program casper. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:1311-9 pubmed publisher
    The computer program casper uses (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift data of mono- to trisaccharides for the prediction of chemical shifts of oligo- and polysaccharides...
  7. Doukyu N, Yamagishi W, Kuwahara H, Ogino H. A maltooligosaccharide-forming amylase gene from Brachybacterium sp. strain LB25: cloning and expression in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2444-7 pubmed
    ..The amylase gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, but the specific activity of the recombinant amylase was lower than that of the amylase purified from strain LB25...
  8. Yu Z, Chen C, Kling D, Liu B, McCoy J, Merighi M, et al. The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota. Glycobiology. 2013;23:169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these simple glycans could mediate beneficial effects of human milk on infant health. ..
  9. Martinez Villaluenga C, Cardelle Cobas A, Olano A, Corzo N, Villamiel M, Jimeno M. Enzymatic synthesis and identification of two trisaccharides produced from lactulose by transgalactosylation. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:557-63 pubmed
    ..During hydrolysis of lactulose, the formation of two novel trisaccharides was followed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD)...
  10. Dietvorst J, Walsh M, Van Heusden G, Steensma H. Comparison of the MTT1- and MAL31-like maltose transporter genes in lager yeast strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;310:152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As the promoter regions of the MTT1 and MAL31 genes are identical, small differences in the protein sequence may be responsible for the different properties of these genes...
  11. Collot M, Wilson I, Bublin M, Hoffmann Sommergruber K, Mallet J. Synthesis of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants fragments as tools for in vitro allergy diagnosis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:1306-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed the potential utility of these xylosylated and fucosylated oligosaccharide fragments in determining CCD antibody epitopes. ..
  12. Quiocho F, Spurlino J, Rodseth L. Extensive features of tight oligosaccharide binding revealed in high-resolution structures of the maltodextrin transport/chemosensory receptor. Structure. 1997;5:997-1015 pubmed
  13. Seto N, Compston C, Szpacenko A, Palcic M. Enzymatic synthesis of blood group A and B trisaccharide analogues. Carbohydr Res. 2000;324:161-9 pubmed
    ..4% that of UDP-GalNAc and the rate of transfer with UDP-Glc by the B enzyme was 0.01% that of UDP-Gal, these cloned enzymes could be used for the enzymatic synthesis of blood group A and B trisaccharide analogs 4 and 5. ..
  14. Sakai T, Kimura H, Kojima K, Shimanaka K, Ikai K, Kato I. Marine bacterial sulfated fucoglucuronomannan (SFGM) lyase digests brown algal SFGM into trisaccharides. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2003;5:70-8 pubmed
    Three kinds of trisaccharides were prepared by digesting fucoidan from the brown alga Kjellmaniella crassifolia, with the extracellular enzymes of the marine bacterium Fucobacter marina...
  15. Salema Oom M, Valadão Pinto V, Gonçalves P, Spencer Martins I. Maltotriose utilization by industrial Saccharomyces strains: characterization of a new member of the alpha-glucoside transporter family. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:5044-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Mty1p displays higher affinity for maltotriose than for maltose, a new feature among all the alpha-glucoside transporters described so far. ..
  16. Warren M, Roddam L, Power P, Terry T, Jennings M. Analysis of the role of pglI in pilin glycosylation of Neisseria meningitidis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004;41:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, in conjunction with homology with well-characterised acyltransferases suggests a specific role for pglI in the biosynthesis of the basal 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyhexose residue of the pilin-linked glycan...
  17. Cao S, Lou Z, Tan M, Chen Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, et al. Structural basis for the recognition of blood group trisaccharides by norovirus. J Virol. 2007;81:5949-57 pubmed
    ..a recombinant P protein of a GII-4 strain norovirus, VA387, was cocrystallized with synthetic type A or B trisaccharides. Based on complex crystal structures observed at a 2...
  18. Rossi G, Mautino M, Unfer R, Seregina T, Vahanian N, Link C. Effective treatment of preexisting melanoma with whole cell vaccines expressing alpha(1,3)-galactosyl epitopes. Cancer Res. 2005;65:10555-61 pubmed
    ..Vaccination with B16alphagal induced strong long-lasting cell-mediated antitumor immunity extended to B16Null. These data formed the basis for the testing of this therapeutic strategy in human clinical trials currently under way. ..
  19. Kuwaki K, Knosalla C, Moran K, Alt A, Katopodis A, Duthaler R, et al. Reduction of anti-Galalpha1,3Gal antibodies by infusion of types 2 and 6 gal trisaccharides conjugated to poly-L-lysine. Xenotransplantation. 2004;11:210-5 pubmed
    ..There remain small fractions of antibody that are unadsorbed, particularly of IgG, probably due to their low affinity and distribution in both the intra- and extra-vascular compartments. ..
  20. Dietvorst J, Londesborough J, Steensma H. Maltotriose utilization in lager yeast strains: MTT1 encodes a maltotriose transporter. Yeast. 2005;22:775-88 pubmed
    ..Introduction of MTT1 or MTT1alt into lager strain A15 raised maltotriose uptake by about 17% or 105%, respectively. ..
  21. Manches O, Plumas J, Lui G, Chaperot L, Molens J, Sotto J, et al. Anti-Gal-mediated targeting of human B lymphoma cells to antigen-presenting cells: a potential method for immunotherapy using autologous tumor cells. Haematologica. 2005;90:625-34 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that immunization with irradiated autologous lymphoma cells processed to express alpha-gal epitopes will result in anti-Gal-mediated, in vivo targeting of the autologous tumor vaccine to APC. ..
  22. Coombs P, Graham S, Drickamer K, Taylor M. Selective binding of the scavenger receptor C-type lectin to Lewisx trisaccharide and related glycan ligands. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22993-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that SRCL might be involved in selective clearance of specific desialylated glycoproteins from circulation and/or interaction of cells bearing Lewis(x)-type structures with the vascular endothelium. ..
  23. Daikoku S, Ako T, Kurimoto A, Kanie O. Anomeric information obtained from a series of synthetic trisaccharides using energy resolved mass spectra. J Mass Spectrom. 2007;42:714-23 pubmed
    ..The trisaccharides used in the analysis consisted of L-fucose, D-galactose and D-glucose, in which individual glycosidic linkages ..
  24. Sanz M, Sanz J, Martinez Castro I. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of disaccharides and trisaccharides in honey. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1059:143-8 pubmed
    An improved method has been developed to identify and quantify honey disaccharides and trisaccharides by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry...
  25. Albermann C, Piepersberg W, Wehmeier U. Synthesis of the milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose using recombinant bacterial enzymes. Carbohydr Res. 2001;334:97-103 pubmed
    ..The isolation of 2'-fucosyllactose was accomplished by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration to give 65% yield. ..
  26. D Alessandro M, Mariani P, Lomanto D, Bachetoni A, Speranza V. Alterations in serum anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Clin Immunol. 2002;103:63-8 pubmed
  27. Dumon C, Bosso C, Utille J, Heyraud A, Samain E. Production of Lewis x tetrasaccharides by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Chembiochem. 2006;7:359-65 pubmed
    ..meningitidis lgtA gene for beta-3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. ..
  28. Clowers B, Dwivedi P, Steiner W, Hill H, Bendiak B. Separation of sodiated isobaric disaccharides and trisaccharides using electrospray ionization-atmospheric pressure ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2005;16:660-9 pubmed
    A series of isobaric disaccharide-alditols, four derived from O-linked glycoproteins, and select trisaccharides were rapidly resolved using tandem high resolution atmospheric pressure ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
  29. Bewley C, Kiyonaka S, Hamachi I. Site-specific discrimination by cyanovirin-N for alpha-linked trisaccharides comprising the three arms of Man(8) and Man(9). J Mol Biol. 2002;322:881-9 pubmed
    ..CVN affinity and selectivity, we have characterized by NMR and ITC the binding of CVN to three synthetic trisaccharides representing the full-length D1, D2 and D3 arms of mammalian oligomannosides...
  30. Huckerby T, Nieduszynski I, Giannopoulos M, Weeks S, Sadler I, Lauder R. Characterization of oligosaccharides from the chondroitin/dermatan sulfates. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR studies of reduced trisaccharides and hexasaccharides. FEBS J. 2005;272:6276-86 pubmed
    ..studied include a disaccharide and hexasaccharides from chondroitin ABC lyase digestion as well as trisaccharides already present in some commercial preparations...
  31. Azurmendi H, Martin Pastor M, Bush C. Conformational studies of Lewis X and Lewis A trisaccharides using NMR residual dipolar couplings. Biopolymers. 2002;63:89-98 pubmed
    ..Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate models for the trisaccharides, and orientations of each model were sought that could reproduce the experimental residual dipolar coupling ..
  32. Mayer M, Meyer B. Group epitope mapping by saturation transfer difference NMR to identify segments of a ligand in direct contact with a protein receptor. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:6108-17 pubmed
    ..Analysis of STD NMR experiments performed under competitive conditions proved that the two saccharides studied bind at the same receptor site, thereby ruling out unspecific binding. ..
  33. Jennings M, Virji M, Evans D, Foster V, Srikhanta Y, Steeghs L, et al. Identification of a novel gene involved in pilin glycosylation in Neisseria meningitidis. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:975-84 pubmed
  34. de Geus E, Tefsen B, van Haarlem D, van Eden W, van Die I, Vervelde L. Glycans from avian influenza virus are recognized by chicken dendritic cells and are targets for the humoral immune response in chicken. Mol Immunol. 2013;56:452-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel approach in avian influenza research may contribute to the development of a broad spectrum vaccine and improves our mechanistic understanding of innate and adaptive responses to glycans. ..
  35. Feinberg H, Taylor M, Razi N, McBride R, Knirel Y, Graham S, et al. Structural basis for langerin recognition of diverse pathogen and mammalian glycans through a single binding site. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:1027-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Salt bridges between the sulfate group and two lysine residues appear to compensate for the nonoptimal binding of galactose at this site...
  36. Sato Y, Suzuki S, Muraoka S, Kikuchi N, Noda N, Matsumoto T, et al. Preparation of allosamidin and demethylallosamidin photoaffinity probes and analysis of allosamidin-binding proteins in asthmatic mice. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:3054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of allosamidins with Ym1 was confirmed by the experiments with photoaffinity probes and recombinant Ym1. ..
  37. Celbek G, Gungor A, Albayrak H, Kir S, Guvenc S, Aydin Y. Bullous skin reaction seen after extravasation of calcium gluconate. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38:154-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of bullous skin reactions, which may be a predictor of extravasation and necrosis, when treating patients with IV calcium gluconate. ..
  38. Weichert S, Jennewein S, Hüfner E, Weiss C, Borkowski J, Putze J, et al. Bioengineered 2'-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose inhibit the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric pathogens to human intestinal and respiratory cell lines. Nutr Res. 2013;33:831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass-tailored human milk oligosaccharides could be used in the future to supplement infant formula ingredients or as preventatives to reduce the impact of infectious diseases. ..
  39. Shida M, Mikami T, Tamura J, Kitagawa H. A characteristic chondroitin sulfate trisaccharide unit with a sulfated fucose branch exhibits neurite outgrowth-promoting activity: Novel biological roles of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:678-683 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, FCS trisaccharide units with 2,4-O-disulfated fucose branches may provide new insights into understanding the structure-function relations of CS chains. ..
  40. Christina A, van den Bos L, Overkleeft H, van der Marel G, Codée J. Galacturonic acid lactones in the synthesis of all trisaccharide repeating units of the zwitterionic polysaccharide Sp1. J Org Chem. 2011;76:1692-706 pubmed publisher
    ..The epimeric mixture of trisaccharides, formed in the nonselective glycosylation event, could be readily separated after global deprotection using ..
  41. Puga Yung G, Schneider M, Seebach J. Immune responses to alpha1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pigs. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2009;14:154-60 pubmed publisher
  42. Lee S, Surma M, Hausner W, Thomm M, Boos W. The role of TrmB and TrmB-like transcriptional regulators for sugar transport and metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Arch Microbiol. 2008;190:247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..It recognizes the MD promoter, but not all TGM harboring promoters. It is evolutionary the most conserved among the Thermococcales. The regulatory range of TrmBL2 remains unclear. ..
  43. Smit A, Moses S, Pretorius I, Cordero Otero R. The Thr505 and Ser557 residues of the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporter are critical for maltotriose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1103-11 pubmed publisher
  44. Singh S, Streng Ouwehand I, Litjens M, Kalay H, Burgdorf S, Saeland E, et al. Design of neo-glycoconjugates that target the mannose receptor and enhance TLR-independent cross-presentation and Th1 polarization. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:916-25 pubmed publisher
  45. Goddard Borger E, Fiege B, Kwan E, Withers S. Glycosynthase-mediated assembly of xylanase substrates and inhibitors. Chembiochem. 2011;12:1703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Simple monosaccharides were easily elaborated into di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides by using this enzyme. Some products proved to be surprisingly potent inhibitors of xylanases from glycoside hydrolase families 10 and 11. ..
  46. Chao C, Chen M, Lin S, Mong K. Versatile acetylation of carbohydrate substrates with bench-top sulfonic acids and application to one-pot syntheses of peracetylated thioglycosides. Carbohydr Res. 2008;343:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Simple one-pot two step acetylation-thioglycosidation methods for the expeditious synthesis of p-tolyl per-O-acetyl thioglycosides were also delineated. ..
  47. Suzuki S, Nakanishi E, Furihata K, Miyamoto K, Tsujibo H, Watanabe T, et al. Chitinase inhibitor allosamidin promotes chitinase production of Streptomyces generally. Int J Biol Macromol. 2008;43:13-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggested that allosamidin can affect the common regulatory system for production of a chitinase with a two-component regulatory system in Streptomyces. ..
  48. Mezoff E, Hawkins J, Ollberding N, Karns R, Morrow A, Helmrath M. The human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose augments the adaptive response to extensive intestinal. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that 2'-FL supplementation following ileocecal resection increases weight gain, energy availability through microbial community modulation, and histological changes consistent with improved adaptation. ..
  49. Cederkvist F, Saua S, Karlsen V, Sakuda S, Eijsink V, Sørlie M. Thermodynamic analysis of allosamidin binding to a family 18 chitinase. Biochemistry. 2007;46:12347-54 pubmed
    ..At pH 8.5, the 142-144 diad is ionized in the native enzyme, relieving the deprotonation penalty of binding and explaining why binding becomes enthalpically favorable (DeltaHr = -1.2 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol). ..
  50. Furuya H, Ikeda R. Interaction of triosephosphate isomerase from the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and alpha-(1->3)-mannooligosaccharides derived from glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology. 2009;155:2707-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, affinities were indicated, especially for biose and tetraose, to another binding pocket, which would not affect enzymic activity. These data suggest a novel role for TPI, in addition to glycolysis, on the surface of S. aureus. ..
  51. Nong G, Rice J, Chow V, Preston J. Aldouronate utilization in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2: Physiological and enzymatic evidence for coupling of extracellular depolymerization and intracellular metabolism. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4410-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Deng Z, Seltsam A, Ye Y, Yu Q, Li Q, Su Y, et al. Haemolytic disease of fetus and newborn caused by ABO antibodies in a cisAB offspring. Transfus Apher Sci. 2008;39:123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because both anti-A and anti-B antibodies may have been involved in hemolysis in this case, it may be relevant to consider the cisAB phenomenon when monitoring ABO-incompatible pregnancies and births. ..
  53. Ishii M, Kojima N. Effective stimulation of invariant natural killer T cells by oligomannose-coated liposomes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;15:685-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that ?GC-OMLs can be used as a preferential delivery system for lipid antigens to DCs to activate iNKT cells in vivo and ex vivo. ..