Summary: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Xu L, Plouffe S, Chong J, Wengel J, Wang D. A chemical perspective on transcriptional fidelity: dominant contributions of sugar integrity revealed by unlocked nucleic acids. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013;52:12341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An unexpected dominant role for sugar-ring integrity in Pol?II transcriptional efficiency and fidelity was revealed. ..
  2. Rankin A, Forman L, Sarkar S, Faller D. Enhanced cytotoxicity from deoxyguanosine-enriched T-oligo in prostate cancer cells. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2013;23:311-21 pubmed publisher
  3. Römmler F, Jurk M, Uhlmann E, Hammel M, Waldhuber A, Pfeiffer L, et al. Guanine modification of inhibitory oligonucleotides potentiates their suppressive function. J Immunol. 2013;191:3240-53 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitory TLR7 and/or TLR9 oligonucleotides (inhibitory oligonucleotide [INH-ODN]) are characterized by a phosphorothioate backbone and a CC(T)XXX???GGG motif, respectively...
  4. Hagedorn P, Yakimov V, Ottosen S, Kammler S, Nielsen N, Høg A, et al. Hepatotoxic potential of therapeutic oligonucleotides can be predicted from their sequence and modification pattern. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2013;23:302-10 pubmed publisher
    Antisense oligonucleotides that recruit RNase H and thereby cleave complementary messenger RNAs are being developed as therapeutics...
  5. Ming X, Carver K, Wu L. Albumin-based nanoconjugates for targeted delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. Biomaterials. 2013;34:7939-49 pubmed publisher
    Nanoparticle-based delivery has become an important strategy to advance siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides into clinical reality...
  6. Pitman R, Wojdyla L, Puri N. Mechanism of DNA damage responses induced by exposure to an oligonucleotide homologous to the telomere overhang in melanoma. Oncotarget. 2013;4:761-71 pubmed
    ..These results highlight TRF1, TRF2, tankyrase-1 and p53 as important elements in T-oligo mediated responses and suggest new avenues for research into T-oligo's mechanism of action. ..
  7. Franceschini A, Meier R, Casanova A, Kreibich S, Daga N, Andritschke D, et al. Specific inhibition of diverse pathogens in human cells by synthetic microRNA-like oligonucleotides inferred from RNAi screens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:4548-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Typically, large libraries of chemically synthesized siRNA oligonucleotides are used, each designed to degrade a specific cellular mRNA via the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism...
  8. Li Y, Schaffer P, Perrin D. Dual isotope labeling: conjugation of 32P-oligonucleotides with 18F-aryltrifluoroborate via copper(I) catalyzed cycloaddition. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:6313-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are corroborated by HPLC analysis of the labeled material. Taken together this work demonstrates viable use of (18)F-ArBF3(-) prosthetics for labeling oligonucleotides for use in PET imaging.
  9. Takahashi M, Yamada N, Hatakeyama H, Murata M, Sato Y, Minakawa N, et al. In vitro optimization of 2'-OMe-4'-thioribonucleoside-modified anti-microRNA oligonucleotides and its targeting delivery to mouse liver using a liposomal nanoparticle. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:10659-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific inhibition of miRNAs using chemically modified anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) can be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases in which a specific miRNA is overexpressed...

More Information


  1. Rayner B, Figtree G, Sabaretnam T, Shang P, Mazhar J, Weaver J, et al. Selective inhibition of the master regulator transcription factor Egr-1 with catalytic oligonucleotides reduces myocardial injury and improves left ventricular systolic function in a preclinical model of myocardial infarction. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000023 pubmed publisher
    ..Egr-1 silencing through intracoronary delivery of a targeting DNAzyme at the time of reperfusion following acute myocardial ischemia decreases myocardial inflammation and apoptosis leading to improved cardiac function...
  2. Rodriguez G, Song J, Crouse G. Transformation with oligonucleotides creating clustered changes in the yeast genome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42905 pubmed publisher
    ..On the 3' end, bases 5-10 nt from the 3' end are lost about 1/3 of the time. These results indicate that oligos can be used to create multiple simultaneous changes to the yeast genome, even in the presence of MMR. ..
  3. Sarkar S, Faller D. Telomere-homologous G-rich oligonucleotides sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2013;23:167-74 pubmed publisher
    G-rich T-oligos (GT-oligos; oligonucleotides with homology to telomeres) elicit a DNA damage response in cells and induce cytotoxic effects in certain tumor cell lines...
  4. Stanton R, Sciabola S, Salatto C, Weng Y, Moshinsky D, Little J, et al. Chemical modification study of antisense gapmers. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2012;22:344-59 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA knockdown assays are typically reasonable predictors of in vivo results, G-Clamp modified antisense oligonucleotides have poor in vivo mRNA knockdown as compared to transfected cell based assays...
  5. Niyazi H, Hall J, O Sullivan K, Winter G, Sorensen T, Kelly J, et al. Crystal structures of ?-[Ru(phen)?dppz]²? with oligonucleotides containing TA/TA and AT/AT steps show two intercalation modes. Nat Chem. 2012;4:621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The TA/TA specificity of the perpendicular intercalation arises from the packing of phenanthroline ligands against the adenosine residue...
  6. Ménová P, Hocek M. Preparation of short cytosine-modified oligonucleotides by nicking enzyme amplification reaction. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:6921-3 pubmed publisher
    A method for enzymatic production of short (10-20 nt) cytosine-modified oligonucleotides was developed by nicking enzyme amplification reaction using Vent(exo-) polymerase, Nt.BstNBI nicking endonuclease and 5-substituted dCTP derivatives...
  7. Lehto T, Kurrikoff K, Langel U. Cell-penetrating peptides for the delivery of nucleic acids. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2012;9:823-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, to understand the clinical potential of CPPs, they require more thorough investigations in clinically relevant disease models and in pre-clinical and clinical studies. ..
  8. Zhou Y, Kierzek E, Loo Z, Antonio M, Yau Y, Chuah Y, et al. Recognition of RNA duplexes by chemically modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6664-73 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA duplex region is also often functionally important site for protein binding. Thus, triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) may be developed to regulate various biological functions involving RNA, such as viral ribosomal ..
  9. D Agata R, Spoto G. Artificial DNA and surface plasmon resonance. Artif DNA PNA XNA. 2012;3:45-52 pubmed publisher
    The combined use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and modified or mimic oligonucleotides have expanded diagnostic capabilities of SPR-based biosensors and have allowed detailed studies of molecular recognition processes...
  10. Ruden M, Puri N. Novel anticancer therapeutics targeting telomerase. Cancer Treat Rev. 2013;39:444-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Several strategies of telomerase inhibition are reviewed, including small molecule inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, immunotherapies and gene therapies, targeting the hTERT or the ribonucleoprotein subunit hTER...
  11. Govan J, Uprety R, Hemphill J, Lively M, Deiters A. Regulation of transcription through light-activation and light-deactivation of triplex-forming oligonucleotides in mammalian cells. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1247-56 pubmed publisher
    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are efficient tools to regulate gene expression through the inhibition of transcription...
  12. Selden N, Todhunter M, Jee N, Liu J, Broaders K, Gartner Z. Chemically programmed cell adhesion with membrane-anchored oligonucleotides. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:765-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we describe a strategy for chemically controlling cell adhesion using membrane-anchored single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. The reagents are pure chemical species prepared from phosphoramidites synthesized in a single chemical step ..
  13. Varizhuk A, Kaluzhny D, Novikov R, Chizhov A, Smirnov I, Chuvilin A, et al. Synthesis of triazole-linked oligonucleotides with high affinity to DNA complements and an analysis of their compatibility with biosystems. J Org Chem. 2013;78:5964-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The analogues demonstrated DNA binding affinities similar to those of unmodified oligonucleotides. The modification was shown to protect the oligonucleotides from nuclease hydrolysis...
  14. Mathis G, Bourg S, Aci Sèche S, Truffert J, Asseline U. Synthesis and properties of 2'-O-neopentyl modified oligonucleotides. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:1345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Oligonucleotides containing Un clearly demonstrated their ability to form duplexes with both complementary DNA and RNA but ..
  15. Jang M, Lee S, Oh Y, Kim S, Chung J, Ki C, et al. Identification of a rare 3 bp BRAF gene deletion in a thyroid nodule by mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides polymerase chain reaction. Ann Lab Med. 2012;32:238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a novel and sensitive technique called mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides (MEMO) PCR has been introduced...
  16. Wilson J, Keller S, Manganiello M, Cheng C, Lee C, Opara C, et al. pH-Responsive nanoparticle vaccines for dual-delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory oligonucleotides. ACS Nano. 2013;7:3912-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, pH-responsive polymeric nanoparticles offer promise as a delivery platform for protein subunit vaccines. ..
  17. Juliano R, Ming X, Nakagawa O. The chemistry and biology of oligonucleotide conjugates. Acc Chem Res. 2012;45:1067-76 pubmed publisher
    Short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides have tremendous potential as therapeutic agents. Because of their ability to engage in Watson-Crick base pairing, they can interact with mRNA or pre-mRNA targets with high selectivity...
  18. Liu Y, Wu Z, Zhou G, He Z, Zhou X, Shen A, et al. Simple, rapid, homogeneous oligonucleotides colorimetric detection based on non-aggregated gold nanoparticles. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:3164-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple, rapid colorimetry for DNA detection based on non-aggregated gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads has been developed with high selectivity and sensitivity. ..
  19. Taniguchi Y, Sasaki S. An efficient antigene activity and antiproliferative effect by targeting the Bcl-2 or survivin gene with triplex forming oligonucleotides containing a W-shaped nucleoside analogue (WNA-?T). Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:8336-41 pubmed publisher
    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are some of the most promising tools in the antigene strategy for the development of gene targeting therapeutics...
  20. Burnett J, Rossi J. RNA-based therapeutics: current progress and future prospects. Chem Biol. 2012;19:60-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the clinical results of siRNA, RNA aptamer, and ribozyme therapeutics and the prospects for future successes. ..
  21. Younis H, Crosby J, Huh J, Lee H, Rime S, Monia B, et al. Antisense inhibition of coagulation factor XI prolongs APTT without increased bleeding risk in cynomolgus monkeys. Blood. 2012;119:2401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ISIS 416858 has an acceptable preclinical safety profile and is a promising clinical candidate to treat thrombotic disease. ..
  22. Kiviniemi A, Mäkelä J, Mäkilä J, Saanijoki T, Liljenbäck H, Poijärvi Virta P, et al. Solid-supported NOTA and DOTA chelators useful for the synthesis of 3'-radiometalated oligonucleotides. Bioconjug Chem. 2012;23:1981-8 pubmed
    ..The 3'-DOTA and 3'-NOTA conjugated oligonucleotides were converted to (68)Ga chelates by a brief treatment with [(68)Ga]Cl(3) at elevated temperature...
  23. Ohkubo A, Tago N, Yokouchi A, Nishino Y, Yamada K, Tsunoda H, et al. Synthesis of 5'-terminal capped oligonucleotides using O-N phosphoryl migration of phosphoramidite derivatives. Org Lett. 2012;14:10-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our new approach could be applied to the synthesis of a 2'-OMe-RNA oligomer containing the 5'-terminal 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structure. ..
  24. Endo M, Yang Y, Suzuki Y, Hidaka K, Sugiyama H. Single-molecule visualization of the hybridization and dissociation of photoresponsive oligonucleotides and their reversible switching behavior in a DNA nanostructure. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:10518-22 pubmed publisher
    A framed photo of DNA: A pair of photoresponsive oligonucleotides containing azobenzene moieties was introduced into double-stranded DNA within the cavity of a DNA nanostructure (see scheme)...
  25. Martín Pintado N, Yahyaee Anzahaee M, Campos Olivas R, Noronha A, Wilds C, Damha M, et al. The solution structure of double helical arabino nucleic acids (ANA and 2'F-ANA): effect of arabinoses in duplex-hairpin interconversion. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction shares many features of pseudo-hydrogen bonds previously observed in 2'F-ANA:RNA hybrids and in single 2'F-ANA nucleotides. ..
  26. Brazier J, Shah A, Brown G. I-motif formation in gene promoters: unusually stable formation in sequences complementary to known G-quadruplexes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:10739-41 pubmed publisher
    ..I-motif formation can occur close to physiological temperature and pH for h-tert and PDGF-A. The i-motif structure formed by a HIF-1? promoter sequence shows unexpected stability near neutral pH. ..
  27. Stein E, Dufour R, Gagne C, Gaudet D, East C, Donovan J, et al. Apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibition with mipomersen in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy and safety as add-on therapy in patients with coronary artery dise. Circulation. 2012;126:2283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of hepatic fat and transaminase increases remains uncertain at this time. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00706849. ..
  28. Hartley C, Salisbury A, Wigley P. CpG oligonucleotides and recombinant interferon-? in combination improve protection in chickens to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis challenge as an adjuvant component, but have no effect in reducing Salmonella carriage in infected chickens. Avian Pathol. 2012;41:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we have determined whether CpG oligonucleotides that stimulate the immune system via Toll like-receptors 15 and 21 in the chicken can be used as ..
  29. Adams C, Pike A, Maniam S, Sharpe T, Coutts A, Knapp S, et al. The p53 cofactor Strap exhibits an unexpected TPR motif and oligonucleotide-binding (OB)-fold structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3778-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that both of the TPR and OB-fold domains localize to the chromatin of p53 target genes and exhibit intrinsic regulatory activity necessary for the Strap-dependent p53 response. ..
  30. Hu J, Choi J, Gaddameedhi S, Kemp M, Reardon J, Sancar A. Nucleotide excision repair in human cells: fate of the excised oligonucleotide carrying DNA damage in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20918-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results show the congruence of in vivo and in vitro data on nucleotide excision repair in humans. ..
  31. Hu X, Li W, Liu G, Wu H, Gao Y, Chen S, et al. The effect of Bcl-2 siRNA combined with miR-15a oligonucleotides on the growth of Raji cells. Med Oncol. 2013;30:430 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effect of Bcl-2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) combined with miR-15a oligonucleotides (ODN) on the growth of Raji cells. The expression levels of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein were detected...
  32. Kolganova N, Shchyolkina A, Chudinov A, Zasedatelev A, Florentiev V, Timofeev E. Targeting duplex DNA with chimeric ?,?-triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:8175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..address this problem with synthetic biology tools, we designed a panel of short chimeric ?,?-triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and studied their interaction with fluorescently labelled duplex hairpins using various techniques...
  33. Ming X, Carver K, Fisher M, Noel R, Cintrat J, Gillet D, et al. The small molecule Retro-1 enhances the pharmacological actions of antisense and splice switching oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3673-87 pubmed publisher
    The attainment of strong pharmacological effects with oligonucleotides is hampered by inefficient access of these molecules to their sites of action in the cytosol or nucleus...
  34. Illangasekare M, Yarus M. Small aminoacyl transfer centers at GU within a larger RNA. RNA Biol. 2012;9:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multi-site active ribozymal superstructures might have coordinated an RNA metabolism, including aiding an early translation apparatus. ..
  35. Kemp M, Reardon J, Lindsey Boltz L, Sancar A. Mechanism of release and fate of excised oligonucleotides during nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..agents form bulky lesions on DNA that are removed from the human genome in the form of short, ?30-nucleotide oligonucleotides by the process of nucleotide excision repair...
  36. Cardew A, Brown T, Fox K. Secondary binding sites for heavily modified triplex forming oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3753-62 pubmed publisher
    In order to enhance DNA triple helix stability synthetic oligonucleotides have been developed that bear amino groups on the sugar or base...
  37. Winkler J. Nanomedicines based on recombinant fusion proteins for targeting therapeutic siRNA oligonucleotides. Ther Deliv. 2011;2:891-905 pubmed
    ..In vitro and in vivo evaluations are discussed with an in-depth view on pharmacokinetic properties. Remaining challenges concerning specificity on the tissue and molecular levels are highlighted. ..
  38. Moreno P, Geny S, Pabon Y, Bergquist H, Zaghloul E, Rocha C, et al. Development of bis-locked nucleic acid (bisLNA) oligonucleotides for efficient invasion of supercoiled duplex DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3257-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this first conceptual report does not address the utility of bisLNA for the targeting of DNA in a chromosomal context, it shows bisLNA as a promising candidate for interfering also with cellular genes. ..
  39. McGowan M, Tardif J, Ceska R, Burgess L, Soran H, Gouni Berthold I, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49006 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies will explore alternative dosing schedules aimed at minimizing side effects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00794664. ..
  40. Kotula J, Pratico E, Ming X, Nakagawa O, Juliano R, Sullenger B. Aptamer-mediated delivery of splice-switching oligonucleotides to the nuclei of cancer cells. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2012;22:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We and others have shown that aptamers can selectively deliver therapeutic oligonucleotides to the endosome and cytoplasm of cancer cells that express a particular cell surface receptor...
  41. Gu G, Friedman M, Jost C, Johnsson K, Kamali Moghaddam M, Plückthun A, et al. Protein tag-mediated conjugation of oligonucleotides to recombinant affinity binders for proximity ligation. N Biotechnol. 2013;30:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA-mediated affinity-based assays, such as immuno-PCR and proximity ligation assays (PLA), use oligonucleotides attached to affinity reagents as reporter molecules...
  42. Visser M, Witztum J, Stroes E, Kastelein J. Antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:1451-8 pubmed publisher
    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are short synthetic analogues of natural nucleic acids designed to specifically bind to a target messenger RNA (mRNA) by Watson-Crick hybridization, inducing selective degradation of the mRNA or ..
  43. Janssen H, Reesink H, Lawitz E, Zeuzem S, Rodriguez Torres M, Patel K, et al. Treatment of HCV infection by targeting microRNA. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Miravirsen is a locked nucleic acid-modified DNA phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that sequesters mature miR-122 in a highly stable heteroduplex, thereby inhibiting its function...
  44. Griepenburg J, Ruble B, Dmochowski I. Caged oligonucleotides for bidirectional photomodulation of let-7 miRNA in zebrafish embryos. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:6198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe light-activated (caged) constructs for switching let-7 miRNA 'on' or 'off' with 365 nm light in developing zebrafish embryos...
  45. Pan Z, Sun X, Ren J, Li X, Gao X, Lu C, et al. miR-1 exacerbates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse models. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50515 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study demonstrated that miR-1 is a causal factor for cardiac injury and systemic LNA-antimiR-1 therapy is effective in ameliorating the problem. ..
  46. Zearfoss N, Ryder S. End-labeling oligonucleotides with chemical tags after synthesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;941:181-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present protocols for post-synthetic conjugation of chemical tags to unmodified RNA or DNA oligonucleotides. The approach can be used to attach fluorescent dyes and biotin groups to oligonucleotides and to immobilize ..
  47. Lightfoot H, Hall J. Target mRNA inhibition by oligonucleotide drugs in man. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:10585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly we also found that the majority of the drug targets of the oligonucleotides lie outside of the drugable genome and represent new mechanisms of action not previously investigated in a ..
  48. Vorlíčková M, Kejnovská I, Sagi J, Renciuk D, Bednárová K, Motlova J, et al. Circular dichroism and guanine quadruplexes. Methods. 2012;57:64-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This article aims to show that CD spectroscopy is an important complementary technique to NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in quadruplex studies. ..
  49. Torigoe H, Nakagawa O, Imanishi T, Obika S, Sasaki K. Chemical modification of triplex-forming oligonucleotide to promote pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH. Biochimie. 2012;94:1032-40 pubmed publisher
  50. Marusic M, Sket P, Bauer L, Viglasky V, Plavec J. Solution-state structure of an intramolecular G-quadruplex with propeller, diagonal and edgewise loops. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:6946-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first high-resolution G-quadruplex structure where all of the three main loop types are present. ..
  51. de la Torre T, Herthnek D, Ramachandraiah H, Svedlindh P, Nilsson M, Strømme M. Evaluation of the sulfo-succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate coupling chemistry for attachment of oligonucleotides to magnetic nanobeads. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2011;11:8532-7 pubmed
    ..cyclohexane-1-carboxylate) coupling chemistry was evaluated for immobilization of oligonucleotides onto 130 nm sized magnetic nanobeads aimed for bio-detection in a magnetic readout assay...
  52. Visser M, Wagener G, Baker B, Geary R, Donovan J, Beuers U, et al. Mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-risk statin-intolerant patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data suggest that mipomersen is a potential therapeutic option in statin-intolerant patients at high risk for CVD. The long-term follow-up of liver safety is required. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00707746. ..
  53. Thomas G, Cromwell W, Ali S, Chin W, Flaim J, Davidson M. Mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, reduces atherogenic lipoproteins in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia at high cardiovascular risk: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:2178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Safety and Efficacy of Mipomersen [ISIS 301012] as Add-On Therapy in High Risk Hypercholesterolemic Patients; NCT00770146). ..