Summary: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.

Top Publications

  1. Magnussen S, Spillmann L, Stürzel F, Werner J. Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage. Vision Res. 2004;44:377-83 pubmed
    ..normally goes unnoticed, but the resulting foveal S-cone, or blue, scotoma can be visualized as the negative afterimage of a short-wavelength adapting field on a larger white background...
  2. Sperandio I, Chouinard P, Goodale M. Retinotopic activity in V1 reflects the perceived and not the retinal size of an afterimage. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:540-2 pubmed publisher
    An afterimage looks larger when one fixates on a distant than on a closer surface...
  3. Shimojo S, Kamitani Y, Nishida S. Afterimage of perceptually filled-in surface. Science. 2001;293:1677-80 pubmed
    An afterimage induced by prior adaptation to a visual stimulus is believed to be due to bleaching of photochemical pigments or neural adaptation in the retina. We report a type of afterimage that appears to require cortical adaptation...
  4. Khadjevand F, Shahzadi S, Abbassian A. Reduction of negative afterimage duration in Parkinson's disease patients: a possible role for dopaminergic deficiency in the retinal Interplexiform cell layer. Vision Res. 2010;50:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..layer (IP) plays a major role in the retinal light adaptation and may account for the duration of the negative afterimage. Here we present results showing a significant reduction of negative afterimage duration in PD patients...
  5. Galindo Cuspinera V, Breslin P. Taste after-images: the science of "water-tastes". Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:2049-52 pubmed
  6. Francis G, Schoonveld W. Using afterimages for orientation and color to explore mechanisms of visual filling-in. Percept Psychophys. 2005;67:383-97 pubmed
    Simulations of Grossberg's FACADE model of visual perception have previously been used to explain afterimage percepts produced by viewing a sequence of orthogonally oriented gratings...
  7. Zhao L, Chubb C. The size-tuning of the face-distortion after-effect. Vision Res. 2001;41:2979-94 pubmed
  8. Liu B, Berends E, Schor C. Adaptation to the induced effect stimulus normalizes surface slant perception and recalibrates eye position signals for azimuth. J Vis. 2005;5:808-22 pubmed
  9. Herzog M, Koch C, Fahle M. Shine-through: temporal aspects. Vision Res. 2001;41:2337-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that also temporal parameters of the grating influence shine-through. For example, a delayed presentation of certain grating elements can deteriorate performance dramatically. ..

More Information


  1. Stamper D, Lund D, Molchany J, Stuck B. Laser-induced afterimages in humans. Percept Mot Skills. 2000;91:15-33 pubmed
    ..e., coherency, monochromaticity, and the laser's capacity to place an intense beam of light in a small retinal area, all contributed to the unique appearance of the postflash images. ..
  2. Anstis S, Gori S, Wehrhahn C. Afterimages and the breathing light illusion. Perception. 2007;36:791-4 pubmed
    ..We interpret these illusions as afterimages. We support this with examples of eccentric, colored, and striped afterimages. ..
  3. Sohmiya S. A wave-line colour illusion. Perception. 2007;36:1396-8 pubmed
    ..For some combinations of colours, illusory colours appear not only around the central line but also around the other lines. ..
  4. Crossland M, Bex P. The twinkle aftereffect is pre-cortical and is independent of filling-in. J Vis. 2008;8:13.1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the TwAE involves additive noise that is pre-cortical in origin and that it is distinct from filling-in. ..
  5. Meyer G, Stonecypher S. Motion after-effects and word contingency. Vision Res. 1998;38:3583-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, there was little evidence that motion adaptation can be made textually contingent. ..
  6. Reavis E, Kohler P, Caplovitz G, Wheatley T, Tse P. Effects of attention on visual experience during monocular rivalry. Vision Res. 2013;83:76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This occurs both when a feature of the afterimage is attended directly and when a frame surrounding the afterimage is attended...
  7. Wade N, Spillmann L, Swanston M. Visual motion aftereffects: critical adaptation and test conditions. Vision Res. 1996;36:2167-75 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the linear MAE occurs as a consequence of adapting restricted retinal regions to motion but it can only be expressed when nonadapted regions are also tested. ..
  8. Troje N, Sadr J, Geyer H, Nakayama K. Adaptation aftereffects in the perception of gender from biological motion. J Vis. 2006;6:850-7 pubmed
    ..We discuss this adaptation aftereffect as a tool to characterize and probe the mechanisms underlying biological motion perception. ..
  9. Crutch S, Lehmann M, Gorgoraptis N, Kaski D, Ryan N, Husain M, et al. Abnormal visual phenomena in posterior cortical atrophy. Neurocase. 2011;17:160-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study contributes to the growing characterisation of PCA whose atypical early visual symptoms are often heterogeneous and frequently under-recognised. ..
  10. Black D, Riley M. Prism aftereffects disrupt interlimb rhythmic coordination. J Mot Behav. 2004;36:131-6 pubmed
    ..A no-prism control group showed no changes in interlimb rhythmic coordination. The results suggest that prism-induced proprioceptive aftereffects have general, disruptive effects on interlimb rhythmic coordination. ..
  11. Gowans J, Matheson A, Darlington C, Smith P. The effects of scopolamine and cyclizine on visual-vestibular interaction in humans. J Vestib Res. 2000;10:87-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that scopolamine and cyclizine, at doses used for the relief of motion sickness, may have minimal suppressive effects on these aspects of visual-vestibular interaction. ..
  12. Kirschfeld K. Afterimages: a tool for defining the neural correlate of visual consciousness. Conscious Cogn. 1999;8:462-83 pubmed
    ..whereas afterimages follow Emmert's Law: when seen while screens at different distances are observed, an afterimage looks larger, the greater the distance of the screen)...
  13. Harris R, O Carroll D. Afterimages in fly motion vision. Vision Res. 2002;42:1701-14 pubmed
    b>Afterimage-like effects modulate the responses of fly wide-field motion-sensitive cells following adaptation to stationary or slowly moving patterns. The origin of these afterimages is unclear...
  14. Simpson W, Newman A, Aasland W. Equivalent background speed in recovery from motion adaptation. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1997;14:13-22 pubmed
    ..Since the equivalent background speed corresponds to the speed of the motion aftereffect, we have measured the time course of the motion aftereffect with objective psychophysics. ..
  15. Hillis J, Banks M. Are corresponding points fixed?. Vision Res. 2001;41:2457-73 pubmed
    ..We conclude that corresponding points are in fixed retinal positions for observers with normal retinal correspondence. ..
  16. Bókkon I, Vimal R, Wang C, Dai J, Salari V, Grass F, et al. Visible light induced ocular delayed bioluminescence as a possible origin of negative afterimage. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2011;103:192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we suggest that the photobiophysical source of negative afterimage can also occur within the eye by delayed bioluminescent photons...
  17. Fang F, He S. Strong influence of test patterns on the perception of motion aftereffect and position. J Vis. 2004;4:637-42 pubmed
    ..The spatial features of a test stimulus, such as position reliability or luminance uniformity, strongly influence the magnitude of MAE. Sharp edges and local luminance uniformity can greatly reduce MAE. ..
  18. O Drobinak D, Woods C. Compelling classroom demonstrations that link visual system anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. Adv Physiol Educ. 2002;26:204-9 pubmed
    ..This article discusses how to produce and present the required visual stimuli, suggests a set of questions to stimulate critical thinking, and presents student evaluation of this activity. ..
  19. Whitaker D, McGraw P, Levi D. The influence of adaptation on perceived visual location. Vision Res. 1997;37:2207-16 pubmed
    ..The data are accounted for by a model in which the centroid of the linear combination of after-image and test stimulus is extracted. ..
  20. Srinivasan N, Srivastava P, Lohani M, Baijal S. Focused and distributed attention. Prog Brain Res. 2009;176:87-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss our studies on attention and afterimages indicating the close linkage between different types of attention and awareness as indicated by differences in the strength of afterimages based on the type of attention deployed. ..
  21. Shevell S, St Clair R, Hong S. Misbinding of color to form in afterimages. Vis Neurosci. 2008;25:355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the afterimage following such misbinding of color to form...
  22. Francis G. Modeling filling-in of afterimages. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2010;72:19-22 pubmed publisher
    Van Lier, Vergeer, and Anstis (2009) reported that color information in a visual afterimage could spread across regions that were not colored in the inducing stimulus...
  23. Gregory R. Helmholtz's principle. Perception. 2007;36:795-6 pubmed
  24. Bex P, Metha A, Makous W. Enhanced motion aftereffect for complex motions. Vision Res. 1999;39:2229-38 pubmed
    ..We also found that adaptation to motion in one direction had equal effects on sensitivity to motion in the same and opposite directions. ..
  25. Xiao Q, Gunturkun O. Do pigeons perceive the motion aftereffect? A behavioral study. Behav Brain Res. 2008;187:327-33 pubmed
    ..The choice behaviors of these animals were highly indicative for the perception of an MAE. The possible neuronal substrate for the movement aftereffect is discussed. ..
  26. Burmester A, Broerse J. Adaptation to combinations of form, colour, and movement. Perception. 2010;39:620-6 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that an aftereffect, reciprocal to the McCollough effect, can be produced under appropriate induction conditions, and that this effect is not due to retinal afterimages. ..
  27. Barraclough N, Ingham J, Page S. Dynamics of walking adaptation aftereffects induced in static images of walking actors. Vision Res. 2012;59:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the aftereffects induced by observing walking actors indicates that they behave like traditional high-level visual aftereffects. ..
  28. Grunewald A, Lankheet M. Orthogonal motion after-effect illusion predicted by a model of cortical motion processing. Nature. 1996;384:358-60 pubmed
    ..These interactions may occur in the cortical area MT, which contains motion-sensitive neurons with properties similar to those required by our model. ..
  29. Atkinson R, Crawford H. Individual differences in afterimage persistence: relationships to hypnotic susceptibility and visuospatial skills. Am J Psychol. 1992;105:527-39 pubmed
    ..To investigate the moderating role of individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility and visuospatial skills on afterimage persistence, we presented a codable (cross) flash of light to 40 men and 46 women who had been dark adapted for ..
  30. McLoughlin N. Interactions between pattern and color in the visual system: temporal aspects of the McCollough effect. Spat Vis. 2005;18:169-84 pubmed
  31. Brettel H, Shi L, Strasburger H. Temporal image fusion in human vision. Vision Res. 2006;46:774-81 pubmed
    ..the source of the fused and segregated appearance, we probed the decay characteristics of a vertical grating's afterimage by flashing an otherwise identical horizontal grating at varying times after the grating's offset...
  32. Petrov Y, Popple A. Effects of negative afterimages in visual illusions. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002;19:1107-11 pubmed
    ..A simple model of the local signal dynamics qualitatively reproduces the illusory effects by adding the negative afterimage to the original visual stimulus.
  33. Anstis S. Contour adaptation. J Vis. 2013;13: pubmed publisher
    ..By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces. ..
  34. Geremek A, Stürzel F, da Pos O, Spillmann L. Masking, persistence, and transfer in rotating arcs. Vision Res. 2002;42:2509-19 pubmed
    ..Whereas the initial contraction may be attributable to backward masking, the observed elongation likely reflects a cumulative build-up of after-discharge in cortical neurons over time. ..
  35. Maylor E, Sheehan B, Watson D, Henderson E. Enumeration in Alzheimer's disease and other late life psychiatric syndromes. Neuropsychologia. 2008;46:2696-708 pubmed publisher
    ..Although an enumeration test is unlikely to help differentiate early AD from other common dementias, the unexpected pattern of patients' performance challenges current models of enumeration and requires further investigation. ..
  36. Ezzati A, Golzar A, Afraz A. Topography of the motion aftereffect with and without eye movements. J Vis. 2008;8:23.1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The eccentricity of spatiotopic area is different from retinotopic area in the second experiment; Experiment 3 controls the effect of eccentricity and confirms the major results of the second experiment. ..
  37. Hsieh P, Caplovitz G, Tse P. Illusory motion induced by the offset of stationary luminance-defined gradients. Vision Res. 2006;46:970-8 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that this illusion is caused by the decay of the gradient afterimage.
  38. Barlasov Ioffe A, Hochstein S. Illusory-contour figures prime matching of real shapes. Perception. 2009;38:1118-31 pubmed
    ..Presence of the implicit retinal image is confirmed by its producing an afterimage. While the retinal image is only implicitly produced by the inducing pattern of pacmen, it is nevertheless ..
  39. Rehm R. ["One makes a distinction between 2 color contrasts, the instantaneous and the afterimage". Several color theory comments by Gottfried Semper in the "style" of 1860]. Sudhoffs Arch. 2010;94:157-77 pubmed
    ..Especially Chevreul's synthesis between theoretical consolidation and practical transformation seem to have attracted Semper's attention. ..
  40. Cattaneo L, Barchiesi G, Tabarelli D, Arfeller C, Sato M, Glenberg A. One's motor performance predictably modulates the understanding of others' actions through adaptation of premotor visuo-motor neurons. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2011;6:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that controlled manipulation of the firing properties of this neural population produces strong predictable changes in the way we categorize others' actions. ..
  41. Weiskrantz L, Cowey A, Hodinott Hill I. Prime-sight in a blindsight subject. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:101-2 pubmed
    ..These phenomena offer a unique opportunity to compare conscious and unconscious neural events in response to the same visual events. ..
  42. Silvanto J, Muggleton N, Cowey A, Walsh V. Neural adaptation reveals state-dependent effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1874-81 pubmed
    ..These findings can explain how TMS disrupts cognitive functions and therefore have implications for all studies which use TMS to disrupt behaviour. ..
  43. Hubel D, Howe P, Duffy A, Hernandez A. Scotopic foveal afterimages. Perception. 2009;38:313-6 pubmed
    ..If the surface is now restored to its original brightness, a dark spot of similar size appears where one fixates, that again lasts for several seconds. All this can be observed with no elaborate apparatus. ..
  44. Ishihara M. Effect of luminance contrast on the motion aftereffect. Percept Mot Skills. 1999;88:215-23 pubmed
    ..Analysis showed that there was no saturation on velocity of the motion aftereffect above 5% of the contrast although Keck, et al. (1976) found that the incremental increases of the effect above 3% adapting contrast were small. ..
  45. Murakami I. Fixational eye movements and motion perception. Prog Brain Res. 2006;154:193-209 pubmed
    ..Finally, the functional importance of non-differential, global motion signals are discussed in relation to visual stability during large-scale eye movements as well as heading estimation. ..
  46. Rutherford M, Troubridge E, Walsh J. Visual afterimages of emotional faces in high functioning autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..afterimages, but atypical patterns of opposition: whereas fixating negative emotions uniformly evokes a positive afterimage in the control group, fixating negative emotions was more likely to evoke a negative afterimage in the ASD group...
  47. Weiskrantz L, Rao A, Hodinott Hill I, Nobre A, Cowey A. Brain potentials associated with conscious aftereffects induced by unseen stimuli in a blindsight subject. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10500-5 pubmed
    ..The results are compared with other studies suggesting an anterior focus for conscious visual events. ..
  48. Momiji H, Bharath A, Hankins M, Kennard C. Numerical study of short-term afterimages and associate properties in foveal vision. Vision Res. 2006;46:365-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, spatio-temporally coupled properties such as transition from positive to negative phases in an afterimage, are recapped...
  49. Clifford C, Wenderoth P, Spehar B. A functional angle on some after-effects in cortical vision. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1705-10 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of the model for understanding the effects of adaptation and surround stimulation on the response properties of cortical neurons. ..
  50. Gauch A, Kerzel D. Contributions of visible persistence and perceptual set to the flash-lag effect: focusing on flash onset abolishes the illusion. Vision Res. 2009;49:2983-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes of perceptual set and visible persistence may underlie many of the previously reported modulations of the FLE. ..
  51. Souman J, Hooge I, Wertheim A. Localization and motion perception during smooth pursuit eye movements. Exp Brain Res. 2006;171:448-58 pubmed
    ..This difference appears to be mainly due to an asymmetry in the effect of retinal image motion direction on localization during smooth pursuit. ..
  52. Herzog M, Fahle M, Koch C. Spatial aspects of object formation revealed by a new illusion, shine-through. Vision Res. 2001;41:2325-35 pubmed
    ..Feature inheritance and shine-through may become a useful tool in investigating such different topics as time course of information processing, feature binding, attention, and masking. ..
  53. Scharnowski F, Hermens F, Kammer T, Ogmen H, Herzog M. Feature fusion reveals slow and fast visual memories. J Cogn Neurosci. 2007;19:632-41 pubmed