rod cell outer segment


Summary: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.

Top Publications

  1. Pfister C, Chabre M, Plouet J, Tuyen V, De Kozak Y, Faure J, et al. Retinal S antigen identified as the 48K protein regulating light-dependent phosphodiesterase in rods. Science. 1985;228:891-3 pubmed
    ..Biochemical, immunological, functional, and pathological tests showed that retinal S antigen and the 48K protein are identical. ..
  2. Schietroma C, Parain K, Estivalet A, Aghaie A, Boutet de Monvel J, Picaud S, et al. Usher syndrome type 1-associated cadherins shape the photoreceptor outer segment. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1849-1864 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that calyceal processes, together with their associated links, control the sizing of rod disks and cone lamellae throughout their daily renewal. ..
  3. Perez Sala D, Gilbert B, Tan E, Rando R. Prenylated protein methyltransferases do not distinguish between farnesylated and geranylgeranylated substrates. Biochem J. 1992;284 ( Pt 3):835-40 pubmed
    ..One of these substrates had previously been identified as the farnesylated gamma subunit of transducin. Therefore it appears that the same enzymic activity can methylate both farnesylated and geranylgeranylated substrates. ..
  4. Penn J, Thum L, Naash M. Photoreceptor physiology in the rat is governed by the light environment. Exp Eye Res. 1989;49:205-15 pubmed
    ..Retinas of these rats sustained 50% loss of photoreceptors from this exposure. Comparisons are made to previous studies concerning the effect of cyclic light environments on the retinas of albino rats. ..
  5. Newsome D. Retinal pigmented epithelium culture: current applications. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1983;103 ( Pt 4):458-66 pubmed
    ..Future refinements and improvements in culture conditions should augment the utility of these cells in vision research. ..
  6. Rakoczy P, Lai C, Baines M, Di Grandi S, Fitton J, Constable I. Modulation of cathepsin D activity in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Biochem J. 1997;324 ( Pt 3):935-40 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cathepsin D is a major proteolytic enzyme participating in the lysosomal digestion of photoreceptor outer segments. ..
  7. Ohyama T, Hackos D, Frings S, Hagen V, Kaupp U, Korenbrot J. Fraction of the dark current carried by Ca(2+) through cGMP-gated ion channels of intact rod and cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:735-54 pubmed
    ..96 mM in tiger salamander rods. Because Ca(2+) fractional flux is higher in cones than in rods, light flashes that generate equal photocurrents will cause a larger change in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in cones than in rods. ..
  8. Jiang F, Pan Z, Xu K, Tian L, Xie Y, Zhang X, et al. Screening of ABCA4 Gene in a Chinese Cohort With Stargardt Disease or Cone-Rod Dystrophy With a Report on 85 Novel Mutations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The establishment of the mutation profile will facilitate ABCA4 screening and risk evaluation for Chinese patients with STGD1. ..
  9. Gao Y, Westfield G, Erickson J, Cerione R, Skiniotis G, Ramachandran S. Isolation and structure-function characterization of a signaling-active rhodopsin-G protein complex. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14280-14289 pubmed publisher
    ..The stability and high yield of the purified complex should allow for further efforts toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of this important signaling complex. ..

More Information


  1. Seno K, Hayashi F. Palmitoylation is a prerequisite for dimerization-dependent raftophilicity of rhodopsin. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:15321-15328 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that palmitoylated GPCRs such as Rh can acquire raftophilicity upon G protein-stabilized dimerization and thereby organize receptor-cluster rafts by recruiting raftophilic lipids. ..
  2. Dessauer C. Shining a light on GPCR complexes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14290-14291 pubmed publisher
    ..i> now reports new strategies and tools to obtain receptor complexes in a near-native state, revealing insights into the gross conformational features of rhodopsin-transducin interactions and setting the stage for future studies. ..
  3. Shi Y, Rando R. Kinetic mechanism of isoprenylated protein methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:9547-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, AdoHcy combines with the same enzyme form as does AdoMet, and must be released from the enzyme last. Moreover, L-AFC and L-AFCMe must bind to different forms of the enzyme. ..
  4. Hanneken A, Neikirk T, Johnson J, Kono M. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CIS Retinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2017;115:T1 pubmed
    ..Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11-cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments. ..