retinal rod photoreceptor cells


Summary: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.

Top Publications

  1. Nikonov S, Lamb T, Pugh E. The role of steady phosphodiesterase activity in the kinetics and sensitivity of the light-adapted salamander rod photoresponse. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:795-824 pubmed
  2. Kozuka T, Chaya T, Tamalu F, Shimada M, Fujimaki Aoba K, Kuwahara R, et al. The TRPM1 Channel Is Required for Development of the Rod ON Bipolar Cell-AII Amacrine Cell Pathway in the Retinal Circuit. J Neurosci. 2017;37:9889-9900 pubmed publisher
    ..This study advances our understanding of neurotransmission-mediated retinal circuit refinement. ..
  3. ST GEORGE R. The interplay o light and heat in bleaching rhodopsin. J Gen Physiol. 1952;35:495-517 pubmed
    ..One wonders what value n has at 1050 mmicro, where vision still persists, and where rhodopsin molecules may supply some 16 kg. cal. of thermal energy per mole in order to make up for the energy deficit of the quanta. ..
  4. Allen A, Lucas R. Using Silent Substitution to Track the Mesopic Transition From Rod- to Cone-Based Vision in Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we were unable to record a melanopsin ERG. The cone measure of irradiance was particularly important in driving the transition from rod- to cone-based vision across mesopic light levels. ..
  5. Wang J, Saul A, Cui X, Roon P, Smith S. Absence of Sigma 1 Receptor Accelerates Photoreceptor Cell Death in a Murine Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4545-4558 pubmed publisher
    ..Photoreceptor cell degeneration accelerates and cone function diminishes much earlier in rd10/Sig1R-/- than rd10 mice emphasizing the importance of Sig1R as a modulator of retinal cell survival. ..
  6. Kung F, Wang W, Tran T, Townes Anderson E. Sema3A Reduces Sprouting of Adult Rod Photoreceptors In Vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4318–4331 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Sema3A contributes to axonal retraction in retinal injury, whereas rod neuritic sprouting and regenerative synaptogenesis may require a reduction in semaphorin signaling. ..
  7. Kaylor J, Xu T, Ingram N, Tsan A, Hakobyan H, Fain G, et al. Blue light regenerates functional visual pigments in mammals through a retinyl-phospholipid intermediate. Nat Commun. 2017;8:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors show that mammalian photoreceptors also regenerate opsin pigments in light through photoisomerization of N-ret-PE (N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine. ..
  8. Panorgias A, Tillman M, Sutter E, Moshiri A, Gerth Kahlert C, Werner J. Senescent Changes and Topography of the Dark-Adapted Multifocal Electroretinogram. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1323-1329 pubmed publisher
    ..These aging processes affect rods and rod-bipolar cells. Their decrease in response can be attributed to both optical and neural factors. ..
  9. Jayaram H, Khaw P, MacLaren R, Limb G. Focus on molecules: neural retina leucine zipper (NRL). Exp Eye Res. 2012;104:99-100 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Middendorf T, Aldrich R, Baylor D. Modification of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels by ultraviolet light. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:227-52 pubmed
  2. Pepperberg D. Transduction gain in light adaptation of rod photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2001;117:361-6 pubmed
  3. Popova E, Salzberg A, Yang C, Zhang S, Barnstable C. Identification and prediction of alternative transcription start sites that generate rod photoreceptor-specific transcripts from ubiquitously expressed genes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179230 pubmed publisher
  4. Giannini D, Lombardo G, Mariotti L, Devaney N, Serrao S, Lombardo M. Reliability and Agreement Between Metrics of Cone Spacing in Adaptive Optics Images of the Human Retinal Photoreceptor Mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3127-3137 pubmed publisher
    ..The DRPD was unreliable for describing cell distance in a human retinal cone mosaic and did not correlate with Scc and LCS. Caution is needed when comparing spacing metrics evaluated in sampling areas of different sizes. ..
  5. Orosz O, Rajta I, Vajas A, Takacs L, Csutak A, Fodor M, et al. Myopia and Late-Onset Progressive Cone Dystrophy Associate to LVAVA/MVAVA Exon 3 Interchange Haplotypes of Opsin Genes on Chromosome X. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1834-1842 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the joint effect of these toxic haplotypes in the two opsin genes on chromosome X. ..
  6. Murakami Y, Ikeda Y, Nakatake S, Miller J, Vavvas D, Sonoda K, et al. Necrotic cone photoreceptor cell death in retinitis pigmentosa. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e2038 pubmed publisher
  7. Liu Z, Kocaoglu O, Miller D. 3D Imaging of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Living Human Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:OCT533-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Success in younger and older eyes establishes a path for testing aging effects in larger populations. Because the technology is based on OCT, our measurements will aid in interpreting clinical OCT images. ..
  8. Iavicoli I, Calabrese E. Redefining low lead levels. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:A202 pubmed publisher
  9. Peinado Allina G, Fortenbach C, Naarendorp F, Gross O, Pugh E, Burns M. Bright flash response recovery of mammalian rods in vivo is rate limited by RGS9. J Gen Physiol. 2017;149:443-454 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are important for understanding retinal circuitry, in particular as modeled in the large literature that addresses the relationship between the kinetics and sensitivity of retinal responses and visual perception. ..
  10. Mowat F, Gervais K, Occelli L, Annear M, Querubin J, Bainbridge J, et al. Early-Onset Progressive Degeneration of the Area Centralis in RPE65-Deficient Dogs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3268-3277 pubmed publisher
    ..This model could be used to refine interventions aiming to improve function and halt the progression of foveal/perifoveal photoreceptor degeneration. ..
  11. Byrne L, Dalkara D, Luna G, Fisher S, Clérin E, Sahel J, et al. Viral-mediated RdCVF and RdCVFL expression protects cone and rod photoreceptors in retinal degeneration. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate different functions for Nxnl1 isoforms in the retina and suggest that RdCVF gene therapy has potential for treating retinal degenerative disease. ..
  12. Corson D, Kefalov V, Cornwall M, Crouch R. Effect of 11-cis 13-demethylretinal on phototransduction in bleach-adapted rod and cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:283-97 pubmed
  13. Vargas A, Kim H, Baral E, Yu W, CRAFT C, Lee E. Protective effect of clusterin on rod photoreceptor in rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182389 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel insights into the pathway of how clusterin promotes the rod cell survival suggest this treatment may be a potential therapeutic strategy to slow progression of vision loss in human RP. ..
  14. Haumann I, Junghans D, Anstötz M, Frotscher M. Presynaptic localization of GluK5 in rod photoreceptors suggests a novel function of high affinity glutamate receptors in the mammalian retina. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0172967 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in GluK5-deficient mutant mice the structural integrity of synaptic ribbons was severely altered pointing to a novel function of GluK5 in organizing synaptic ribbons in the presynaptic terminals of rod photoreceptors. ..
  15. Park J, McAnany J. Effect of stimulus size and luminance on the rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated pupillary light reflex. J Vis. 2015;15: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight important differences in how stimulus luminance and size combine to govern the PLR elicited by brief flashes under rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated conditions. ..
  16. Feng D, Chen Z, Yang K, Miao S, Xu B, Kang Y, et al. The cytoplasmic tail of rhodopsin triggers rapid rod degeneration in kinesin-2 mutants. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17375-17386 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a previously unknown function of the rhodopsin cytoplasmic domain during opsin-triggered photoreceptor degeneration and may open up new avenues for managing this disease. ..
  17. Molnar A, Andréasson S, Larsson E, Åkerblom H, Holmström G. Reduction of Rod and Cone Function in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:854-861 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of rods and cones in children born extremely preterm has not yet been fully investigated...
  18. Roger J, Hiriyanna A, Gotoh N, Hao H, Cheng D, Ratnapriya R, et al. OTX2 loss causes rod differentiation defect in CRX-associated congenital blindness. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that OTX2 maintains Nrl expression in developing rods to consolidate rod fate. Our studies provide insights into CRX mutation-associated congenital blindness and should assist in therapeutic design. ..
  19. Aldiri I, Xu B, Wang L, Chen X, Hiler D, Griffiths L, et al. The Dynamic Epigenetic Landscape of the Retina During Development, Reprogramming, and Tumorigenesis. Neuron. 2017;94:550-568.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..The epigenome of retinoblastomas was more similar to that of the normal retina than that of retina-derived iPSCs, and we identified retina-specific epigenetic memory. ..
  20. Tropepe V, Coles B, Chiasson B, Horsford D, Elia A, McInnes R, et al. Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye. Science. 2000;287:2032-6 pubmed
  21. Wang W, Townes Anderson E. LIM Kinase, a Newly Identified Regulator of Presynaptic Remodeling by Rod Photoreceptors After Injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:7847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus structural remodeling, in the form of either axonal retraction or neuritic growth, requires LIMK activity. LIM kinase inhibition may have therapeutic potential for reducing pathologic rod terminal plasticity after retinal injury. ..
  22. Asteriti S, Grillner S, Cangiano L. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. ..
  23. Sarfare S, McKeown A, Messinger J, Rubin G, Wei H, Kraft T, et al. Overexpression of rod photoreceptor glutamic acid rich protein 2 (GARP2) increases gain and slows recovery in mouse retina. Cell Commun Signal. 2014;12:67 pubmed publisher
    ..GARP2 may participate in regulating visual signal transduction through a previously unappreciated role in regulating phototransduction gain and recovery. ..
  24. Gupta V, Rajala A, Rajala R. Non-canonical regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma isoform activity in retinal rod photoreceptor cells. Cell Commun Signal. 2015;13:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest a functional non-canonical PI3Kγ activation in retinal rod photoreceptor cells.
  25. Zelinger L, Karakülah G, Chaitankar V, Kim J, Yang H, Brooks M, et al. Regulation of Noncoding Transcriptome in Developing Photoreceptors by Rod Differentiation Factor NRL. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4422-4435 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal coregulation of coding and noncoding transcripts in rod photoreceptors by NRL and establish the framework for deciphering the function of ncRNAs during retinal development. ..
  26. Molokanova E, Savchenko A, Kramer R. Interactions of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunits and protein tyrosine kinase probed with genistein. J Gen Physiol. 2000;115:685-96 pubmed