retinal photoreceptor cell outer segment


Summary: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.

Top Publications

  1. Saurabh K, Roy R, Sharma P, Chandrasekharan D, Deshmukh K, Vyas C. Age-related Changes in the Foveal Bulge in Healthy Eyes. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2017;24:48-50 pubmed publisher
    ..15). Foveal bulge was more commonly seen in younger individuals and its height decreased with age. Age matching across groups should be undertaken in studies using foveal bulge as prognostic tool. ..
  2. Meirelles A, Rodrigues M, Guirado A, Jorge R. Photoreceptor assessment using adaptive optics in resolved central serous chorioretinopathy. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:192-195 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that AO can provide additional information to assist in the treatment and follow-up of patients with CSC or other macular pathologies. ..
  3. Murase H, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H. TUDCA Promotes Phagocytosis by Retinal Pigment Epithelium via MerTK Activation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:2511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TUDCA activates MerTK, which is important for phagocytosis of POS. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid may represent a new therapeutic option for the treatment of retinal diseases. ..
  4. Majander A, Bitner Glindzicz M, Chan C, Duncan H, Chinnery P, Subash M, et al. Lamination of the Outer Plexiform Layer in Optic Atrophy Caused by Dominant WFS1 Mutations. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1624-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Müller B, Wagner F, Lorenz B, Stieger K. Organotypic Cultures of Adult Mouse Retina: Morphologic Changes and Gene Expression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1930-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..This characterization forms the basis to establish retinal explants for gene therapeutic applications as an intermediate step between cell culture and experiments on adult animals, thus reducing the load of animal experimentation. ..
  6. Schietroma C, Parain K, Estivalet A, Aghaie A, Boutet de Monvel J, Picaud S, et al. Usher syndrome type 1-associated cadherins shape the photoreceptor outer segment. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1849-1864 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that calyceal processes, together with their associated links, control the sizing of rod disks and cone lamellae throughout their daily renewal. ..
  7. Ooshiro T, Iijima H. Postoperative Recovery of Light Sensitivity in Eyes with Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:52-58 pubmed publisher
    ..8047) or with its change (p = 0.1242). Light sensitivity in the detached retina in eyes with RRD does not completely recover after successful surgery. ..
  8. Shindou H, Koso H, Sasaki J, Nakanishi H, Sagara H, Nakagawa K, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid preserves visual function by maintaining correct disc morphology in retinal photoreceptor cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12054-12064 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus provides the reason why DHA is required for visual acuity and may help inform approaches for overcoming retinal disorders associated with DHA deficiency or dysfunction. ..
  9. Jonnal R, Gorczynska I, Migacz J, Azimipour M, Zawadzki R, Werner J. The Properties of Outer Retinal Band Three Investigated With Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4559-4568 pubmed publisher
    ..These two observations indicate that band 3 corresponds predominantly to cone outer segment tips (COST). Conventional OCT may overestimate both the thickness of band 3 and outer segment length. ..

More Information


  1. Reynolds A, Blacque O, Kennedy B. The genetics of outer segment morphogenesis in zebrafish. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:431-41 pubmed publisher
  2. Wanek J, Blair N, Chau F, Lim J, Leiderman Y, Shahidi M. Alterations in Retinal Layer Thickness and Reflectance at Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:OCT341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and INL intensity was higher in all macular subfields (P = 0.04) compared to CNTL. Depth and spatially resolved retinal thickness and reflectance measurements are potential biomarkers for assessment and monitoring of DR. ..
  3. Borrelli E, Abdelfattah N, Uji A, Nittala M, Boyer D, Sadda S. Postreceptor Neuronal Loss in Intermediate Age-related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the concept of postreceptor retinal neuronal loss as a contributor to retinal thinning in intermediate AMD. ..
  4. Runkle A, Kaiser P, Srivastava S, Schachat A, Reese J, Ehlers J. OCT Angiography and Ellipsoid Zone Mapping of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 From the AVATAR Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3683-3689 pubmed publisher
    ..OCT-A was a useful adjunct for determining disease severity. ..
  5. Hendriks M, Verhoeven V, Buitendijk G, Polling J, Meester Smoor M, Hofman A, et al. Development of Refractive Errors-What Can We Learn From Inherited Retinal Dystrophies?. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;182:81-89 pubmed publisher
    ..35]) with the highest degree of hyperopia. Refractive errors, in particular myopia, are common in IRD. The bipolar synapse and the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptor may serve as critical sites for myopia development. ..
  6. Greenstein V, Nunez J, Lee W, Schuerch K, Fortune B, Tsang S, et al. A Comparison of En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Fundus Autofluorescence in Stargardt Disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5227-5236 pubmed publisher
    ..The spatial locations of hyperreflective flecks on the en face preRPE(OS) slab image corresponded to those on the SW-AF images. Wide-field en face OCT imaging has the potential to be a clinically useful tool for the management of STGD1. ..