retinal cone photoreceptor cells


Summary: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.

Top Publications

  1. Butler M, Ma H, Yang F, Belcher J, Le Y, Mikoshiba K, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-channel activity contributes to ER stress and cone death in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11189-11205 pubmed publisher
    ..These results thus identify a novel molecular link between Ca2+ homeostasis and cone degeneration, thereby revealing novel therapeutic targets to preserve cones in inherited retinal degenerative diseases. ..
  2. Jacobson S, Cideciyan A, Sumaroka A, Roman A, Charng J, Lu M, et al. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by the Intronic Mutation in the CEP290 Gene. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2609-2622 pubmed publisher
    ..TPLR and OCI can provide objective measures of postretinal transmission. Minimal change over a decade indicates that there is no practical value in natural history studies. ..
  3. Allen A, Lucas R. Using Silent Substitution to Track the Mesopic Transition From Rod- to Cone-Based Vision in Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we were unable to record a melanopsin ERG. The cone measure of irradiance was particularly important in driving the transition from rod- to cone-based vision across mesopic light levels. ..
  4. Zhang J, Xu D, Ouyang H, Hu S, Li A, Luo H, et al. Neuroprotective effects of methyl 3,4 dihydroxybenzoate in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Exp Eye Res. 2017;162:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are likely mediated by the BDNF-TrkB pathway. Due to its neurotrophic effects and ability to reduce reactive gliosis, MDHB may be useful to treat degenerative diseases in retina and brain. ..
  5. Feng S, Gale M, Fay J, Faridi A, Titus H, Garg A, et al. Assessment of Different Sampling Methods for Measuring and Representing Macular Cone Density Using Flood-Illuminated Adaptive Optics. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:5751-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that different methods of sampling can significantly affect cone density measurements. Therefore, care must be taken when interpreting cone density results, even in a normal population. ..
  6. Pottackal J. Early Events of Synapse Disassembly in the Damaged Retina. J Neurosci. 2015;35:9539-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Kraaij D, Spekreijse H, Kamermans M. The nature of surround-induced depolarizing responses in goldfish cones. J Gen Physiol. 2000;115:3-16 pubmed
  8. Gootwine E, Ofri R, Banin E, Obolensky A, Averbukh E, Ezra Elia R, et al. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3 Vector Delivered by Subretinal Injection in CNGA3 Mutant Achromatopsia Sheep. Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2017;28:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of AGTC-402 in clinical studies in patients with achromatopsia caused by CNGA3 mutations, with careful evaluation for possible inflammatory and/or toxic effects. ..
  9. Zaleska Zmijewska A, Wawrzyniak Z, Ulinska M, Szaflik J, Dabrowska A, Szaflik J. Human photoreceptor cone density measured with adaptive optics technology (rtx1 device) in healthy eyes: Standardization of measurements. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7300 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, the optimal sampling window was 100?×?100??m. ..

More Information


  1. Liu M, Farkas M, Spinnhirny P, Pevet P, PIERCE E, Hicks D, et al. De novo assembly and annotation of the retinal transcriptome for the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis ansorgei). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179061 pubmed publisher
    ..Our high quality annotated transcriptome is publicly available, and we hope it will facilitate wider usage of A. ansorgei as a model organism for molecular studies of cone biology and retinal degeneration. ..
  2. Wang J, Saul A, Cui X, Roon P, Smith S. Absence of Sigma 1 Receptor Accelerates Photoreceptor Cell Death in a Murine Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4545-4558 pubmed publisher
    ..Photoreceptor cell degeneration accelerates and cone function diminishes much earlier in rd10/Sig1R-/- than rd10 mice emphasizing the importance of Sig1R as a modulator of retinal cell survival. ..
  3. Cameron D, Easter S. Cone photoreceptor regeneration in adult fish retina: phenotypic determination and mosaic pattern formation. J Neurosci. 1995;15:2255-71 pubmed
  4. Kaylor J, Xu T, Ingram N, Tsan A, Hakobyan H, Fain G, et al. Blue light regenerates functional visual pigments in mammals through a retinyl-phospholipid intermediate. Nat Commun. 2017;8:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors show that mammalian photoreceptors also regenerate opsin pigments in light through photoisomerization of N-ret-PE (N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine. ..
  5. Tanna P, Kasilian M, Strauss R, Tee J, Kalitzeos A, Tarima S, et al. Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients With Stargardt Disease and RPGR-Associated Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3608-3615 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it appears that these indices may be disease dependent, implying the need for similar investigations in other conditions. ..
  6. Mariotti L, Devaney N, Lombardo G, Lombardo M. Analysis of Cone Mosaic Reflectance Properties in Healthy Eyes and in Eyes With Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Over Time. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4057-4067 pubmed publisher
  7. Tuten W, Harmening W, Sabesan R, Roorda A, Sincich L. Spatiochromatic Interactions between Individual Cone Photoreceptors in the Human Retina. J Neurosci. 2017;37:9498-9509 pubmed publisher
  8. Giannini D, Lombardo G, Mariotti L, Devaney N, Serrao S, Lombardo M. Reliability and Agreement Between Metrics of Cone Spacing in Adaptive Optics Images of the Human Retinal Photoreceptor Mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3127-3137 pubmed publisher
    ..The DRPD was unreliable for describing cell distance in a human retinal cone mosaic and did not correlate with Scc and LCS. Caution is needed when comparing spacing metrics evaluated in sampling areas of different sizes. ..
  9. Musser J, Arendt D. Loss and gain of cone types in vertebrate ciliary photoreceptor evolution. Dev Biol. 2017;431:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the importance of specifying transcription factors in tracking cell type evolution, and shed new light on the mechanisms of cell type loss and gain in retina evolution. ..
  10. Wang K, Peng B, Xiao J, Weinreb O, Youdim M, Lin B. Iron-Chelating Drugs Enhance Cone Photoreceptor Survival in a Mouse Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5287-5297 pubmed publisher
    ..VK28 and VAR10303 provided partial histologic and functional rescue of cones in RD10 mice. Our study demonstrated that iron chelation therapy might represent an effective therapeutic strategy for RP patients. ..
  11. Ma H, Yang F, Butler M, Belcher J, Redmond T, Placzek A, et al. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. FASEB J. 2017;31:3425-3438 pubmed publisher
    ..Ma, H., Yang, F., Butler, M. R., Belcher, J., Redmond, T. M., Placzek, A. T., Scanlan, T. S., Ding, X.-Q. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. ..
  12. Xue Y, Shen S, Jui J, Rupp A, Byrne L, Hattar S, et al. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:727-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone-driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation. ..
  13. Gauvin M, Little J, Lina J, Lachapelle P. Functional decomposition of the human ERG based on the discrete wavelet transform. J Vis. 2015;15:14 pubmed publisher
    ..The DWT analysis thus represents a valuable addition to the electrophysiologist's armamentarium that will improve the quantification and interpretation of normal and pathological ERG responses. ..
  14. Aleman T, Sandhu H, Serrano L, Traband A, Lau M, Adamus G, et al. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:487-490 pubmed publisher
  15. Kato K, Kondo M, Nagashima R, Sugawara A, Sugimoto M, Matsubara H, et al. Factors Affecting Mydriasis-Free Flicker ERGs Recorded With Real-Time Correction for Retinal Illuminance: Study of 150 Young Healthy Subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5280-5286 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine what factors affect the fundamental components of the flicker ERGs recorded by RETeval in young healthy subjects...
  16. Liu J, Jung H, Dubra A, Tam J. Automated Photoreceptor Cell Identification on Nonconfocal Adaptive Optics Images Using Multiscale Circular Voting. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4477-4489 pubmed publisher
  17. Byrne L, Dalkara D, Luna G, Fisher S, Clérin E, Sahel J, et al. Viral-mediated RdCVF and RdCVFL expression protects cone and rod photoreceptors in retinal degeneration. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate different functions for Nxnl1 isoforms in the retina and suggest that RdCVF gene therapy has potential for treating retinal degenerative disease. ..
  18. Park J, McAnany J. Effect of stimulus size and luminance on the rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated pupillary light reflex. J Vis. 2015;15: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight important differences in how stimulus luminance and size combine to govern the PLR elicited by brief flashes under rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated conditions. ..
  19. Kim Y, Reynaud A, Hess R, Mullen K. A Normative Data Set for the Clinical Assessment of Achromatic and Chromatic Contrast Sensitivity Using a qCSF Approach. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3628-3636 pubmed publisher
  20. Sahaboglu A, Sharif A, Feng L, Secer E, Zrenner E, Paquet Durand F. Temporal progression of PARP activity in the Prph2 mutant rd2 mouse: Neuroprotective effects of the PARP inhibitor PJ34. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181374 pubmed publisher
  21. Mowat F, Gervais K, Occelli L, Annear M, Querubin J, Bainbridge J, et al. Early-Onset Progressive Degeneration of the Area Centralis in RPE65-Deficient Dogs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3268-3277 pubmed publisher
    ..This model could be used to refine interventions aiming to improve function and halt the progression of foveal/perifoveal photoreceptor degeneration. ..
  22. Murakami Y, Ikeda Y, Nakatake S, Miller J, Vavvas D, Sonoda K, et al. Necrotic cone photoreceptor cell death in retinitis pigmentosa. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e2038 pubmed publisher
  23. Viana K, Messias A, Siqueira R, Rodrigues M, Jorge R. Structure-functional correlation using adaptive optics, OCT, and microperimetry in a case of occult macular dystrophy. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:118-121 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of central sensitivity was revealed using microperimetry; ERG was within the normal range, although the mfERG showed a reduced central response amplitude. ..
  24. Liu Z, Kocaoglu O, Miller D. 3D Imaging of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Living Human Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:OCT533-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Success in younger and older eyes establishes a path for testing aging effects in larger populations. Because the technology is based on OCT, our measurements will aid in interpreting clinical OCT images. ..
  25. Molnar A, Andréasson S, Larsson E, Åkerblom H, Holmström G. Reduction of Rod and Cone Function in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:854-861 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of rods and cones in children born extremely preterm has not yet been fully investigated...
  26. Altschwager P, Moskowitz A, Fulton A, Hansen R. Multifocal ERG Responses in Subjects With a History of Preterm Birth. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2603-2608 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of difference in mfERG amplitude between the mild and no ROP groups is evidence that the effect of ROP on the neurosensory retina may not depend solely on appearance of abnormal retinal vasculature. ..
  27. Nunez V, Shapley R, Gordon J. Nonlinear dynamics of cortical responses to color in the human cVEP. J Vis. 2017;17:9 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the nonlinearity is a kind of automatic gain control that adjusts cortical dynamics to be faster when color contrast is greater...
  28. Corson D, Kefalov V, Cornwall M, Crouch R. Effect of 11-cis 13-demethylretinal on phototransduction in bleach-adapted rod and cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:283-97 pubmed
  29. Jonnal R, Gorczynska I, Migacz J, Azimipour M, Zawadzki R, Werner J. The Properties of Outer Retinal Band Three Investigated With Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4559-4568 pubmed publisher
    ..These two observations indicate that band 3 corresponds predominantly to cone outer segment tips (COST). Conventional OCT may overestimate both the thickness of band 3 and outer segment length. ..
  30. Rebrik T, Kotelnikova E, Korenbrot J. Time course and Ca(2+) dependence of sensitivity modulation in cyclic GMP-gated currents of intact cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:521-34 pubmed
    ..Its time course suggests that its functional effects are important in the recovery of the cone photoresponse to a flash of light and during the response to steps of light, when cones adapt. ..
  31. D Souza D, Auer T, Strasburger H, Frahm J, Lee B. Temporal frequency and chromatic processing in humans: an fMRI study of the cortical visual areas. J Vis. 2011;11: pubmed publisher
  32. Barboni M, Nagy B, Martins C, Bonci D, Hauzman E, Aher A, et al. L-/M-cone opponency in visual evoked potentials of human cortex. J Vis. 2017;17:20 pubmed publisher
    ..VEP recording is a noninvasive tool that can be easily and painlessly applied. We propose that the technique may provide information in the diagnosis of color vision deficiencies. ..
  33. Trifunovic D, Arango Gonzalez B, Comitato A, Barth M, Del Amo E, Kulkarni M, et al. HDAC inhibition in the cpfl1 mouse protects degenerating cone photoreceptors in vivo. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:4462-4472 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a crucial role for HDAC activity in primary cone degeneration and highlight a new avenue for future therapy developments for cone dystrophies and retinal diseases associated with impaired cone migration. ..
  34. Olivares A, Han Y, Soto D, Flattery K, Marini J, Mollema N, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr2c1 (Tr2) is a critical regulator of early retina cell patterning. Dev Biol. 2017;429:343-355 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports a role for Nr2c1 in defining the biphasic period of retinal development and specifically influencing the early phase of retinal cell fate. ..
  35. Sawides L, Sapoznik K, de Castro A, Walker B, Gast T, Elsner A, et al. Alterations to the Foveal Cone Mosaic of Diabetic Patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3395-3403 pubmed publisher
    ..The foveal cone mosaic can show localized areas of dark cones that persist over time, that apparently correspond to either missing or nonreflecting cones, and may be related to local retinal ischemia. ..
  36. Zelinger L, Karakülah G, Chaitankar V, Kim J, Yang H, Brooks M, et al. Regulation of Noncoding Transcriptome in Developing Photoreceptors by Rod Differentiation Factor NRL. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4422-4435 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal coregulation of coding and noncoding transcripts in rod photoreceptors by NRL and establish the framework for deciphering the function of ncRNAs during retinal development. ..
  37. Stockman A, Henning G, West P, Rider A, Ripamonti C. Hue shifts produced by temporal asymmetries in chromatic signals depend on the alignment of the first and second harmonics. J Vis. 2017;17:3 pubmed publisher
  38. Schietroma C, Parain K, Estivalet A, Aghaie A, Boutet de Monvel J, Picaud S, et al. Usher syndrome type 1-associated cadherins shape the photoreceptor outer segment. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1849-1864 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that calyceal processes, together with their associated links, control the sizing of rod disks and cone lamellae throughout their daily renewal. ..
  39. Stockman A, Henning G, West P, Rider A, Smithson H, Ripamonti C. Hue shifts produced by temporal asymmetries in chromatic signals. J Vis. 2017;17:2 pubmed publisher
  40. Uchikawa K, Morimoto T, Matsumoto T. Understanding individual differences in color appearance of "#TheDress" based on the optimal color hypothesis. J Vis. 2017;17:10 pubmed publisher
    ..It was newly discovered that even when the dress was achromatic, these two groups estimated the illuminant to be darker or brighter in the same way as for the original dress. ..
  41. Leveillard T. Cancer metabolism of cone photoreceptors. Oncotarget. 2015;6:32285-6 pubmed publisher
  42. Molokanova E, Savchenko A, Kramer R. Interactions of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunits and protein tyrosine kinase probed with genistein. J Gen Physiol. 2000;115:685-96 pubmed