Summary: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.

Top Publications

  1. Xu B, Chen W, Fan Z, Han Y, Xiong X, Gao X, et al. Responses of neurons in paraventricular nucleus to activation of cardiac afferents and acute myocardial ischaemia in rats. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute myocardial ischaemia activates capsaicin-sensitive neurons in PVN and enhances sympathetic outflow. ..
  2. Ng M, Sica D, Frishman W. Rheos: an implantable carotid sinus stimulation device for the nonpharmacologic treatment of resistant hypertension. Cardiol Rev. 2011;19:52-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapy in patients with treatment resistant hypertension, are now ongoing in both Europe and the United States...
  3. Schmidli J, Savolainen H, Eckstein F, Irwin E, Peters T, Martin R, et al. Acute device-based blood pressure reduction: electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex in patients undergoing elective carotid surgery. Vascular. 2007;15:63-9 pubmed
  4. Porges S. The polyvagal perspective. Biol Psychol. 2007;74:116-43 pubmed
  5. Du Y, Chen A. A "love triangle" elicited by electrochemistry: complex interactions among cardiac sympathetic afferent, chemo-, and baroreflexes. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:9-10 pubmed
  6. McMullan S, Goodchild A, Pilowsky P. Circulating angiotensin II attenuates the sympathetic baroreflex by reducing the barosensitivity of medullary cardiovascular neurones in the rat. J Physiol. 2007;582:711-22 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this results from activation by Ang II of a central pathway originating at the circumventricular organs. ..
  7. Joyner M. Baroreceptor function during exercise: resetting the record. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:27-36 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the key contributions of John Shepherd and the late David Donald (along with their colleagues) on related issues are noted. ..
  8. Raven P, Fadel P, Ogoh S. Arterial baroreflex resetting during exercise: a current perspective. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:37-49 pubmed
  9. Edwards L, Ring C, McIntyre D, Winer J, Martin U. Sensory detection thresholds are modulated across the cardiac cycle: evidence that cutaneous sensibility is greatest for systolic stimulation. Psychophysiology. 2009;46:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that cutaneous sensibility was greater when stimulated during systole than diastole may be accounted for by a modified afferent feedback hypothesis. ..

More Information


  1. Potts J. Inhibitory neurotransmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii: implications for baroreflex resetting during exercise. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:59-72 pubmed
    ..An understanding of these mechanisms may prove to be essential for future detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying sensory integration in the NTS. ..
  2. McMullan S, Dick T, Farnham M, Pilowsky P. Effects of baroreceptor activation on respiratory variability in rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;166:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the effects of baroreceptor stimulation on sympathetic nerve activity, the baro-respiratory response is subtle and highly dependent on respiratory drive...
  3. Doan T, Stephans K, Ramirez A, Glazebrook P, Andresen M, Kunze D. Differential distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated channels in sensory neurons and mechanosensitive fibers. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3335-43 pubmed
    ..At the sensory receptor terminal, CsCl decreased the threshold pressure for initiation of mechanoreceptor discharge. Therefore, elimination of the I(H) increases excitability of both the soma and the peripheral sensory terminals. ..
  4. Doyle M, Bailey T, Jin Y, Andresen M. Vanilloid receptors presynaptically modulate cranial visceral afferent synaptic transmission in nucleus tractus solitarius. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8222-9 pubmed
    ..Because the CAP sensitivity of cranial afferents is exclusively associated with unmyelinated axons, VR1 identifies C-fiber afferent pathways within the brainstem. ..
  5. Holschneider D, Scremin O, Roos K, Chialvo D, Chen K, Shih J. Increased baroreceptor response in mice deficient in monoamine oxidase A and B. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H964-72 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that prevention of hypertension may occur in chronic states of catecholaminergic/indoleaminergic excess by increased gain of the baroreflex. ..
  6. Thrasher T. Baroreceptors and the long-term control of blood pressure. Exp Physiol. 2004;89:331-5 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the role of baroreceptors in the long term control of MAP needs to be revisited. ..
  7. Dampney R, Horiuchi J, Tagawa T, Fontes M, Potts P, Polson J. Medullary and supramedullary mechanisms regulating sympathetic vasomotor tone. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003;177:209-18 pubmed
    ..Ang II receptors also contribute to the raised resting activity of these neurons in some pathological conditions. ..
  8. Magosso E, Cavalcanti S, Ursino M. Theoretical analysis of rest and exercise hemodynamics in patients with total cavopulmonary connection. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H1018-34 pubmed
    ..2-1.3 l/min. The model ascribes the poor response to exercise in these patients to the incapacity to sustain venous return caused by the high resistance to venous return and/or to exhaustion of volume compensation reserve. ..
  9. Malpas S. What sets the long-term level of sympathetic nerve activity: is there a role for arterial baroreceptors?. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R1-R12 pubmed
  10. Edwards L, Ring C, McIntyre D, Carroll D. Modulation of the human nociceptive flexion reflex across the cardiac cycle. Psychophysiology. 2001;38:712-8 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of baroreceptors by natural changes in blood pressure during the cardiac cycle dampened nociception, and accordingly, the data support the arterial baroreflex mechanism of hypertensive hypoalgesia. ..
  11. Osborn J, England S. Normalization of arterial pressure after barodenervation: role of pressure natriuresis. Am J Physiol. 1990;259:R1172-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the normalization of MAP after ABD or SAD is not the result of pressure natriuresis but rather failure to maintain a chronic elevation of sympathetic activity after barodenervation. ..
  12. Angrilli A, Mini A, Mucha R, Rau H. The influence of low blood pressure and baroreceptor activity on pain responses. Physiol Behav. 1997;62:391-7 pubmed
    ..Contrary to expectations, the rate of choice of baroreceptor conditions during painful stimulation did not show, in either group, any preference for baroreceptor activation. ..
  13. Sun X, Lan Q, Cai Y, Yu Y. Electrical stimulation of deep peroneal nerve mimicking acupuncture inhibits the pressor response via capsaicin-insensitive afferents in anesthetized rats. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18:130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation of the DPN mimicking acupuncture has an inhibitory effect on the pressor response, and the effect is mediated by capsaicin-insensitive afferent fibers in the DPN. ..
  14. Scott E, Greenwood J, Pernicova I, Law G, Gilbey S, Kearney M, et al. Sympathetic activation and vasoregulation in response to carbohydrate ingestion in patients with congestive heart failure. Can J Cardiol. 2013;29:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that high-carbohydrate meals may adversely affect CHF patients via altered autonomic tone and blood-flow patterns. ..
  15. Szymanowska K, Piatkowska A, Nowicka A, Michalski M, Dankowski R, Kandziora M, et al. Clinical significance of heart rate turbulence assessment in patients with chronic heart failure. Kardiol Pol. 2008;66:1289-95 pubmed
    ..HRT parameters show a significant correlation with some clinical factors: NYHA class, BNP and UA concentrations. Both HRT parameters, TO and TS, seem to be significant prognostic markers in patients with CHF. ..
  16. Zhang W, Mifflin S. Chronic hypertension enhances presynaptic inhibition by baclofen in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Hypertension. 2010;55:481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This enhanced presynaptic inhibition could contribute to altered baroreflex function in hypertension. ..
  17. Eguchi K, Pickering T, Ishikawa J, Hoshide S, Komori T, Tomizawa H, et al. Severe orthostatic hypotension with diabetic autonomic neuropathy successfully treated with a beta(1)-blocker: a case report. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:801-3 pubmed
  18. Laederach Hofmann K, Rüddel H, Mussgay L. Pathological baroreceptor sensitivity in patients suffering from somatization disorders: do they correlate with symptoms?. Biol Psychol. 2008;79:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Severity of clinical symptoms measured by psychometric instruments did not preclude autonomic function impairment. Accordingly, autonomic dysfunction may constitute an independent somatic factor in this patient group. ..
  19. Songu M, Aslan A, Unlu H, Celik O. Neural control of eustachian tube function. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal control mechanism could play an important role in regulating Eustachian tube function in humans. Laryngoscope, 2009. ..
  20. Rowaiye O, Jankowska E, Ponikowska B. Baroreceptor sensitivity and diabetes mellitus. Cardiol J. 2013;20:453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate evidence on interventions (e.g. pioglitazone, alpha-lipoic acid, leptin, fluvastatin, physicaltraining etc.) which could improve BRS and ameliorate cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients. ..
  21. Xiao L, Wu Y, Wang R, Liu Y, Wang F, He R. Hydrogen sulfide facilitates carotid sinus baroreceptor activity in anesthetized male rats. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:1343-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that exogenous H(2)S exerts a facilitatory role on isolated CBA through opening K(ATP) channels and further closing the calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle. Endogenous H(2)S may activate CBA in vivo. ..
  22. Qiao G, Cheng Z, Huo R, Sui X, Lu Y, Li B. GM1 ganglioside contributes to retain the neuronal conduction and neuronal excitability in visceral and baroreceptor afferents. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GM1 plays an important role in the neural modulation of electric and neuronal excitability in visceral afferent system. ..
  23. Huang C, Wu Y, Chen T, Chang W, Du Y, Wu C, et al. Long-term effects of baroreflex function after stenting in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Auton Neurosci. 2010;158:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no short-term parasympathetic hyperactivity after the stenting, suggesting that the effect is transient rather than permanent. ..
  24. Negrao C, Middlekauff H. Adaptations in autonomic function during exercise training in heart failure. Heart Fail Rev. 2008;13:51-60 pubmed
  25. Wray D, Raven P, Sander M. Diminished baroreflex-induced vasoconstriction following alpha-2 adrenergic receptor blockade in humans. Auton Neurosci. 2008;138:114-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that alpha-2 adrenergic receptors contribute significantly to CBR-induced vasoconstriction in the human leg under resting conditions. ..
  26. Moncrief K, Kaufman S. Splenic baroreceptors control splenic afferent nerve activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R352-6 pubmed
    ..275, P = 0.413, n = 11) blood flow. We conclude that it is splenic venous pressure, not flow, which stimulates splenic afferent nerve activity and activates the splenorenal reflex in portal and splenic venous hypertension. ..
  27. Morita H, Abe C. Negative feedforward control of body fluid homeostasis by hepatorenal reflex. Hypertens Res. 2011;34:895-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatoportal baroreceptor-induced renal sympathetic excitation and the impaired Na(+)-sensitive hepatorenal reflex may partially explain the Na(+) retention in liver cirrhosis. ..
  28. Stauss H, Moffitt J, Chapleau M, Abboud F, Johnson A. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity estimated by the sequence technique is reliable in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H482-3 pubmed
  29. Prakash E. Increased mechanoreceptor/metaboreceptor stimulation explains the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in heart failure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:499-500; author reply 504-5 pubmed
  30. Gierthmuehlen M, Plachta D. Effect of selective vagal nerve stimulation on blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate in rats under metoprolol medication. Hypertens Res. 2016;39:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..As a side effect, the rate of stimulation-induced apnea significantly increased after Metoprolol administration. sVNS can lower the MAP under Metoprolol without causing severe bradycardia. ..
  31. Kamiya A, Kawada T, Yamamoto K, Michikami D, Ariumi H, Miyamoto T, et al. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity averaged over 1 minute parallels renal and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in response to a forced baroreceptor pressure change. Circulation. 2005;112:384-6 pubmed
    ..97+/-0.01) and cardiac (r=0.97+/-0.01) SNAs in experiment 2 (baroreflex open-loop condition). Muscle SNA averaged over 1 minute parallels renal and cardiac SNAs in response to a forced baroreceptor pressure change. ..
  32. Chen S, Zhang Y, Zhou L, Xie D, Zhang F, Jia H, et al. Percutaneous pulmonary artery denervation completely abolishes experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension in vivo. EuroIntervention. 2013;9:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The pressure responses were completely abolished by the PADN treatment at the main bifurcation area of the left pulmonary artery. ..
  33. Chen X, Kim J, Sala Mercado J, Hammond R, Swamy G, Scislo T, et al. Identification of the total peripheral resistance baroreflex impulse response from spontaneous hemodynamic variability: validation by chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:1051-4 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the technique correctly predicted the alterations in TPR baroreflex functioning that are known to occur following the baroreceptor denervation. ..
  34. Oshima N, Kumagai H, Iigaya K, Onimaru H, Kawai A, Nishida Y, et al. Baro-excited neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Hypertens Res. 2012;35:500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As Ang-II did not change the activity of the CVLM neurons during superfusion with a low-Ca(2+), high-Mg(2+) solution, the presynaptic neurons may be mandatory for the Ang-II-induced activation of postsynaptic baro-excited CVLM neurons. ..
  35. Lim C, Qiao X, Reslan O, Xia Y, Raffetto J, Paleolog E, et al. Prolonged mechanical stretch is associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors and reduced contraction in rat inferior vena cava. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53:764-73 pubmed publisher
  36. Yamazaki T, Waki H, Kohsaka A, Nakamura T, Cui H, Yukawa K, et al. Microinjection of urocortin into the rat nucleus tractus solitarii decreases arterial blood pressure. Auton Neurosci. 2008;142:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Ucn I in the NTS may play an important role in cardiovascular regulation and the cardiovascular effects of Ucn I may be mediated by activation of both CRF-R1 and -R2, which are known to be present in the NTS. ..
  37. Kooshkabadi M, Whalen P, Yoo D, Langberg J. Stretch-activated receptors mediate cardiac memory. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2009;32:330-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that SARs are a critical link between mechanical sequence of activation and regional modulation of action potential duration that is responsible for cardiac memory. ..
  38. Topakian R, Heibl C, Stieglbauer K, Dreer B, Nagl M, Knoflach P, et al. Quantitative autonomic testing in the management of botulism. J Neurol. 2009;256:803-9 pubmed publisher
    ..QAT identified autonomic involvement in botulism patients with otherwise benign neurological presentation. Comprehensive evaluation of autonomic failure may provide useful information for the management of botulism...
  39. Curran A, Leiter J. Baroreceptor-mediated inhibition of respiration after peripheral and central administration of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist in neonatal piglets. Exp Physiol. 2007;92:757-67 pubmed
  40. Claydon V, Younis N, Hainsworth R. Phase of the menstrual cycle does not affect orthostatic tolerance in healthy women. Clin Auton Res. 2006;16:98-104 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there is no difference in either OT or cardiovascular control at the tested phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy women. ..
  41. Zucker I, Schultz H, Wang W. Increased mechanoreceptor/metaboreceptor stimulation explains the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in heart failure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:498; author reply 504-5 pubmed
  42. Kashihara K, Kawada T, Sugimachi M, Sunagawa K. Wavelet-based system identification of short-term dynamic characteristics of arterial baroreflex. Ann Biomed Eng. 2009;37:112-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the dynamic baroreflex property to various pressure inputs could be simultaneously extracted from the step responses with background noise. ..
  43. Xue H, Wu Y, Xiao L, Wang R, Wang F, He R. Effect of resveratrol on baroreceptor activity of carotid sinus in anesthetized male rats. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:601-6 pubmed
    ..Several studies have showed a cardioprotective effect of resveratrol, with the penetrating study of resveratrol, it may show a potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disease as an alternative medicine. ..
  44. McIntyre D, Ring C, Hamer M, Carroll D. Effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor activation on simple and choice reaction times. Psychophysiology. 2007;44:874-9 pubmed
    ..No cardiopulmonary baroreceptor effects were found. Cardiac cycle effects on reaction time are consistent with the arterial baroreceptor hypothesis and appear to be confined to lower order sensory-motor processing. ..
  45. Ito Y, Kato N, Matsumura A, Sonobe M. Hemodynamic instability increases new ischemic brain lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging after carotid artery stenting. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2013;53:375-80 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest that HI with CAS induces impaired clearance of microembolisms and causes an increased number of new ischemic brain lesions detected on DWI. ..
  46. Ross E. Congestive renal failure: the pathophysiology and treatment of renal venous hypertension. J Card Fail. 2012;18:930-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Komolova M, Friberg P, Adams M. Altered vascular resistance properties and acute pressure-natriuresis mechanism in neonatal and weaning spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2012;59:979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that alterations in both vascular structure and renal function in young SHRs occur before elevations in mean arterial pressure. ..
  48. Koganezawa T, Terui N. Differential responsiveness of RVLM sympathetic premotor neurons to hypoxia in rabbits. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H408-14 pubmed
    ..These data indicated that the differential responses of cardiac and renal sympathetic nerves might be due to opposing effects of hypoxia on individual RVLM neurons. ..
  49. Cooper V, Hainsworth R. Carotid baroreflex testing using the neck collar device. Clin Auton Res. 2009;19:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe the responses in healthy subjects and the changes observed in patients with some disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system. ..
  50. Wójtowicz A, Babu S, Li L, Gretz N, Hecker M, Cattaruzza M. Zyxin mediation of stretch-induced gene expression in human endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2010;107:898-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Stretch appears to be an important factor in the development of endothelial dysfunction with zyxin as a potential therapeutic target to interfere with these early changes in endothelial cell phenotype. ..
  51. Kimmerly D, Wong S, Menon R, Shoemaker J. Forebrain neural patterns associated with sex differences in autonomic and cardiovascular function during baroreceptor unloading. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R715-22 pubmed
    ..women. The greater changes in forebrain activity in men vs. women may have contributed to the elevated HR and sympathetic responses observed in men during 35 mmHg LBNP. ..
  52. Cordina S, Qureshi A. Syncope and carotid artery stenosis. Minerva Med. 2009;100:321-7 pubmed
    ..The consequences of carotid stenosis and carotid hypersensitivity leading to cerebral hypoperfusion with syncope are described, along with recommendations related to screening in these patients...
  53. Crisafulli A, Concu A. Increased mechanoreceptor/metaboreceptor stimulation explains the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in heart failure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:500-1; author reply 504-5 pubmed