pacinian corpuscles


Summary: Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.

Top Publications

  1. Kumar A, Darby A, Kelly C. Pacinian corpuscles hyperplasia--an uncommon cause of digital pain. Acta Orthop Belg. 2003;69:74-6 pubmed
    The authors present two cases of hyperplasia of Pacinian corpuscles, one in the hand and another in the foot...
  2. Kenmochi A, Satoh T, Fukuyama K, Yokozeki H. Pacinian neuroma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1384-5 pubmed
  3. Provitera V, Nolano M, Pagano A, Caporaso G, Stancanelli A, Santoro L. Myelinated nerve endings in human skin. Muscle Nerve. 2007;35:767-75 pubmed
    ..The classic criteria, based on fiber size, used to distinguish myelinated fiber subgroups in sensory nerves are therefore not suitable for identifying myelinated terminations in the skin. ..
  4. Cabo R, G lvez M, San Jos I, Laur R, L pez Mu iz A, Garc a Su rez O, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) in cutaneous Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles of Macaca fascicularis. Neurosci Lett. 2012;516:197-201 pubmed
    ..ASIC2 immunoreactivity was detected in both Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles. It was found to co-localize with neuron-specific enolase and RT-97, but not with S100 protein, ..
  5. Pawson L, Prestia L, Mahoney G, G l B, Cox P, Pack A. GABAergic/glutamatergic-glial/neuronal interaction contributes to rapid adaptation in pacinian corpuscles. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2695-705 pubmed publisher
    b>Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) are tactile receptors composed of a nerve ending (neurite) that is encapsulated by layers of lamellar cells...
  6. Calavia M, Montano J, Garcia Suarez O, Feito J, Guervós M, Germana A, et al. Differential localization of Acid-sensing ion channels 1 and 2 in human cutaneus pacinian corpuscles. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We now investigated the distribution of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 proteins in human cutaneous Pacinian corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal-scanner microscopy...
  7. Pare M, Smith A, Rice F. Distribution and terminal arborizations of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the glabrous finger pads of the monkey. J Comp Neurol. 2002;445:347-59 pubmed
    ..Ruffini-like endings were only detected at the base of the finger nails. Pacinian corpuscles were sparsely distributed in the deep dermis...
  8. Weiss N, Ohara S, Johnson K, Lenz F. The human thalamic somatic sensory nucleus [ventral caudal (Vc)] shows neuronal mechanoreceptor-like responses to optimal stimuli for peripheral mechanoreceptors. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:1033-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimal stimuli for particular mechanoreceptors were defined as follows: Pacinian corpuscles (PC), vibration at 128 Hz; rapidly adapting (RA), vibration at 32 or 64 Hz; slowly adapting type 1 (SA1), ..
  9. Mataliotakis G, Doukas M, Kostas I, Lykissas M, Batistatou A, Beris A. Sensory innervation of the subregions of the scapholunate interosseous ligament in relation to their structural composition. J Hand Surg Am. 2009;34:1413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The dorsal subregion, with densely packed collagen fibers and limited innervation, functions mainly to constrain the scaphoid-lunate relative motion. ..

More Information


  1. Chen Y, McClinton M, Dasilva M, Shaw Wilgis E. Innervation of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints: a microanatomic and histologic study of the nerve endings. J Hand Surg Am. 2000;25:128-33 pubmed
    ..The majority of encapsulated endings were pacinian corpuscles. The anatomic and histologic information may help the surgeon avoid damaging these small joint nerves ..
  2. McPherson S, Meals R. Digital pacinian corpuscle neuroma eroding bone: a case report. J Hand Surg Am. 1992;17:476-8 pubmed
    ..A case of digital pacinian corpuscle neuroma leading to erosive changes in the adjacent proximal phalanx is reported. Characteristics and previous reports of this relatively uncommon hand tumor are discussed. ..
  3. Bukowska M, Essick G, Trulsson M. Functional properties of low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the human labial mucosa. Exp Brain Res. 2010;201:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..06 and 1 mN. The properties of the mechanoreceptors supplying the human labial mucosa appear more similar to those of the vermilion and facial skin of the lower lip than those supplying the mucosa of the dorsal tongue. ..
  4. Looft F. Response of monkey glabrous skin mechanoreceptors to random noise sequences: II. Dynamic stimulus state analysis. Somatosens Mot Res. 1996;13:11-28 pubmed
    ..PC afferents appeared to be preferentially sensitive to a combination of stimulus velocity and acceleration, but the data-sampling interval was too coarse to adequately resolve the full range of dynamic stimulus sensitivities. ..
  5. Yildiz M, Güçlü B. Relationship between vibrotactile detection threshold in the Pacinian channel and complex mechanical modulus of the human glabrous skin. Somatosens Mot Res. 2013;30:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The results suggest that skin mechanics may be important for locally shaping psychophysical detection thresholds, which would otherwise be expected to be constant due to uniform Pacinian innervention density at the fingertip. ..
  6. Gescheider G, Wright J. Learning in tactile channels. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2012;38:302-13 pubmed publisher
  7. Pawson L, Checkosky C, Pack A, Bolanowski S. Mesenteric and tactile Pacinian corpuscles are anatomically and physiologically comparable. Somatosens Mot Res. 2008;25:194-206 pubmed publisher
    b>Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) in cat mesentery have been studied extensively to help determine the structural and functional bases of tactile mechanotransduction...
  8. Nemery E, Gabriel A, Grulke S, Piret J, Toppets V, Antoine N. Mechanoreceptors in the Anterior Horn of the Equine Medial Meniscus: an Immunohistochemical Approach. Anat Histol Embryol. 2016;45:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This morphological approach could serve as a basis for clinical studies, to evaluate the impact of these corpuscles on the poor sportive prognosis in equine meniscal tears. ..
  9. Morioka M, Griffin M. Thresholds for the perception of hand-transmitted vibration: dependence on contact area and contact location. Somatosens Mot Res. 2005;22:281-97 pubmed
    ..5 Hz) decreased from proximal to distal regions of the hand, whereas the Pacinian thresholds (125 Hz) were independent of contact location over the hand. ..
  10. Zelená J, ZACHAROVA G. Reinnervation of cat pacinian corpuscles after nerve crush. Acta Neuropathol. 1997;93:285-93 pubmed
    The reinnervation pattern of crural pacinian corpuscles was examined by light and electron microscopy in eight adult cats of both sexes 3-18 months after sciatic nerve crush...
  11. Roset Llobet J, Domenech Mateu J. Uncommon number and distribution of the Pacinian corpuscles in a human hand. J Hand Surg Br. 1991;16:89-91 pubmed
    ..They were normal in structure, but their size was greater (8 mms. in length and 5 mms. across) than the normal (2 mms. in length and 100-500 microns. across). Each lamellated corpuscle had only one nervous pedicle. ..
  12. Güçlü B, Schepis E, Yelke S, Yucesoy C, Bolanowski S. Ovoid geometry of the Pacinian corpuscle is not the determining factor for mechanical excitation. Somatosens Mot Res. 2006;23:119-26 pubmed
    Static displacements in Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) were measured using video microscopy. Mechanical stimuli of 10-40 microm steps were applied to the PC capsule surfaces using cylindrical contacts with different diameters...
  13. Polski J, Spreen A. Pacinian corpuscle in human lymph node. Lymphology. 2005;38:18-9 pubmed
  14. Eastwood A, Sanzeni A, Petzold B, Park S, Vergassola M, PRUITT B, et al. Tissue mechanics govern the rapidly adapting and symmetrical response to touch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E6955-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pacinian corpuscles in mammals and touch receptor neurons (TRNs) in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are embedded in ..
  15. Johnson K. The roles and functions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:455-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the receptors in each of those systems seem to be specialized for their assigned perceptual function. ..
  16. Medina Perez M, Rafel Ribas E, Valero Puerta J, Pérez Martín D. [Pacinian neurofibroma of the vulva]. Arch Esp Urol. 2000;53:634-6 pubmed
    ..No signs of neurofibromatosis were found. Pacinian neurofibroma may present in the vulva and could probably arise from the so-called perineural fibroblasts. ..
  17. Ide F, Mishima K, Saito I. Pacinian corpuscle in the juxtaoral organ of Chievitz. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:443-4 pubmed
    ..American anatomists and pathologists, we incidentally found JOOC-type squamous epithelium accompanied by Pacinian corpuscles. This fortuitous finding appears to be the first report of the authentic Paciniform nerve endings within ..
  18. Irie H, Kato T, Yakushiji T, Hirose J, Mizuta H. Painful heterotopic pacinian corpuscle in the hand: a report of three cases. Hand Surg. 2011;16:81-5 pubmed
    ..When making a differential diagnosis of unexplained severe pain in the finger, abnormal Pacinian corpuscles must be taken into account in addition to glomus tumour and other types of painful soft-tissue tumour.
  19. Hettige S, Smart C, Bridges L, Martin A. Paciniolipoma in congenital spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:280-2 pubmed publisher
    ..causing tethering of the cord, was found on histological examination to exhibit fully differentiated mature pacinian corpuscles throughout...
  20. Pillay P, Essa A, Chetty R. Pacinian collagenoma. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:119-22 pubmed
    ..This lesion represents an uncommon histological form of collagenoma or fibroma. It can be distinguished from histological look-alikes on the basis of the characteristic morphology and immunophenotype. ..
  21. Johnson K, Yoshioka T, Vega Bermudez F. Tactile functions of mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the hand. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;17:539-58 pubmed
    ..They also review the role of proprioceptive afferents in the perception of hand conformation because they appear to play a significant role along with cutaneous afferents. ..
  22. Sedy J, Szeder V, Walro J, Ren Z, Nanka O, Tessarollo L, et al. Pacinian corpuscle development involves multiple Trk signaling pathways. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:551-63 pubmed
    The development of crural Pacinian corpuscles was explored in neonatal mutant mice lacking nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or neurotrophin-4 (NT4), or their cognate Trk receptors...
  23. Ide F, Shimoyama T, Kaneko T, Horie N. Pacinian neuroma in adipose herniation of the buccal mucosa. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:1162-3 pubmed
    ..Microscopically, the mature adipose tissue is unique in that it contained a single enlarged Pacinian corpuscle near the deep margin. This is the hitherto undescribed intraoral lesion of Pacinian neuroma in the herniated buccal fat pad. ..
  24. Pare M, Albrecht P, Noto C, Bodkin N, Pittenger G, Schreyer D, et al. Differential hypertrophy and atrophy among all types of cutaneous innervation in the glabrous skin of the monkey hand during aging and naturally occurring type 2 diabetes. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:543-67 pubmed
    ..b>Pacinian corpuscles also deteriorated...
  25. Satge D, Nabhan J, Nandiegou Y, Hermann B, Goburdhun J, Labrousse F. A Pacinian hyperplasia of the foot. Foot Ankle Int. 2001;22:342-4 pubmed
    ..Pacinian hyperplasia is considered a reactive lesion and not a true neoplasm. To our knowledge, this case is the first described in the foot. ..
  26. Zachariah M, Coleman G, Mahns D, Zhang H, Rowe M. Transmission security for single, hair follicle-related tactile afferent fibers and their target cuneate neurons in cat. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:900-11 pubmed
  27. Abreu Velez A, Howard M, Yi H, Gao W, Hashimoto T, Grossniklaus H. Neural system antigens are recognized by autoantibodies from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia. J Clin Immunol. 2011;31:356-68 pubmed publisher
  28. Gu C, Griffin M. Spatial summation of vibrotactile sensations at the foot. Med Eng Phys. 2013;35:1221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that there is a need to standardise methods of measuring the vibrotactile thresholds at the foot that are obtained for clinical applications. ..
  29. Palmieri G, Dessole A, Minelli L, Botti M, Gazza F, Corriero A, et al. The sensitive innervation of the ostrich nasal mucosa. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2004;109:239-48 pubmed
    ..The nerve corpuscles were morphologically classified as Pacini, Pacini-like, Golgi-Mazzoni and Herbst. Further investigations must be expected to attribute an effective functional role particularly to this last nerve component. ..
  30. de Carlos F, Cobo J, Germana G, Silos Santiago I, Laura R, Haro J, et al. Abnormal development of pacinian corpuscles in double trkB;trkC knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006;410:157-61 pubmed
    b>Pacinian corpuscles depend on either Aalpha or Abeta nerve fibers of the large- and intermediate-sized sensory neurons for the development and maintenance of the structural integrity...
  31. Ehrmantant W, Graham W, Towfighi J, Mackay D, Ehrlich H. A histological and anatomical profile of pacinian corpuscles from Dupuytren's contracture and the expression of nerve growth factor receptor. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:721-7 pubmed
    ..The causes of the fibroplastic response of nodules, fibrosis of cords, and prominence of pacinian corpuscles are not evident...
  32. Lundstrom R, Nilsson T, Burström L, Hagberg M. Exposure-response relationship between hand-arm vibration and vibrotactile perception sensitivity. Am J Ind Med. 1999;35:456-64 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that reduced tactile sensitivity is related to the degree of vibration exposure but it is not at present possible to delineate an exposure-response relationship. ..
  33. Landon D, Wiseman O. A Pacinian corpuscle in the human bladder lamina propria. J Neurocytol. 2001;30:457-64 pubmed
    ..This appears to be the first report of an encapsulated nerve ending within the lining of the adult human urinary bladder. ..
  34. Bisceglia M, Bisceglia S, Bisceglia M. Muscle spindle and Pacinian corpuscle: conceptions, misconceptions, and the far-fetched hypothesis of an experienced surgical pathologist. Pathologica. 2011;103:4-7 pubmed
  35. Morioka M, Griffin M. Independent responses of Pacinian and Non-Pacinian systems with hand-transmitted vibration detected from masked thresholds. Somatosens Mot Res. 2005;22:69-84 pubmed
    ..Differing transmission of vibration between the hand and the finger may have also influenced the thresholds. ..
  36. Harrington G, Hunter Downs J. FMRI mapping of the somatosensory cortex with vibratory stimuli. Is there a dependency on stimulus frequency?. Brain Res. 2001;897:188-92 pubmed
    Vibratory stimuli on the skin are mediated by two major receptors: Meissner corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. These receptors differ in properties such as density distribution, receptive field size, frequency sensitivity and depth of ..
  37. Feito J, Ramos García J, Gago A, Cobo J, Garcia Suarez O, Junquera L, et al. Pacinian Corpuscles in a Cervical Chondrocutaneous Remnant: A Case Report and Update of Pacinian Corpuscles. Am J Dermatopathol. 2016;38:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here for the first time the immunohistochemical profile of Pacinian corpuscles present in cervical chondrocutaneous remnants, removed, and localized in the territory of the second ..
  38. Whitehouse D, Morioka M, Griffin M. Effect of contact location on vibrotactile thresholds at the fingertip. Somatosens Mot Res. 2006;23:73-81 pubmed
    ..With the 1-mm diameter contactor there were greater variations in thresholds and extreme locations, near the nail and the distal interphalangeal joint, may be unsuitable for investigating sensorineural disorders. ..
  39. Burgues O, Monteagudo C, Noguera R, Revert A, Molina I, Llombart Bosch A. Cutaneous sclerosing Pacinian-like perineurioma. Histopathology. 2001;39:498-502 pubmed
    ..This case may be considered a new variant of perineurioma with Pacinian-like features, for which we propose the designation 'sclerosing Pacinian-like perineurioma'. ..
  40. Wu X, Song W, Zheng C, Zhou S, Bai S. Morphological study of mechanoreceptors in collateral ligaments of the ankle joint. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015;10:92 pubmed publisher
    ..All the four typical types of nerve endings (the Ruffini corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Golgi tendon organs, and free nerve endings) were identified in these ligaments...
  41. Kim J, Park C, Yang X, Murakami G, Abe H, Shibata S. Pacinian Corpuscles in the Human Fetal Finger and Thumb: A Study Using 3D Reconstruction and Immunohistochemistry. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The detailed distribution of Pacinian corpuscles was evaluated by viewing the transverse sections of all fingers and thumbs, including the interdigital areas, from eight hands of five fetuses of gestational age 28-33 weeks (crown-rump ..
  42. Cohen J, Bolanowski S, Verrillo R. A direct comparison of exogenous and endogenous inhibition of return and selective attention mechanisms in the somatosensory system. Somatosens Mot Res. 2005;22:269-79 pubmed
    ..Based on the results, a new hypothesis is proposed stating that one form of attention (selective attention) competes with IOR in determining the time taken to detect a target in the tactile system. ..
  43. Kojc N, Korsic M, Popovic M. Pacinioma of the cauda equina. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48:994-6 pubmed
    Lesions composed of Pacinian corpuscles or showing Pacinian corpuscle differentiation have usually been described in relation to benign tumours of the peripheral nervous system or reactive hyperplastic processes...
  44. Gescheider G, Güçlü B, Sexton J, Karalunas S, Fontana A. Spatial summation in the tactile sensory system: probability summation and neural integration. Somatosens Mot Res. 2005;22:255-68 pubmed
  45. Martin Alguacil N, Aardsma N, Litvin Y, Mayoglou L, Dupré C, Pfaff D, et al. Immunocytochemical characterization of pacinian-like corpuscles in the labia minora of prepubertal girls. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5, VIP, and NPY. PGP 9.5, NSE, ER?, nNOS, and 5HTT immunoreaction detected in the outer core and external capsule could indicate these areas may play an important role in the functional aspects of the Pacinian-like corpuscle. ..
  46. Güçlü B, Gescheider G, Bolanowski S, Istefanopulos Y. Population-response model for vibrotactile spatial summation. Somatosens Mot Res. 2005;22:239-53 pubmed
    ..Although the model can also simulate some temporal summation effects, simulation results do not conform well to previous data on temporal response properties. Thus, the model needs to be refined in that respect. ..
  47. Verrillo R, Bolanowski S, Gescheider G. Effect of aging on the subjective magnitude of vibration. Somatosens Mot Res. 2002;19:238-44 pubmed
    ..The subjective magnitude of vibration was substantially lower at all intensities in the older group. Individual results clearly showed that the P channel saturates near the detection threshold of the NP II channel. ..
  48. Palmieri G, Sanna L, Asole A, Farina V, Bo Minelli L. On the collateral sesamoidean (suspensory navicular) ligament of equines: topographic relations and sensitive innervation. Arch Anat Histol Embryol. 1990;73:47-58 pubmed
  49. Ma Q. RETouching upon mechanoreceptors. Neuron. 2009;64:773-6 pubmed publisher
    ..whose peripheral nerve terminals are associated with Meissner corpuscles, longitudinal lanceolate endings, and Pacinian corpuscles. The studies further show that Ret signaling is essential for the development of these mechanoreceptors.
  50. Fleming M, Li J, Ramos D, Li T, Talmage D, Abe S, et al. A RET-ER81-NRG1 Signaling Pathway Drives the Development of Pacinian Corpuscles. J Neurosci. 2016;36:10337-10355 pubmed
    ..ER81 is functionally required in a subset of mouse RET+ mechanosensory neurons for formation of Pacinian corpuscles, which are composed of a single myelinated axon and multiple layers of nonmyelinating Schwann cells, and ..
  51. Krzyzanski W, Bell J. Analysis of a model of membrane potential for a skin receptor. Math Biosci. 1999;158:1-45 pubmed
  52. Palmieri G, Cappai M, Costa G, Bo Minelli L, Botti M, Desantis S, et al. Sensitive innervation of the copulatory organ in Struthio camelus: comparison to the corresponding district in female proctodeum. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2006;111:31-44 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of genital corpuscles seemed to be exclusive in the ventral part of female ostrich proctodeum, corresponding to the male site in which lies the copulatory organ. ..
  53. Pawson L, Bolanowski S. Voltage-gated sodium channels are present on both the neural and capsular structures of Pacinian corpuscles. Somatosens Mot Res. 2002;19:231-7 pubmed
    It has long been accepted that action potentials arising from Pacinian corpuscles (PCs) originate at the first node of Ranvier located within the PC and that the mechanotransduction events (receptor potentials) are formed by stretch-..