carotid body

Summary

Summary: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.

Top Publications

  1. Faustino E, Donnelly D. An important functional role of persistent Na+ current in carotid body hypoxia transduction. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;101:1076-84 pubmed
    Systemic hypoxia in mammals is sensed and transduced by the carotid body into increased action potential (AP) frequency on the sinus nerve, resulting in increased ventilation...
  2. Smith J, Passman M, Dattilo J, Guzman R, Naslund T, Netterville J. Carotid body tumor resection: does the need for vascular reconstruction worsen outcome?. Ann Vasc Surg. 2006;20:435-9 pubmed
    We evaluated outcomes after carotid body tumor resection (CBR) requiring vascular reconstruction. Patients undergoing CBR at an academic medical center between 1990 and 2005 were identified...
  3. Lam S, Tipoe G, Liong E, Fung M. Differential expressions and roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, -2alpha and -3alpha in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:271-80 pubmed publisher
    The HIF-1alpha expression in the carotid body (CB) is central to the transcriptional regulation of the CB structural and functional changes in chronic hypoxia (CH)...
  4. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Amagliani A, Castagliuolo I, Parenti A, De Caro R. Neurotensin receptor 1 immunoreactivity in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body. Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:135-42 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemistry, the presence and location of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body of 16 humans and 5 rats...
  5. Rodman J, Curran A, Henderson K, Dempsey J, Smith C. Carotid body denervation in dogs: eupnea and the ventilatory response to hyperoxic hypercapnia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:328-35 pubmed
  6. Iturriaga R, Villanueva S, Mosqueira M. Dual effects of nitric oxide on cat carotid body chemoreception. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;89:1005-12 pubmed
    We studied the effects of nitric oxide (NO) released by NO donors on cat carotid body (CB) chemosensory activity during normoxia and hypoxia...
  7. Prabhakar N, Fields R, Baker T, Fletcher E. Intermittent hypoxia: cell to system. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L524-8 pubmed
    ..Chronic intermittent hypoxia selectively augments carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia and causes long-lasting activation of sensory discharge...
  8. Fernandez R, Gonzalez S, Rey S, Cortes P, Maisey K, Reyes E, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-induced carotid body inflammation in cats: functional manifestations, histopathology and involvement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:892-907 pubmed publisher
    In the absence of information on functional manifestations of carotid body (CB) inflammation, we studied an experimental model in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats was performed by topical ..
  9. Pedrino G, Rossi M, Schoorlemmer G, Lopes O, Cravo S. Cardiovascular adjustments induced by hypertonic saline in hemorrhagic rats: Involvement of carotid body chemoreceptors. Auton Neurosci. 2011;160:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In experimental rats (n = 8), the carotid body arteries were tied, 30 min after the beginning of the hypotensive phase, leaving the carotid chemoreceptors ..

More Information

Publications84

  1. Peers C, Wyatt C. The role of maxiK channels in carotid body chemotransduction. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:75-82 pubmed
    ..In the carotid body, they have been proposed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of type I cells, and also to be O(2) ..
  2. Lam S, Liu Y, Liong E, Tipoe G, Fung M. Upregulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and its receptor expression in the rat carotid body in chronic and intermittent hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;758:301-6 pubmed publisher
    The carotid body (CB) plays important roles in cardiorespiratory changes in chronic and intermittent hypoxia. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is involved in the regulation of respiratory chemoresponse...
  3. Milsom W, Burleson M. Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors and the evolution of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:4-11 pubmed
    ..in association with ACh/catecholamine (CA) containing cells) are replaced by the glomus cells of the mammalian carotid body (which contain multiple putative neurotransmitter substances, including 5-HT, CA and ACh, all within the same ..
  4. Buckler K. TASK-like potassium channels and oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:55-64 pubmed
    Chemosensing by type-1 cells of the carotid body involves a series of events which culminate in the calcium-dependent secretion of neurotransmitter substances which then excite afferent nerves...
  5. Wotzlaw C, Bernardini A, Berchner Pfannschmidt U, Papkovsky D, Acker H, Fandrey J. Multifocal animated imaging of changes in cellular oxygen and calcium concentrations and membrane potential within the intact adult mouse carotid body ex vivo. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C266-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Carotid body (CB) type I cell hypoxia-sensing function is assumed to be based on potassium channel inhibition...
  6. Porzionato A, Rucinski M, Macchi V, Stecco C, Castagliuolo I, Malendowicz L, et al. Expression of leptin and leptin receptor isoforms in the rat and human carotid body. Brain Res. 2011;1385:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time PCR showed the expression of leptin and Ob-Ra, Ob-Rb, Ob-Rc and Ob-Rf isoform mRNA in the rat carotid body, levels of expression being Ob-Rf>Ob-Rc>Ob-Ra>Ob-Rb. Ob-Re mRNA was not detected...
  7. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Stecco C, De Caro R. The carotid body in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;185:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..study is to provide a review of cytochemical, clinical and experimental data indicating disruption of perinatal carotid body maturation as one of the possible mechanisms underlying SIDS pathogenesis...
  8. Muñoz Cabello A, Villadiego J, Toledo Aral J, Lopez Barneo J, Echevarria M. AQP1 mediates water transport in the carotid body. Pflugers Arch. 2010;459:775-83 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we explored the presence of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane water channel proteins, in carotid body (CB) type I chemoreceptor cells...
  9. Campanucci V, Nurse C. Autonomic innervation of the carotid body: role in efferent inhibition. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:83-92 pubmed
    The carotid body (CB) is a chemosensory organ that monitors blood chemicals and initiates compensatory reflex adjustments to maintain homeostasis. The 'afferent' sensory discharge induced by changes in blood chemicals, e.g...
  10. Hempleman S, Warburton S. Comparative embryology of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;185:3-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Rey S, Corthorn J, Chacón C, Iturriaga R. Expression and immunolocalization of endothelin peptides and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in the carotid body exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:167-74 pubmed
    Increased levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the carotid body (CB) contribute to the enhancement of chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia in cats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)...
  12. Tan Z, Lu Y, Whiteis C, Simms A, Paton J, Chapleau M, et al. Chemoreceptor hypersensitivity, sympathetic excitation, and overexpression of ASIC and TASK channels before the onset of hypertension in SHR. Circ Res. 2010;106:536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this hypothesis by measuring the pH sensitivity of isolated carotid body glomus cells from young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) before the onset of hypertension and their ..
  13. Kumar P, Prabhakar N. Peripheral chemoreceptors: function and plasticity of the carotid body. Compr Physiol. 2012;2:141-219 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of the sensory nature of the carotid body dates back to the beginning of the 20th century...
  14. Makarenko V, Nanduri J, Raghuraman G, Fox A, Gadalla M, Kumar G, et al. Endogenous H2S is required for hypoxic sensing by carotid body glomus cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C916-23 pubmed publisher
    H(2)S generated by the enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) has been implicated in O(2) sensing by the carotid body. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether glomus cells, the primary site of hypoxic sensing in the ..
  15. Telezhkin V, Brazier S, Cayzac S, Wilkinson W, Riccardi D, Kemp P. Mechanism of inhibition by hydrogen sulfide of native and recombinant BKCa channels. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;172:169-78 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence suggests that H(2)S contributes to activation of the carotid body by hypoxia by inhibiting K(+) channels...
  16. Kim D, Papreck J, Kim I, Donnelly D, Carroll J. Changes in oxygen sensitivity of TASK in carotid body glomus cells during early postnatal development. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;177:228-35 pubmed publisher
    A post-natal increase in carotid body (CB) hypoxia responsiveness occurs at the level of carotid sinus nerve activity, intracellular calcium, cell membrane depolarization and hypoxic inhibition of O(2)-sensitive background K(+) ..
  17. Del Rio R, Marcus N, Schultz H. Carotid chemoreceptor ablation improves survival in heart failure: rescuing autonomic control of cardiorespiratory function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:2422-2430 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to investigate whether selective ablation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors improves cardiorespiratory control and survival during heart failure...
  18. Kameda Y, Saitoh T, Nemoto N, Katoh T, Iseki S. Hes1 is required for the development of the superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk and the carotid body. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor Mash1, which is essential for the differentiation of the sympathetic ganglia and carotid body glomus cells...
  19. Haouzi P, Bell H, Van de Louw A. Hypoxia-induced arterial chemoreceptor stimulation and hydrogen sulfide: too much or too little?. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;179:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..While the effects of the endogenous H(2)S on breathing remains to be established, the effects exogenous sulfide can be accounted for by its long established toxicity on cytochrome C oxidase. ..
  20. Peng Y, Nanduri J, Yuan G, Wang N, Deneris E, Pendyala S, et al. NADPH oxidase is required for the sensory plasticity of the carotid body by chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4903-10 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory motoneuron response to hypoxia is reflex in nature and carotid body sensory receptor constitutes the afferent limb of this reflex...
  21. Lam S, Tipoe G, Liong E, Fung M. Chronic hypoxia upregulates the expression and function of proinflammatory cytokines in the rat carotid body. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:549-59 pubmed publisher
    The structure and function of the carotid body are greatly altered during chronic hypoxia...
  22. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N. FRS2 alpha 2F/2F mice lack carotid body and exhibit abnormalities of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and carotid sinus nerve. Dev Biol. 2008;314:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the carotid body is absent in FRS2 alpha(2F/2F) mice, in which the Shp2-binding sites of FRS2 alpha are disrupted...
  23. Gallego Martin T, Fernández Martínez S, Rigual R, Obeso A, Gonzalez C. Effects of low glucose on carotid body chemoreceptor cell activity studied in cultures of intact organs and in dissociated cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302:C1128-40 pubmed publisher
    The participation of the carotid body (CB) in glucose homeostasis and evidence obtained in simplified cultured CB slices or dissociated cells have led to the proposal that CB chemoreceptor cells are glucoreceptors...
  24. Gauda E, Shirahata M, Mason A, Pichard L, Kostuk E, Chavez Valdez R. Inflammation in the carotid body during development and its contribution to apnea of prematurity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;185:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The carotid body senses dynamic changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tension and reflexly alters ventilation and plays ..
  25. Lu Y, Whiteis C, Sluka K, Chapleau M, Abboud F. Responses of glomus cells to hypoxia and acidosis are uncoupled, reciprocal and linked to ASIC3 expression: selectivity of chemosensory transduction. J Physiol. 2013;591:919-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Carotid body glomus cells are the primary sites of chemotransduction of hypoxaemia and acidosis in peripheral arterial chemoreceptors. They exhibit pronounced morphological heterogeneity...
  26. McBryde F, Abdala A, Hendy E, Pijacka W, MARVAR P, Moraes D, et al. The carotid body as a putative therapeutic target for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2395 pubmed publisher
    In the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, hyperoxic inactivation of the carotid body (CB) produces a rapid and pronounced fall in both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSA)...
  27. Zhang M, Piskuric N, Vollmer C, Nurse C. P2Y2 receptor activation opens pannexin-1 channels in rat carotid body type II cells: potential role in amplifying the neurotransmitter ATP. J Physiol. 2012;590:4335-50 pubmed publisher
    Signal processing in the carotid body (CB) is initiated at receptor glomus (or type I) cells which depolarize and release the excitatory neurotransmitter ATP during chemoexcitation by hypoxia and acid hypercapnia...
  28. Platero Luengo A, González Granero S, Durán R, Diaz Castro B, Piruat J, Garcia Verdugo J, et al. An O2-sensitive glomus cell-stem cell synapse induces carotid body growth in chronic hypoxia. Cell. 2014;156:291-303 pubmed publisher
    Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in germinal centers of the adult brain and in the carotid body (CB), an oxygen-sensing organ that grows under chronic hypoxemia...
  29. Del Rio R, Moya E, Iturriaga R. Contribution of inflammation on carotid body chemosensory potentiation induced by intermittent hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;758:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..A critical process involved in the CIH-induced hypertension is the potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia...
  30. Hawlitschka A, Haas S, Schmitt O, Weiss D, Wree A. Effects of systemic PSI administration on catecholaminergic cells in the brain, adrenal medulla and carotid body in Wistar rats. Brain Res. 2007;1173:137-44 pubmed
    ..The proteasome inhibitor effect on the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, the adrenal medulla and the carotid body was examined...
  31. del Rio R, Moya E, Iturriaga R. Carotid body and cardiorespiratory alterations in intermittent hypoxia: the oxidative link. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..hypoxic responses, alters heart rate variability and produces hypertension, partially owing to an enhanced carotid body responsiveness to hypoxia...
  32. Ding Y, Li Y, Zimmerman M, Davisson R, Schultz H. Role of CuZn superoxide dismutase on carotid body function in heart failure rabbits. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide mediates angiotensin II (Ang II)-enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor sensitivity in CHF rabbits, and tempol, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic, inhibits ..
  33. Shu H, Wang B, Wang S, Yao W, Huang H, Zhou Z, et al. IL-1beta inhibits IK and increases [Ca2+]i in the carotid body glomus cells and increases carotid sinus nerve firings in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:3638-47 pubmed
    ..Our previous work has demonstrated that IL-1 receptor type I is strongly expressed in the glomus cells of rat carotid body (CB), a well characterized polymodal chemoreceptive organ which serves not only for the detection of hypoxia, ..
  34. Rosa M, Sahoo S. Bilateral carotid body tumor: the role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:178-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Carotid body (CB) is a round to ovoid or flattened structure situated within the adventitia of the common carotid artery bifurcation on both sides of the neck...
  35. Trapp S, Aller M, Wisden W, Gourine A. A role for TASK-1 (KCNK3) channels in the chemosensory control of breathing. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have used knock-out animals to determine whether TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels play a role in the carotid body function and chemosensory control of breathing exerted by the carotid body chemoreceptors...
  36. Tan Z, Lu Y, Whiteis C, Benson C, Chapleau M, Abboud F. Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to transduction of extracellular acidosis in rat carotid body glomus cells. Circ Res. 2007;101:1009-19 pubmed
    b>Carotid body chemoreceptors sense hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis and play an important role in cardiorespiratory regulation...
  37. Porzionato A, Rucinski M, Macchi V, Stecco C, Sarasin G, Sfriso M, et al. Spexin is expressed in the carotid body and is upregulated by postnatal hyperoxia exposure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;758:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the absence of data regarding spexin expression in the carotid body, the first aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, the ..
  38. Peng Y, Yuan G, Jacono F, Kumar G, Prabhakar N. 5-HT evokes sensory long-term facilitation of rodent carotid body via activation of NADPH oxidase. J Physiol. 2006;576:289-95 pubmed
    ..In the present study we examined whether 5-HT evokes sensory long-term facilitation (LTF) of the carotid body, and if so by what mechanism(s). Experiments were performed on anaesthetized adult rats and mice...
  39. Li Q, Sun B, Wang X, Jin Z, Zhou Y, Dong L, et al. A crucial role for hydrogen sulfide in oxygen sensing via modulating large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined the role of H(2)S in the oxygen-sensing function of the carotid body chemoreceptors, where the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel (BK(Ca)) plays a key role...
  40. Blain G, Smith C, Henderson K, Dempsey J. Contribution of the carotid body chemoreceptors to eupneic ventilation in the intact, unanesthetized dog. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:1564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..extracorporeal perfusion of the reversibly isolated carotid sinus region to determine the effects of specific carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor inhibition on eupneic ventilation (Vi) in the resting, awake, intact dog...
  41. Blain G, Smith C, Henderson K, Dempsey J. Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO(2). J Physiol. 2010;588:2455-71 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the contribution of carotid body chemoreceptors to the ventilatory response to specific CNS hypercapnia in eight unanaesthetized, awake dogs...
  42. Gonzalez C, Agapito M, Rocher A, Gomez Niño A, Rigual R, Castaneda J, et al. A revisit to O2 sensing and transduction in the carotid body chemoreceptors in the context of reactive oxygen species biology. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;174:317-30 pubmed publisher
    ..article we define the concepts of sensors and transducers, the steps of the hypoxic transduction cascade in the carotid body chemoreceptor cells and also discuss current models of oxygen- sensing (bioenergetic, biosynthetic and ..
  43. Schultz H. Angiotensin and carotid body chemoreception in heart failure. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2011;11:144-9 pubmed publisher
    The carotid body (CB) plays an important role in the control of breathing and in autonomic control of cardiovascular function...
  44. Grotemeyer D, Loghmanieh S, Pourhassan S, Sagban T, Iskandar F, Reinecke P, et al. [Dignity of carotid body tumors. Review of the literature and clinical experiences]. Chirurg. 2009;80:854-63 pubmed publisher
    Tumors of the carotid body are rare paragangliomas (incidence 0.012%) originating from sympathetic fibres of the carotid bifurcation...
  45. Evans A, Hardie D, Peers C, Wyatt C, Viollet B, Kumar P, et al. Ion channel regulation by AMPK: the route of hypoxia-response coupling in thecarotid body and pulmonary artery. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1177:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..an O2 deficit to those rich in O2, while a fall in arterial pO2 increases sensory afferent discharge from the carotid body to elicit corrective changes in breathing patterns...
  46. Liu Y, Ji E, Xiang S, Tamisier R, Tong J, Huang J, et al. Exposure to cyclic intermittent hypoxia increases expression of functional NMDA receptors in the rat carotid body. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:259-67 pubmed publisher
    Although large quantities of glutamate are found in the carotid body, to date this excitatory neurotransmitter has not been assigned a role in chemoreception...
  47. Dahan A, Nieuwenhuijs D, Teppema L. Plasticity of central chemoreceptors: effect of bilateral carotid body resection on central CO2 sensitivity. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e239 pubmed
    ..We assessed the acute and chronic effect of carotid body resection in three humans who underwent bilateral carotid body resection (bCBR) after developing carotid body ..
  48. Wyatt C, Mustard K, Pearson S, Dallas M, Atkinson L, Kumar P, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates carotid body excitation by hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8092-8 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the AMPK antagonist compound C reversed the effects of hypoxia and AICAR on type I cell and carotid body activation...
  49. Trapp S, Tucker S, Gourine A. Respiratory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in mice with genetic ablation of Kir5.1 (Kcnj16). Exp Physiol. 2011;96:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1(-/-) mice; however, carotid body chemoafferent responses to hypoxia and CO(2) were not affected...
  50. Liu X, He L, Dinger B, Gonzalez C, Stensaas L, Fidone S. A chronic pain: inflammation-dependent chemoreceptor adaptation in rat carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;178:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation in the form of chronic hypoxia (CH) elicits increased chemoafferent excitability from the mammalian carotid body. Previous studies which focused on functional changes in oxygen-sensitive type I cells in this organ have only ..
  51. Gomez Niño A, Obeso A, Baranda J, Santo Domingo J, Lopez Lopez J, Gonzalez C. MaxiK potassium channels in the function of chemoreceptor cells of the rat carotid body. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C715-22 pubmed publisher
    Hypoxia activates chemoreceptor cells of the carotid body (CB) promoting an increase in their normoxic release of neurotransmitters. Catecholamine (CA) release rate parallels the intensity of hypoxia...
  52. Conde S, Monteiro E, Rigual R, Obeso A, Gonzalez C. Hypoxic intensity: a determinant for the contribution of ATP and adenosine to the genesis of carotid body chemosensory activity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;112:2002-10 pubmed publisher
    Excitatory effects of adenosine and ATP on carotid body (CB) chemoreception have been previously described...
  53. Joseph V, Niane L, Bairam A. Antagonism of progesterone receptor suppresses carotid body responses to hypoxia and nicotine in rat pups. Neuroscience. 2012;207:103-9 pubmed publisher
    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists...
  54. Gauda E, Cooper R, Akins P, Wu G. Prenatal nicotine affects catecholamine gene expression in newborn rat carotid body and petrosal ganglion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:2157-65 pubmed
    ..dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH), preproenkephalin (PPE), and D2-dopamine receptor mRNA levels in the rat carotid body and petrosal ganglion during postnatal development...
  55. Di Giulio C, Verratti V, Artese L, Petruccelli G, Walski M, Pokorski M. Aging and expression of heme oxygenase-1 and endothelin-1 in the rat carotid body after chronic hypoxia. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 5:41-4 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of aging on the expression of HO-1 and ET-1 in the carotid body, which is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells that measure changes in the composition of ..
  56. Kim D, Kim I, Papreck J, Donnelly D, Carroll J. Characterization of an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel in rat carotid body glomus cells. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;177:247-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Carotid body glomus (CB) cells express different types of K(+) channels such as TASK, BK, and Kv channels, and hypoxia has been shown to inhibit these channels...
  57. Del Rio R, Moya E, Iturriaga R. Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthases in the rat carotid body exposed to intermittent hypoxia. Brain Res. 2011;1395:74-85 pubmed publisher
    The enhanced carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been attributed to oxidative stress, which is expected to increase the expression of chemosensory modulators including ..
  58. Fitzgerald R, Shirahata M, Chang I, Kostuk E. The impact of hypoxia and low glucose on the release of acetylcholine and ATP from the incubated cat carotid body. Brain Res. 2009;1270:39-44 pubmed publisher
    The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal sensor which increases its neural output to the nucleus tractus solitarii with a subsequent activation of several reflex cardiopulmonary responses...
  59. Kemp P. Detecting acute changes in oxygen: will the real sensor please stand up?. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:829-34 pubmed
    ..A crucial homeostatic response to such arterial hypoxaemia is carotid body excitation and a resultant increase in ventilation...
  60. Liu X, He L, Stensaas L, Dinger B, Fidone S. Adaptation to chronic hypoxia involves immune cell invasion and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in rat carotid body. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L158-66 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH; 3-28 days at 380 Torr) induces adaptation in mammalian carotid body such that following CH an acute hypoxic challenge elicits an abnormally large increase in carotid sinus nerve impulse activity...
  61. Zapata P, Larrain C, Reyes P, Fernandez R. Immunosensory signalling by carotid body chemoreceptors. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;178:370-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In carotid bodies perfused in vitro, TNF-? reduces chemosensory discharges induced by hypoxia. The rat carotid body and its sensory ganglion constitutively express LPS canonical receptor, TLR4, as well as TNF-? and its ..
  62. Sabino J, Oliveira M, Giusti H, Glass M, Salgado H, Fazan R. Hemodynamic and ventilatory response to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid body-denervated rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68:395-9 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body-denervated rats.
  63. Yamamoto Y, Ishikawa R, Omoe K, Taniguchi K. Expression of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in the carotid body of rat. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical localization of these channels in the carotid body (CB) and petrosal ganglion (PG) of the rat. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression of Kir4.1 and Kir5...
  64. Dinger B, He L, Chen J, Liu X, Gonzalez C, Obeso A, et al. The role of NADPH oxidase in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:45-54 pubmed
    O(2)-sensing in the carotid body occurs in neuroectoderm-derived type I glomus cells where hypoxia elicits a complex chemotransduction cascade involving membrane depolarization, Ca(2+) entry and the release of excitatory neurotransmitters...
  65. Pardal R, Ortega Saenz P, Durán R, Lopez Barneo J. Glia-like stem cells sustain physiologic neurogenesis in the adult mammalian carotid body. Cell. 2007;131:364-77 pubmed
    ..We have discovered stem cells in the adult carotid body (CB), an oxygen-sensing organ of the sympathoadrenal lineage that grows in chronic hypoxemia...
  66. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Parenti A, Matturri L, De Caro R. Peripheral chemoreceptors: postnatal development and cytochemical findings in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:351-65 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study is to give a review of the postnatal development of peripheral chemoreceptors - carotid body, paraganglia, and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) - with implications in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)...
  67. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Parenti A, De Caro R. Trophic factors in the carotid body. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2008;269:1-58 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study is to provide a review of the expression and action of trophic factors in the carotid body. In glomic type I cells, the following factors have been identified: brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell ..
  68. Prabhakar N, Peng Y, Kumar G, Nanduri J, Di Giulio C, Lahiri S. Long-term regulation of carotid body function: acclimatization and adaptation--invited article. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;648:307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this article is to summarize the effects of CH and IH on carotid body function and the underlying mechanisms...
  69. Prabhakar N, Semenza G. Gaseous messengers in oxygen sensing. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012;90:265-72 pubmed publisher
    The carotid body is a sensory organ that detects acute changes in arterial blood oxygen (O(2)) levels and reflexly mediates systemic cardiac, vascular, and respiratory responses to hypoxia...
  70. Lam S, Tipoe G, Fung M. Upregulation of erythropoietin and its receptor expression in the rat carotid body during chronic and intermittent hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;648:207-14 pubmed publisher
    The carotid body (CB) plays important roles in cardiorespiratory changes in intermittent hypoxia (IH)...
  71. Ding Y, Li Y, Schultz H. Role of blood flow in carotid body chemoreflex function in heart failure. J Physiol. 2011;589:245-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights the effect of chronically reduced blood flow to the carotid body (CB) on peripheral chemoreflex function in rabbits...
  72. Forster H, Smith C. Contributions of central and peripheral chemoreceptors to the ventilatory response to CO2/H+. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:989-94 pubmed publisher