Summary: Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.
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- Garcia Fernandez M, Ortega Saenz P, Castellano A, Lopez Barneo J. Mechanisms of low-glucose sensitivity in carotid body glomus cells. Diabetes. 2007;56:2893-900 pubmed..Altogether, these data support the view that the CB is a multimodal chemoreceptor with a physiological role in glucose homeostasis. ..
- Ahonen M, Joh T, Wu J, Happola O. Immunocytochemical localization of L-glutamate decarboxylase and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in the retroperitoneal sympathetic tissue of the newborn rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1989;26:89-96 pubmed..A fraction of noradrenaline-synthesizing cells of retroperitoneal sympathetic tissues, excluding the adrenal medulla, also contains GAD. ..
- Lum C, Keller A, Kassel E, Blend R, Waldron J, Rutka J. Unusual eustachian tube mass: glomus tympanicum. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:508-9 pubmed..Glomus tumors tend to spread along the path of least resistance and may extend into the eustachian tube. The unique imaging appearance should place a glomus tumor high on the list of differential diagnoses. ..
- Clarke J, de B Daly M. The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002;35:437-44 pubmed..A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals. ..
- Kawabata K. Paraganglion of the prostate in a needle biopsy: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997;121:515-6 pubmed..Paraganglion in the periprostatic adipose tissue is a diagnostic pitfall and should be distinguished from extension of prostatic adenocarcinoma outside the prostatic capsule into the periprostatic adipose tissue. ..
- Branica S, Sprem N, Danilovic Z, Seiwerth S. Immunohistochemistry of glomus jugulare and tympanicum tumors. Acta Med Croatica. 1993;47:123-4 pubmed..e., moderate to maximal reactivity, in all cases under study. Helper cells of these tumors, and likewise other paragangliomas, are well represented by antisera to S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acid protein...
- Stankovic M, Stankovic D, Veličković S, Mihailovic D. Oligosymptomatic glomus tympanicum and caroticium with two different histological pictures. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 1989;110:283-6 pubmed..The authors present a case of glomus tympanicum and glomus caroticum with only otological symptoms, facial paralysis and traumatic arterio-venous shunts in the neck. These two tumors had few different patterns of glomus tissue. ..
- Taha A, King A. Aortico-pulmonary bodies in the domestic fowl: ultrastructure, innervation and secretion. J Anat. 1986;149:41-53 pubmed..It is therefore suggested that the aortico-pulmonary bodies of the domestic fowl have a chemoreceptor function similar to that of the carotid body. It is also suggested that they may have a general secretory function. ..
- Dahlqvist A, Pequignot J, Hellstrom S. Laryngeal nerve paraganglia of the rat are morphologically and biochemically unchanged by long-term hypercapnia. Neurosci Lett. 1991;134:25-8 pubmed
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- Pirodda A, Sorrenti G, Marliani A, Cappello I. Arterial anomalies of the middle ear associated with stapes ankylosis. J Laryngol Otol. 1994;108:237-9 pubmed..It was possible to detect a large persistent stapedial artery associated with a stapedial fixation of unknown cause. Despite these vascular anomalies a stapedotomy was performed successfully. ..
- Maroldi R, Farina D, Palvarini L, Marconi A, Gadola E, Menni K, et al. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of pathologic conditions of the middle ear. Eur J Radiol. 2001;40:78-93 pubmed..DSA and interventional vascular techniques maintain an essential role in the presurgical work-up and embolization of paragangliomas extended into the middle ear...
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- Dahlqvist A, Forsgren S. Expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in paraganglionic and ganglionic cells in the laryngeal nerves of the rat. J Neurocytol. 1992;21:1-6 pubmed
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- Barkatullah S, Pogue K, Depreitere J, Boutajangout A, Liang F, DePotter W, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of WE-14 in the developing porcine sympathoadrenal cell lineage. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;116:255-62 pubmed..This study has demonstrated that CgA is post-translationally processed to generate WE-14 during early fetal development in the migrating progenitor cells of the porcine sympathoadrenal lineage. ..
- Jyung R, LeClair E, Bernat R, Kang T, Ung F, McKenna M, et al. Expression of angiogenic growth factors in paragangliomas. Laryngoscope. 2000;110:161-7 pubmed..To determine if angiogenic growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) are expressed in human paragangliomas...
- Pinon M, Racotta I, Ortiz Butron R, Racotta R. Catecholamines in paraganglia associated with the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve: effects of 6-hydroxydopamine and reserpine. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1999;75:131-5 pubmed..Paraganglia associated with the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve contain also E. The presence of perihepatic sources of extra-adrenal CA, and more specifically E, could be of physiological significance...
- Dixon J, Jen P, Gosling J. Immunohistochemical characteristics of human paraganglion cells and sensory corpuscles associated with the urinary bladder. A developmental study in the male fetus, neonate and infant. J Anat. 1998;192 ( Pt 3):407-15 pubmed..In addition, a few corpuscles were penetrated by a noradrenergic nerve fibre immunoreactive for NPY and TH, which may have a modulatory role on the sensory receptor. ..
- Kairemo K, Himi T, Hopsu E, Ramsay H. Radioimmunoimaging of glomus tympanicum tumors by In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody using single photon emission computed tomography. Am J Otol. 1997;18:750-3 pubmed..The result suggests the radioimmunoimaging using this antibody is useful for the detection of not only primary glomus tumors, but also of local recurrence and unsuspected lesion in patients with paragangliomas. ..
- Gliatto J, Crawford M, Snider T, Pechman R. Multiple organ metastasis of an aortic body tumor in a boxer. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1987;191:1110-2 pubmed..Macroscopic and/or microscopic evidence of metastasis of the tumor was seen in the lungs, myocardium, spleen, liver, kidneys, and dura mater over the cerebellum...
- Dahlqvist A, Forsgren S, Hellstrom S. Long-term hypoxia induces changes in the substance P immunoreactivity pattern in laryngeal nerve paraganglia. Acta Otolaryngol. 1992;112:726-33 pubmed..The results show that hypoxia induces changes in the pattern of SP immunoreactivity in laryngeal nerve paraganglia and may indicate that SP plays a role in the regulation of catecholamine metabolism in this tissue. ..
- Rohit -, Jain Y, Caruso A, Russo A, Sanna M. Glomus tympanicum tumour: an alternative surgical technique. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:462-6 pubmed..Surgical removal of the tumour is recommended as the treatment of choice with the following advantages: complete removal, a low complication rate, a low recurrence rate, acceptable hearing level and minimum morbidity. ..
- Nilsson H, Jögi A, Beckman S, Harris A, Poellinger L, Påhlman S. HIF-2alpha expression in human fetal paraganglia and neuroblastoma: relation to sympathetic differentiation, glucose deficiency, and hypoxia. Exp Cell Res. 2005;303:447-56 pubmed..These findings suggest that poorly vascularized neuroblastomas become immature and maintain a more aggressive phenotype, which possibly could involve a sustained stabilization and activation of HIF-2alpha. ..
- Kummer W, Gibbins I, Heym C. Peptidergic innervation of arterial chemoreceptors. Arch Histol Cytol. 1989;52 Suppl:361-4 pubmed..The functional role of the identified peptide-containing sensory fibres remains to be established. ..
- Habeck J, Huckstorf C, Behm R. The paraganglia within the carotid bifurcation regions of young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia. II. The carotid body-like organs. Anat Anz. 1988;167:47-55 pubmed..The increase of volume was dependent on the duration of hypoxia. There were no differences between young and old SHR when the hypoxia-time was the same. ..
- Yamashita R, Kawakami K, Kosugi M, Kobayashi C, Annen Y. [A case of subclavian paraganglioma in the superior mediastinum extending to the neck]. Nihon Kyobu Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1992;40:108-12 pubmed..Subclavian paraganglioma had rarely been reported in the literatures. As subclavian paraganglioma, our patient was the first reported case in Japan...
- Kontogeorgos G, Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Melmed S. Growth factors and cytokines in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, with special reference to sustentacular cells. Endocr Pathol. 2002;13:197-206 pubmed..The significance of these observations regarding paracrine activities of chief and sustentacular cells remains to be determined. ..
- Rockley T, Hawke M. The glomus tympanicum: a middle ear chemoreceptor?. J Otolaryngol. 1989;18:370-3 pubmed..It was found that the glomus tympanicum is only occasionally present in the middle ear mucosa, and thus a chemoreceptor role specific to the middle ear is unlikely. ..
- Molony N, Salto Tellez M, Grant W. KTP laser assisted excision of glomus tympanicum. J Laryngol Otol. 1998;112:956-8 pubmed..The use of the KTP laser to coagulate this vascular lesion allowed safe removal of the tumour and avoided the need for extended facial recess or hypotympanotomy surgery. ..
- Baysal B. Hereditary paraganglioma targets diverse paraganglia. J Med Genet. 2002;39:617-22 pubmed..This short review attempts to bring together relevant genetic data on paragangliomas with a particular emphasis on head and neck paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas. ..
- Lebona G. The presence of paraganglia in the human ascending aortic fold: histological and ultrastructural studies. J Anat. 1993;183 ( Pt 1):35-41 pubmed..The size of the paraganglionic cell nests was variable at all ages. The presence of paraganglia in the aortic fold raises the possibility that they are concerned with chemoreception. ..
- Gosepath J, Welkoborsky H, Mann W. [Biology and growth velocity of tumors of the globus jugulotympanicum and glomus caroticum]. Laryngorhinootologie. 1998;77:429-33 pubmed..The results also indicate a difference between the two groups in the risk of developing metastases or recurrent disease. They generally help to enhance our understanding of the biology of paragangliomas of the head and neck. ..
- Tatla T, Savy L, Wareing M. Epistaxis as a rare presenting feature of glomus tympanicum. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:577-9 pubmed..A case of primary glomus tympanicum presenting with recurrent epistaxis, previously unreported in the literature, is described and associated imaging presented. ..
- Hughes K, Pickering M, O Leary D, Bradford A, O Regan R, Jones J. The paraganglia of the rat superior laryngeal nerve. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;536:239-46 pubmed
- Borghini N, Dalmaz Y, Peyrin L, Heym C. Chemosensitivity, plasticity, and functional heterogeneity of paraganglionic cells in the rat coeliac-superior mesenteric complex. Microsc Res Tech. 1994;29:112-9 pubmed..The alterations induced by hypoxia point out the phenotypic plasticity developed by paraganglionic cells in adaptation to hypoxia and further demonstrate the functional heterogeneity of this autonomic cell population in the rat CSMC. ..
- Liscak R, Vladyka V, Simonova G, Vymazal J, Janouskova L. Leksell gamma knife radiosurgery of the tumor glomus jugulare and tympanicum. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1998;70 Suppl 1:152-60 pubmed..Because of its naturally slow growth rate, up to 10 years follow-up will probably be necessary to establish the therapeutic effectiveness of radiosurgery for glomus tumor. ..
- Motoyoshi F, Kondo N, Orii T. Bisected N-acetylglucosamine residue of biantennary sugar chains and high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides of neuroblastoma cell membranes. Tumour Biol. 1993;14:334-7 pubmed..It is suspected that asparagine-linked sugar chains correlate with the differentiation stage of neuroblastoma. ..
- Heym C, Klimaschewski L, Borghini N, Fischer Colbrie R. Immunohistochemistry of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells and of SIF cell-associated nerve fibers in the rat superior cervical ganglion. Microsc Res Tech. 1994;29:143-50 pubmed..The findings indicate (1) neurochemical SIF cell heterogeneity, (2) SIF cell plasticity in response to ganglionic perturbation, and (3) a differentiated innervation of SIF cells in the rat superior cervical ganglion. ..
- Domeij S, Carlsöö B, Dahlqvist A, Hellstrom S. Paraganglia of the superior laryngeal nerve of the rat. Acta Anat (Basel). 1987;130:219-23 pubmed..A total of 24,634 dense-cored vesicles were measured, and the mean diameter was calculated to be 113.8 +/- 4.9 nm. Based on the median vesicle profile diameter, only one type of dense-cored vesicle cell was found. ..
- Gehrking E, Gliemroth J, Missler U, Remmert S. [Main symptom: "pulse-synchronous tinnitus"]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2000;79:510-6 pubmed..Physical examination and modern imaging can detect the underlying reasons in a quick and reliable way. ..
- Wharton J, Haworth S, Polak J. Postnatal development of the innervation and paraganglia in the porcine pulmonary arterial bed. J Pathol. 1988;154:19-27 pubmed..These changes may have a role in the postnatal adaptation of the pulmonary circulation. ..