spinal nerves


Summary: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.

Top Publications

  1. McGowan E, HOYT S, Li X, Lyons K, Abbadie C. A peripherally acting Na(v)1.7 sodium channel blocker reverses hyperalgesia and allodynia on rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a peripherally acting sodium channel blocker, preferentially acting through Na(v)1.7, could provide clinical relief of chronic pain without the CNS side effects typical of many existing pain treatments. ..
  2. Ohtori S, Miyagi M, Eguchi Y, Inoue G, Orita S, Ochiai N, et al. Epidural administration of spinal nerves with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, etanercept, compared with dexamethasone for treatment of sciatica in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective randomized study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective randomized trial...
  3. Rigaud M, Gemes G, Weyker P, Cruikshank J, Kawano T, Wu H, et al. Axotomy depletes intracellular calcium stores in primary sensory neurons. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:381-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Painful nerve injury leads to diminished releasable endoplasmic reticulum Ca stores and a reduced luminal Ca concentration. Depletion of Ca stores may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. ..
  4. Werner M, Trevisani M, Campi B, Andre E, Geppetti P, Rae G. Contribution of peripheral endothelin ETA and ETB receptors in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats. Eur J Pain. 2010;14:911-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that SNL increased ET(A) and ET(B) receptor protein expression in spinal nerves. Thus, SNL induces marked hind paw hypersensitivity to thermal stimulation in part via up-regulation of ..
  5. Pu S, Xu Y, Du D, Yang M, Zhang X, Wu J, et al. Minocycline attenuates mechanical allodynia and expression of spinal NMDA receptor 1 subunit in rat neuropathic pain model. J Physiol Biochem. 2013;69:349-57 pubmed publisher
  6. Cao L, Palmer C, Malon J, De Leo J. Critical role of microglial CD40 in the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in a murine model of neuropathic pain. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a novel role of microglial CD40 in the maintenance of nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity, a behavioral sign of neuropathic pain. ..
  7. Wang C, Zou L, Zhang Y, Jiao Y, Sun J. The excitatory effects of the chemokine CCL2 on DRG somata are greater after an injury of the ganglion than after an injury of the spinal or peripheral nerve. Neurosci Lett. 2010;475:48-52 pubmed publisher
  8. Riederer F, Sandor P, Linnebank M, Ettlin D. Familial occipital and nervus intermedius neuralgia in a Swiss family. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:335-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is suggestive of an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. ..
  9. Mei X, Zhang H, Wang W, Wei Y, Zhai M, Wang W, et al. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain. ..

More Information


  1. Gemes G, Bangaru M, Wu H, Tang Q, Weihrauch D, Koopmeiners A, et al. Store-operated Ca2+ entry in sensory neurons: functional role and the effect of painful nerve injury. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3536-49 pubmed publisher
  2. Berliocchi L, Russo R, Levato A, Fratto V, Bagetta G, Sakurada S, et al. (-)-Linalool attenuates allodynia in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in c57/bl6 mice. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;85:221-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that mechanisms other than an action on inflammatory processes may mediate linalool ability to reduce mechanical allodynia in this model of neuropathic pain. ..
  3. Asante C, Wallace V, Dickenson A. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in the spinal cord is required for neuronal plasticity and behavioral hypersensitivity associated with neuropathy in the rat. J Pain. 2010;11:1356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We also assessed the anatomical distribution of spinal mTOR signaling pathways. Specifically, we ligated rat spinal nerves L5 and L6 to produce a model of neuropathic pain...
  4. King T, Qu C, Okun A, Mercado R, Ren J, Brion T, et al. Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity. Pain. 2011;152:1997-2005 pubmed publisher
  5. Tobin J, Flitman S. Occipital nerve blocks: when and what to inject?. Headache. 2009;49:1521-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The technique of repetitive ONBs deserves further study. ..
  6. Aldrich B, Frakes E, Kasuya J, Hammond D, Kitamoto T. Changes in expression of sensory organ-specific microRNAs in rat dorsal root ganglia in association with mechanical hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation. Neuroscience. 2009;164:711-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, SGs were suggested to be assembled and associated with microRNAs after SNL, which may play a role in modification of microRNA-mediated gene regulation in DRG neurons. ..
  7. Hughes D, Scott D, Riddell J, Todd A. Upregulation of substance P in low-threshold myelinated afferents is not required for tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury and spinal nerve ligation models. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2035-44 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that any release of substance P from injured Abeta afferents is unlikely to activate NK1 receptors in the dorsal horn or contribute to neuropathic pain. ..
  8. Magis D, Allena M, Bolla M, De Pasqua V, Remacle J, Schoenen J. Occipital nerve stimulation for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache: a prospective pilot study. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:314-21 pubmed
    ..The delay of 2 months or more between implantation and significant clinical improvement suggests that the procedure acts via slow neuromodulatory processes at the level of upper brain stem or diencephalic centres. ..
  9. Huang C, Li H, Shi Y, Han J, Wan Y. Ketamine potentiates the effect of electroacupuncture on mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Neurosci Lett. 2004;368:327-31 pubmed
    ..p. injection of naloxone (2.0 mg/kg). These results suggested that ketamine potentiate the anti-allodynic of EA in rats with spinal nerve ligation, and endogenous opioid system is likely to be involved in this process. ..
  10. Naja Z, El Rajab M, Al Tannir M, Ziade F, Tawfik O. Repetitive occipital nerve blockade for cervicogenic headache: expanded case report of 47 adults. Pain Pract. 2006;6:278-84 pubmed
    ..The repeated nerve stimulator-guided occipital nerve blockade is a treatment mode that may relieve cervicogenic headache with no recurrence for at least six months in addition to alleviation of associated symptoms. ..
  11. Boroujerdi A, Kim H, Lyu Y, Kim D, Figueroa K, Chung J, et al. Injury discharges regulate calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit upregulation in the dorsal horn that contributes to initiation of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2008;139:358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..ligated rats after blocking injury induced neural activity with a local brief application of lidocaine on spinal nerves before the ligation. The lidocaine pretreatment blocked ligation-induced discharges in a dose-dependent manner...
  12. Kondo D, Yabe R, Kurihara T, Saegusa H, Zong S, Tanabe T. Progesterone receptor antagonist is effective in relieving neuropathic pain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;541:44-8 pubmed
    Injury to the spinal nerves of mice induces allodynia and hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of the progesterone/estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 produced antinociceptive effects...
  13. Zhuang Z, Kawasaki Y, Tan P, Wen Y, Huang J, Ji R. Role of the CX3CR1/p38 MAPK pathway in spinal microglia for the development of neuropathic pain following nerve injury-induced cleavage of fractalkine. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:642-51 pubmed
  14. Zhuang Z, Wen Y, Zhang D, Borsello T, Bonny C, Strichartz G, et al. A peptide c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor blocks mechanical allodynia after spinal nerve ligation: respective roles of JNK activation in primary sensory neurons and spinal astrocytes for neuropathic pain development and maintenance. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3551-60 pubmed
    ..Targeting the JNK pathway in spinal astroglia may present a new and efficient way to treat neuropathic pain symptoms. ..
  15. Dowdall T, Robinson I, Meert T. Comparison of five different rat models of peripheral nerve injury. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;80:93-108 pubmed
    ..Overall, all five models of neuropathic pain produced signs of allodynia and hyperalgesia to various stimuli. However, the duration and magnitude of the evoked responses varied considerably between the different models. ..
  16. Ji R, Suter M. p38 MAPK, microglial signaling, and neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2007;3:33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, current data suggest that p38 plays a critical role in microglial signaling under neuropathic pain conditions and represents a valuable therapeutic target for neuropathic pain management. ..
  17. Lee D, Singh J, Lodge D. Experiments with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in spinal nerve ligated rats provide no evidence of a role for nitric oxide in neuropathic mechanical allodynia. Neurosci Lett. 2005;385:179-83 pubmed
    ..NOS), both before and after the induction of mechanical allodynia by tight ligation of the left L5 and L6 spinal nerves in rats (SNL rats)...
  18. Sun Q, Tu H, Xing G, Han J, Wan Y. Ectopic discharges from injured nerve fibers are highly correlated with tactile allodynia only in early, but not late, stage in rats with spinal nerve ligation. Exp Neurol. 2005;191:128-36 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ectopic discharges may be crucial in the triggering of neuropathic pain in the early stage, but their importance become more limited over time. ..
  19. Cao L, DeLeo J. CNS-infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes contribute to murine spinal nerve transection-induced neuropathic pain. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly support a contributing role of spinal cord-infiltrating CD4(+) T lymphocytes versus peripheral CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the maintenance of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. ..
  20. Zhuang Z, Gerner P, Woolf C, Ji R. ERK is sequentially activated in neurons, microglia, and astrocytes by spinal nerve ligation and contributes to mechanical allodynia in this neuropathic pain model. Pain. 2005;114:149-59 pubmed
    ..The sequential activation of ERK in dorsal horn microglia and then in astrocytes might reflect distinct roles for these two subtypes of glia in the temporal evolution of neuropathic pain. ..
  21. Glasker S, Berlis A, Pagenstecher A, Vougioukas V, Van Velthoven V. Characterization of hemangioblastomas of spinal nerves. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:503-9; discussion 503-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that because of the surgical consequences, hemangioblastoma should always be considered to be an important radiological differential diagnosis for nerve sheath tumors. Angiography can bring clarification to ambiguous cases. ..
  22. Sandkühler J. Models and mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:707-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Refined definitions of some technical terms including the new definitions of hyperalgesia and allodynia by the International Association for the Study of Pain are illustrated and annotated in section I. ..
  23. Katano T, Mabuchi T, Okuda Ashitaka E, Inagaki N, Kinumi T, Ito S. Proteomic identification of a novel isoform of collapsin response mediator protein-2 in spinal nerves peripheral to dorsal root ganglia. Proteomics. 2006;6:6085-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that periCRMP-2 is a C-terminal truncated isoform polarized in the peripheral side of spinal nerves and may be involved in nerve degeneration and regeneration.
  24. Tozaki Saitoh H, Tsuda M, Miyata H, Ueda K, Kohsaka S, Inoue K. P2Y12 receptors in spinal microglia are required for neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4949-56 pubmed publisher
  25. Dilley A, Bove G. Resolution of inflammation-induced axonal mechanical sensitivity and conduction slowing in C-fiber nociceptors. J Pain. 2008;9:185-92 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in patients with persistent movement-induced radiating limb pain with few clinically apparent signs of nerve damage, there may be a persisting inflammatory lesion affecting the nerve...
  26. Xing G, Liu F, Qu X, Han J, Wan Y. Long-term synaptic plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn and its modulation by electroacupuncture in rats with neuropathic pain. Exp Neurol. 2007;208:323-32 pubmed
    ..LTD of synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn in SNL rats may contribute to the long-lasting analgesic effects of EA at 2 Hz. ..
  27. Hogan Q, Lirk P, Poroli M, Rigaud M, Fuchs A, Fillip P, et al. Restoration of calcium influx corrects membrane hyperexcitability in injured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1045-51 pubmed publisher
  28. Kobayashi H, Chattopadhyay S, Kato K, Dolkas J, Kikuchi S, Myers R, et al. MMPs initiate Schwann cell-mediated MBP degradation and mechanical nociception after nerve damage. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MMPs mediate the initiation and maintenance of mechanical nociception through Schwann cell-mediated MBP processing and support of neuroinflammation. ..
  29. Cao L, Tanga F, DeLeo J. The contributing role of CD14 in toll-like receptor 4 dependent neuropathic pain. Neuroscience. 2009;158:896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that CD14 plays a contributing role in TLR4-dependent nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. ..
  30. Li C, Song Y, Higuera E, Luo Z. Spinal dorsal horn calcium channel alpha2delta-1 subunit upregulation contributes to peripheral nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8494-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in presynaptic alpha2delta-1 subunit expression contribute to injury-induced spinal neuroplasticity and central sensitization that underlies neuropathic pain development and maintenance. ..
  31. LaBuda C, Little P. Pharmacological evaluation of the selective spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain in the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;144:175-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the L5 SNL model can be utilized to determine the anti-allodynic activity of novel compounds. ..
  32. Fuchs A, Rigaud M, Hogan Q. Painful nerve injury shortens the intracellular Ca2+ signal in axotomized sensory neurons of rats. Anesthesiology. 2007;107:106-16 pubmed
    ..These changes in the critical Ca signal may mediate various injury-related abnormalities in Ca-dependent neuronal. ..
  33. Ma W, Eisenach J. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is upregulated in a subset of primary sensory afferents after nerve injury which are necessary for analgesia from alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation. Brain Res. 2007;1127:52-8 pubmed
  34. Shim B, Kim D, Kim B, Nam T, Leem J, Chung J. Mechanical and heat sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors in rats with experimental peripheral neuropathy. Neuroscience. 2005;132:193-201 pubmed
    ..This nociceptor sensitization can contribute to neuropathic pain. ..
  35. Tanga F, Nutile McMenemy N, DeLeo J. The CNS role of Toll-like receptor 4 in innate neuroimmunity and painful neuropathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5856-61 pubmed
    ..Further understanding of this early, specific, innate CNS/microglial response and how it leads to sustained glial/neuronal hypersensitivity may point to new therapies for the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes. ..
  36. Gao X, Kim H, Chung J, Chung K. Enhancement of NMDA receptor phosphorylation of the spinal dorsal horn and nucleus gracilis neurons in neuropathic rats. Pain. 2005;116:62-72 pubmed
    ..Many pNR1-immunoreactive neurons were identified as projection neurons by retrograde tracer. The data suggest that PKA mediated NMDA receptor phosphorylation plays an important role in spinal nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain. ..
  37. Shortland P, Baytug B, Krzyzanowska A, McMahon S, Priestley J, Averill S. ATF3 expression in L4 dorsal root ganglion neurons after L5 spinal nerve transection. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:365-73 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that the surgical exposure of spinal nerves induces ATF3 in the L4-5 DRG, irrespective of whether the L5 nerve is subsequently cut...
  38. Djouhri L, Koutsikou S, Fang X, McMullan S, Lawson S. Spontaneous pain, both neuropathic and inflammatory, is related to frequency of spontaneous firing in intact C-fiber nociceptors. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1281-92 pubmed
    ..Overall, SFL was related to SA rate in intact C-nociceptors. Both L5 degeneration and chromic gut cause inflammation. Therefore, both SA and SFL/spontaneous pain after nerve injury (mSNA) may result from cumulative neuroinflammation. ..
  39. Jürgens T, Busch V, Opatz O, Schulte Mattler W, May A. Low-frequency short-time nociceptive stimulation of the greater occipital nerve does not modulate the trigeminal system. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:842-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One explanation for a missing modulatory effect in our study is the relatively short duration of the stimulation. ..
  40. Katsura H, Obata K, Miyoshi K, Kondo T, Yamanaka H, Kobayashi K, et al. Transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 induced in spinal astrocytes contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity after nerve injury. Glia. 2008;56:723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, preventing the TAK1/JNK1 signaling cascade in astrocytes might provide a fruitful strategy for treating intractable neuropathic pain. ..
  41. Wen Y, Suter M, Kawasaki Y, Huang J, Pertin M, Kohno T, et al. Nerve conduction blockade in the sciatic nerve prevents but does not reverse the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia in the rat spared nerve injury model. Anesthesiology. 2007;107:312-21 pubmed
    ..After nerve injury, activity in the peripheral nerve is required for the induction but not the maintenance of p38 activation in spinal microglia. ..
  42. Katsura H, Obata K, Mizushima T, Sakurai J, Kobayashi K, Yamanaka H, et al. Activation of Src-family kinases in spinal microglia contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity after nerve injury. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8680-90 pubmed
    ..Therefore, preventing the activation of the Src/ERK signaling cascade in microglia might provide a fruitful strategy for treating neuropathic pain. ..
  43. Le Doaré K, Akerman S, Holland P, Lasalandra M, Bergerot A, Classey J, et al. Occipital afferent activation of second order neurons in the trigeminocervical complex in rat. Neurosci Lett. 2006;403:73-7 pubmed
  44. Kondo D, Saegusa H, Yabe R, Takasaki I, Kurihara T, Zong S, et al. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonist is effective in relieving neuropathic pain in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;110:55-63 pubmed
    ..We found that allopregnanolone and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC are effective in reducing the anti-hyperalgesic effect of PK11195, suggesting a partial contribution of reduced GABA(A)-receptor activation to PK11195-induced antinociception. ..
  45. Tsuda M, Tozaki Saitoh H, Masuda T, Toyomitsu E, Tezuka T, Yamamoto T, et al. Lyn tyrosine kinase is required for P2X(4) receptor upregulation and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Glia. 2008;56:50-8 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that Lyn may be a critical kinase mediating nerve injury-induced P2X(4)R upregulation and neuropathic pain. ..
  46. Hamir A, Picton R, Blythe L, Heidel J. Diagnostic exercise: astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol. 2008;45:949-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma that involved medulla, cervical spinal cord, and roots of the cervical spinal nerves. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells revealed some pleomorphism but generally had fusiform morphology and ..
  47. Hao S, Mata M, Wolfe D, Huang S, Glorioso J, Fink D. Gene transfer of glutamic acid decarboxylase reduces neuropathic pain. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:914-8 pubmed
    ..QHGAD67 inoculation also suppressed induction of c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in the spinal cord. ..
  48. Guan Y, Yaster M, Raja S, Tao Y. Genetic knockout and pharmacologic inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase attenuate nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in mice. Mol Pain. 2007;3:29 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that nNOS, especially in the dorsal root ganglion, may participate in the development and/or maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity after nerve injury. ..
  49. Kawasaki Y, Xu Z, Wang X, Park J, Zhuang Z, Tan P, et al. Distinct roles of matrix metalloproteases in the early- and late-phase development of neuropathic pain. Nat Med. 2008;14:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of MMP may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain at different phases. ..
  50. Hatashita S, Sekiguchi M, Kobayashi H, Konno S, Kikuchi S. Contralateral neuropathic pain and neuropathology in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord following hemilateral nerve injury in rats. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:1344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results suggest that spinal astrocytes play an important role in these contralateral changes. ..
  51. Jang J, Kim K, Nam T, Lee W, Park K, Kim D, et al. The role of uninjured C-afferents and injured afferents in the generation of mechanical hypersensitivity after partial peripheral nerve injury in the rat. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:288-98 pubmed
  52. Obata K, Yamanaka H, Kobayashi K, Dai Y, Mizushima T, Katsura H, et al. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in injured and intact primary afferent neurons for mechanical and heat hypersensitivity after spinal nerve ligation. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10211-22 pubmed