vestibular nerve


Summary: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.

Top Publications

  1. Myrseth E, Pedersen P, Møller P, Lund Johansen M. Treatment of vestibular schwannomas. Why, when and how?. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149:647-60; discussion 660 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we review the literature concerning quality of life in patients with VS. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied to more than 300 cases since 2001...
  2. Buyuklu F, Tarhan E, Ozluoglu L. Vestibular functions in motion sickness susceptible individuals. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated vestibular system functioning via a caloric test (which assesses functioning of the superior vestibular nerve) and the vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) test (which assesses inferior vestibular nerve ..
  3. Chi F, Jiao Y, Liu H, Wang J, Shi Y, Barr J. Retrograde neuron tracing with microspheres reveals projection of CGRP-immunolabeled vestibular afferent neurons to the vestibular efferent nucleus in the brainstem of rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2007;85:131-8 pubmed
    ..CGRP acts as an important co-transmitter or modulator in the afferent-mediated activity of vestibular efferent neurons, which in turn affect afferents in the vestibular end organs. ..
  4. Adachi K, Yoshida K, Akiyama T, Kawase T. Cavernous angioma of the vestibular nerve: case report and literature review. Surg Neurol. 2008;70:82-6; discussion 86 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a case of a small, extraaxial cavernous angioma of the vestibular nerve. We also propose a reclassification system for cavernous angioma of the CPA based on the tumor's site of ..
  5. Jamali M, Sadeghi S, Cullen K. Response of vestibular nerve afferents innervating utricle and saccule during passive and active translations. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the saccule or utricle were recorded in alert macaques...
  6. Chávez H, Vega R, Soto E. Histamine (H3) receptors modulate the excitatory amino acid receptor response of the vestibular afferents. Brain Res. 2005;1064:1-9 pubmed
    ..The present data show that the inhibitory action of the afferent neurons discharge previously described for BH is not restricted to this molecule but is also shared by other H3 antagonists. ..
  7. Plotnik M, Marlinski V, Goldberg J. Efferent-mediated fluctuations in vestibular nerve discharge: a novel, positive-feedback mechanism of efferent control. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2005;6:311-23 pubmed
    We compared the background discharge of vestibular nerve afferents in barbiturate-anesthetized and unanesthetized, decerebrate chinchillas...
  8. Malinvaud D, Vassias I, Reichenberger I, Rössert C, Straka H. Functional organization of vestibular commissural connections in frog. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3310-25 pubmed publisher
  9. Brantberg K, Mathiesen T. Preservation of tap vestibular evoked myogenic potentials despite resection of the inferior vestibular nerve. J Vestib Res. 2004;14:347-51 pubmed
    ..Postoperative caloric testing suggested sparing of superior vestibular nerve function on the operated side...

More Information


  1. Curthoys I, Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Ushio M, McGarvie L, Burgess A. The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:611-616 pubmed publisher
    ..and it has been suggested that it does so by stimulating saccular receptors and afferents in the inferior vestibular nerve and so activating a crossed sacculo-ocular pathway...
  2. Campos Torres A, Touret M, Vidal P, Barnum S, de Waele C. The differential response of astrocytes within the vestibular and cochlear nuclei following unilateral labyrinthectomy or vestibular afferent activity blockade by transtympanic tetrodotoxin injection in the rat. Neuroscience. 2005;130:853-65 pubmed
    ..Early trans-ganglionic changes due to vestibular nerve dendrites lesion provoked by the mechanical destruction of vestibular receptors, most probably induced the ..
  3. Davidovics N, Fridman G, Chiang B, Della Santina C. Effects of biphasic current pulse frequency, amplitude, duration, and interphase gap on eye movement responses to prosthetic electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2011;19:84-94 pubmed publisher
    An implantable prosthesis that stimulates vestibular nerve branches to restore sensation of head rotation and vision-stabilizing reflexes could benefit individuals disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear balance) function...
  4. Kitahara T, Horii A, Kizawa K, Maekawa C, Kubo T. Changes in mitochondrial uncoupling protein expression in the rat vestibular nerve after labyrinthectomy. Neurosci Res. 2007;59:237-42 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that mitochondrial UCPs could play both a neuro-protective role against oxidative damage and a thermal signaling role for neuro-modulation in vestibular nerve.
  5. Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Smulders Y, Burgess A, Halmagyi G, Curthoys I, et al. The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..If the n10 is due primarily to utricular activation then diseases which affect only the superior division of the vestibular nerve (SVN) should reduce or eliminate n10.
  6. Tighilet B, Brezun J, Sylvie G, Gaubert C, Lacour M. New neurons in the vestibular nuclei complex after unilateral vestibular neurectomy in the adult cat. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:47-58 pubmed
    ..Morphological analysis showed two subtypes of GABAergic neurons: medium and small (30 vs. 10 microm, respectively). This is the first report of reactive neurogenesis in the deafferented VN in the adult mammalian CNS. ..
  7. Desai S, Ali H, Lysakowski A. Comparative morphology of rodent vestibular periphery. II. Cristae ampullares. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:267-80 pubmed
    ..Apart from this eminentia cruciatum, there are no statistical differences between horizontal and vertical cristae with regard to area, width, length, the number and type of hair cells, and number of calretinin-labeled calyx afferents. ..
  8. Lu Y, Young Y. Vertigo from herpes zoster oticus: superior or inferior vestibular nerve origin?. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:307-11 pubmed
    This study aims to analyze which division of vestibular nerve in the internal auditory canal is responsible for inducing vertigo in patients with herpes zoster oticus (HZO).
  9. Glastonbury C, Davidson H, Harnsberger H, Butler J, Kertesz T, Shelton C. Imaging findings of cochlear nerve deficiency. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23:635-43 pubmed
    ..Deficiency may be observed in association with congenital or acquired SNHL and may be important in the assessment of patients for cochlear implantation. Hypoplasia of the IAC is an indicator of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. ..
  10. Kevetter G, Leonard R. Molecular probes of the vestibular nerve. II. Characterization of neurons in Scarpa's ganglion to determine separate populations within the nerve. Brain Res. 2002;928:18-29 pubmed
    ..This study has provided an anatomical instrument (in addition to intracellular physiological methods) to study separate populations of vestibular afferents. ..
  11. Graf W, Spencer R, Baker H, Baker R. Vestibuloocular reflex of the adult flatfish. III. A species-specific reciprocal pattern of excitation and inhibition. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1376-88 pubmed
    ..Repeated electrical stimulation of either the excitatory or inhibitory horizontal canal vestibular nerve greatly increased the amplitude of the respective synaptic responses...
  12. Tighilet B, Lacour M. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the vestibular nuclei of normal and unilateral vestibular neurectomized cats. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:2255-67 pubmed
    ..Those found in the compensated cats would be more functionally implicated in the dynamic aspects of vestibular compensation. ..
  13. Umezaki T, Zheng Y, Shiba K, Miller A. Role of nucleus retroambigualis in respiratory reflexes evoked by superior laryngeal and vestibular nerve afferents and in emesis. Brain Res. 1997;769:347-56 pubmed
    ..airway musculature during respiration, swallowing, vomiting, or reflexes elicited by superior laryngeal or vestibular nerve afferents...
  14. Tschan C, Gaab M, Krauss J, Oertel J. Waterjet dissection of the vestibulocochlear nerve: an experimental study. J Neurosurg. 2009;110:656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, waterjet dissection may be useful in skull base surgery including dissection of cranial nerves from tumors. Further studies on this subject are encouraged. ..
  15. Felipe L, Santos M, Gonçalves D. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (Vemp): evaluation of responses in normal subjects. Pro Fono. 2008;20:249-54 pubmed
    ..However, a statistically significant difference was found for amplitude between genders. Vemp demonstrated to be a reliable instrument in the clinical assessment of the vestibular function. ..
  16. Arthurs B, Lamoreaux W, Giddings N, Fairbanks R, Mackay A, Demakas J, et al. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol. 2009;7:100 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide a concise review of the available literature on modern vestibular schwannoma treatment, which may be useful in guiding treatment decisions. ..
  17. Nie K, Bierer S, Ling L, Oxford T, Rubinstein J, Phillips J. Characterization of the electrically evoked compound action potential of the vestibular nerve. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:88-97 pubmed
    ..The intraoperative ECAP recording technique is an efficient tool to guide the placement of electrode array into the semicircular canals. ..
  18. Beule A, Allum J. Otolith function assessed with the subjective postural horizontal and standardised stance and gait tasks. Audiol Neurootol. 2006;11:172-82 pubmed
    ..Thirteen patients with unilateral vestibular nerve neurectomy at least 6 months prior to testing and 39 age-matched controls were asked to move a dynamic ..
  19. Murao M, Bento R, Sanchez T, Ribas G. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions after vestibular nerve section in chinchillas. Hear Res. 2006;213:43-8 pubmed
    ..non-linear part of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in 17 chinchillas before and after section of the vestibular nerve (crossed and uncrossed fibers). Responses at frequencies bands centered on 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4...
  20. Jin Y, Nakamura M, Shinjo Y, Kaga K. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in cochlear implant children. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:164-9 pubmed
    ..Also, in most of the children, the vestibular nerve was seemingly not stimulated by the cochlear implant...
  21. Iwasaki S, Takai Y, Ito K, Murofushi T. Abnormal vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in the presence of normal caloric responses. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:1196-9 pubmed
    ..deafness with vertigo, which are already known as diseases with abnormal VEMP responses but normal caloric test responses, some patients might be diagnosed as having a disease that involves only the inferior vestibular nerve region.
  22. Cortes C, Galindo F, Galicia S, Cebada J, Flores A. Excitatory actions of GABA in developing chick vestibular afferents: effects on resting electrical activity. Synapse. 2013;67:374-81 pubmed publisher
  23. Cai J, Li J, Mao Y, Bai X, Xu L, Wang H. Immunohistochemical localization of ?2-adrenergic receptors in the neonatal rat cochlea and the vestibular labyrinth. J Mol Neurosci. 2013;51:1010-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the extensive expressions of ?2-ARs established a significant foundation for the exploration of the function of ?2-ARs in cochlea and vestibular labyrinth. ..
  24. Nhan C, Bezdjian A, Alarfaj A, Daniel S. Can floseal™ be applied safely during otologic surgery? Assessment of ototoxicity in a chinchilla animal model. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;46:24 pubmed publisher
    ..No animals receiving Floseal™ developed facial or vestibular nerve dysfunction and there was no histological evidence of ototoxicity...
  25. Nevoux J, Barbara M, Dornhoffer J, Gibson W, Kitahara T, Darrouzet V. International consensus (ICON) on treatment of Ménière's disease. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2018;135:S29-S32 pubmed publisher
    ..The very last option is the destructive surgical treatment labyrinthectomy, associated or not to cochlear implantation or vestibular nerve section (when hearing is worth being preserved), which is the most frequent option.
  26. Pan W, Soma R, Kwak S, Yamamoto Y. Improvement of motor functions by noisy vestibular stimulation in central neurodegenerative disorders. J Neurol. 2008;255:1657-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The noisy GVS may thus potentially improve certain motor dysfunctions in patients with distinct central neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  27. Tribukait A, Brantberg K, Bergenius J. Function of semicircular canals, utricles and saccules in deaf children. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004;124:41-8 pubmed
    ..Vestibular function tends to be preserved up to a point where hearing is nearly extinct. Hearing level correlates more closely with otolith function, especially that of the utricle, than with semicircular canal function. ..
  28. Han W, Gu R, Yu L, Zheng J, Zhou N, Cao J, et al. [Phanerogenetic retrocochlear low frequency hearing loss]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2003;38:459-64 pubmed
    ..The main lesions of the disease are brainstem, cochlear nuclei and auditory nerve. ..
  29. Linder T, Bossart W, Bodmer D. Bell's palsy and Herpes simplex virus: fact or mystery?. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:109-13 pubmed
  30. Autret L, Mechaly I, Scamps F, Valmier J, Lory P, Desmadryl G. The involvement of Cav3.2/alpha1H T-type calcium channels in excitability of mouse embryonic primary vestibular neurones. J Physiol. 2005;567:67-78 pubmed
    ..2 subunit is likely to be the main T-type calcium channel subunit expressed in embryonic vestibular neurones and should play a key role in the excitability of these neurones during the ontogenesis of vestibular afferentation. ..
  31. Lasker D, Han G, Park H, Minor L. Rotational responses of vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals in the C57BL/6 mouse. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008;9:334-48 pubmed publisher
  32. Mitchell D, Della Santina C, Cullen K. Plasticity within excitatory and inhibitory pathways of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry guides changes in motor performance. Sci Rep. 2017;7:853 pubmed publisher
    ..Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first ..
  33. Müller J, Bockisch C, Tarnutzer A. Spatial orientation in patients with chronic unilateral vestibular hypofunction is ipsilesionally distorted. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;127:3243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..90°) in patients with chronic UVH affecting the superior branch (SVN; n=4) or the entire (CVN; n=9) vestibular nerve. Errors in SVN and CVN were not different. When roll-tilted ipsilesionally 45° (9.6±5.4° vs. -0...
  34. Jankelowitz S, Colebatch J. Galvanic evoked vestibulospinal and vestibulocollic reflexes in stroke. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115:1796-801 pubmed
    ..Transmastoid galvanic (DC) current was used to stimulate the vestibular nerve. Vestibulocollic responses were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles and vestibulospinal responses ..
  35. Wang M, Liu C, Yu E, Wu H, Lee G. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in chronic otitis media before and after surgery. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:1206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..05, sign test), and the response rate also improved significantly from 44.4% (8/18) to 77.8% (14/18) (p<0.05, bi-test). ..
  36. Franco Vidal V, Negrevergne M, Darrouzet V. [Vertigo and pathology of the cerebello-pontine angle]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2005;126:223-6 pubmed
    ..the labyrinth with erosion, of the endolymphatic sac by invasion or compression, or directly by lesion of the vestibular nerve like in vestibular schwannomas...
  37. Teufert K, DOHERTY J. Endolymphatic sac shunt, labyrinthectomy, and vestibular nerve section in Meniere's disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010;43:1091-111 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors discuss endolymphatic sac shunt (ie, endolymphatic mastoid shunt), vestibular nerve section, cochleosacculotomy, and labyrinthectomy...
  38. Cullen K. Physiology of central pathways. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;137:17-40 pubmed publisher
    ..a wide range of cortical, cerebellar, and other brainstem structures in addition to direct inputs from the vestibular nerve. Recent studies in alert animals have established how extravestibular signals shape these "simple" reflexes ..
  39. Lin M, Chen C, Tseng H, Xiao F, Young Y. A proposed method to comprehensively define outcomes in acoustic tumor patients undergoing CyberKnife management. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013;91:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..patients before stereotactic radiosurgery may help to evaluate the tumor origin from the superior or inferior vestibular nerve. It takes a short time and costs less, and it would be practical to make this a routine examination in VS ..
  40. Walther L, Schaaf H, Sommer D, Hormann K. [Air conducted ocular VEMP: II. First clinical investigations]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2011;90:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Air conducted (AC) cervical VEMP (cVEMP) reflect sacculus and inferior vestibular nerve function. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) however has been hardly examined up to now...
  41. Yakushin S, Raphan T, Büttner Ennever J, Suzuki J, Cohen B. Spatial properties of central vestibular neurons of monkeys after bilateral lateral canal nerve section. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:3860-71 pubmed
    ..There were substantial neck and/or otolith-related inputs activating the vertical canal-related neurons in the nerve-sectioned animals, which could have contributed to oculomotor compensation after nerve section. ..
  42. Richardson M. Hearing and balance. Part 4--Nervous pathways and related problems. Nurs Times. 2007;103:26-7 pubmed
  43. Fiscina F, Gouveris H, Mann W. Influence of nerve branch of origin and extracanalicular extension of the tumor on hearing after middle fossa removal of vestibular schwannoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:1058-61 pubmed
    ..Twenty patients had a superior vestibular nerve (SVN) tumor and 27 patients had an inferior vestibular nerve (IVN) tumor...
  44. Wilkinson D, Zubko O, Sakel M. Safety of repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation following stroke: a single-case study. Brain Inj. 2009;23:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply that repeated applications of GVS are tolerable at the parameter settings applied and provide the basis for larger-scale investigations of safety and efficacy. ..
  45. Aralasmak A, Dincer E, Arslan G, Cevikol C, Karaali K. Posttraumatic labyrinthitis ossificans with perilymphatic fistulization. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2009;15:239-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Imaging revealed labyrinthitis ossificans secondary to temporal bone fracture crossing through the otic capsule...
  46. Andrade I, Santos Perez S, Diz P, Caballero T, Soto Varela A. Correlation between bithermal caloric test results and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in normal subjects. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:1623-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The first tests the horizontal semicircular canal and the second evaluates the saccule and lower vestibular nerve. The results of these two tests can therefore be expected to be correlated...
  47. Balter S, Castelijns M, Stokroos R, Kingma H. Galvanic-induced body sway in vestibular schwannoma patients: evidence for stimulation of the central vestibular system. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004;124:1015-21 pubmed
    ..These results prove that galvanic vestibular stimulation excites the central vestibular system even when conduction via the vestibular nerve is hampered.
  48. Yagi T, Koizumi Y, Sugizaki K. 3D analysis of spontaneous nystagmus in early stage of vestibular neuritis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:167-72 pubmed publisher the temporal bone studies, which indicated the location of the pathology to be in the superior vestibular nerve. However, based on the data from the head impulse testing the pathology is in the vestibular nerve including ..
  49. Magliulo G, Iannella G, Gagliardi S, Iozzo N, Plateroti R, Plateroti P, et al. Usher's Syndrome: Evaluation of the Vestibular System with Cervical and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials and the Video Head Impulse Test. Otol Neurotol. 2015;36:1421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..evoked myogenic potentials (O-VEMPs), and video head impulse test (v-HIT) to show any selective damage of the vestibular nerve and also to identify if it is present in patients with a previous diagnosis of USH Type II...
  50. Kim H, Wiet R, Battista R. Trends in the diagnosis and the management of Meniere's disease: results of a survey. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:722-6 pubmed
    ..The vast majority continue to perform surgical labyrinthectomies and vestibular nerve sections for Meniere's disease...
  51. Tian Y, Li M, Fritzsch B, Zuo J. Creation of a transgenic mouse for hair-cell gene targeting by using a modified bacterial artificial chromosome containing Prestin. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:199-203 pubmed
    ..This mouse will be useful for hair-cell-specific gene targeting. ..
  52. Hansen M, Roehm P, Chatterjee P, Green S. Constitutive neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling contributes to human vestibular schwannoma proliferation. Glia. 2006;53:593-600 pubmed
    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are benign tumors that arise from the Schwann cells (SCs) lining the vestibular nerve. VS cells survive and proliferate far from neurons and axonally derived growth factors...
  53. Maes L, Dhooge I, D haenens W, Bockstael A, Keppler H, Philips B, et al. The effect of age on the sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test, pseudorandom rotation test, velocity step test, caloric test, and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test. Ear Hear. 2010;31:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..All asymmetry parameters remained stable across the different age categories. Only subtle age changes could be demonstrated with the rotational and caloric tests, in contrast to more pronounced age trends with the VEMP. ..