cochlear nerve


Summary: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.

Top Publications

  1. Colletti V, Shannon R, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L. Outcomes in nontumor adults fitted with the auditory brainstem implant: 10 years' experience. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experience clearly indicates that the ABI is an effective tool for hearing rehabilitation in patients with profound hearing loss who cannot be fitted with cochlear implants. ..
  2. CHIKAR J, Colesa D, Swiderski D, Di Polo A, Raphael Y, Pfingst B. Over-expression of BDNF by adenovirus with concurrent electrical stimulation improves cochlear implant thresholds and survival of auditory neurons. Hear Res. 2008;245:24-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the changes in the anatomy of the auditory nerve induced by the combination of Ad.BDNF inoculation and the electrical stimulation used for testing improved functional measures of CI performance. ..
  3. Zilany M, Bruce I, Nelson P, Carney L. A phenomenological model of the synapse between the inner hair cell and auditory nerve: long-term adaptation with power-law dynamics. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;126:2390-412 pubmed publisher
  4. Hughes M, Castioni E, Goehring J, Baudhuin J. Temporal response properties of the auditory nerve: data from human cochlear-implant recipients. Hear Res. 2012;285:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in temporal response properties across the cochlea within subjects may have implications for developing new speech-processing strategies that employ varied rates across the array. ..
  5. Reyes J, O Shea K, Wys N, Velkey J, Prieskorn D, Wesolowski K, et al. Glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells after transient expression of neurogenin 1 and treatment with BDNF and GDNF: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12622-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to report a high percentage of ES cell differentiation into a glutamatergic phenotype and sets the stage for cell replacement of auditory nerve. ..
  6. Henry K, Kale S, Scheidt R, Heinz M. Auditory brainstem responses predict auditory nerve fiber thresholds and frequency selectivity in hearing impaired chinchillas. Hear Res. 2011;280:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, comparisons of ABR wave I latency to normative data at the same SL may prove useful for detecting and characterizing loss of cochlear frequency selectivity. ..
  7. Yang I, Aranda D, Han S, Chennupati S, Sughrue M, Cheung S, et al. Hearing preservation after stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: a systematic review. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:742-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2 months. Our data suggest that an overall hearing preservation rate of about 57% can be expected after radiosurgical treatment, and patients treated with 12.5 Gy were more likely to have preserved hearing. ..
  8. Chihara Y, Iwasaki S, Ushio M, Fujimoto C, Kashio A, Kondo K, et al. Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) require extraocular muscles but not facial or cochlear nerve activity. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:581-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the evidence that oVEMPs originate from exraocular muscles activated through the vestibulo-ocular pathway. ..
  9. Samii M, Gerganov V, Samii A. Functional outcome after complete surgical removal of giant vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg. 2010;112:860-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In selected cases even hearing preservation is possible. Tumor size significantly correlates with postoperative outcome. ..

More Information


  1. Temchin A, Rich N, Ruggero M. Threshold tuning curves of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers. I. Dependence on characteristic frequency and relation to the magnitudes of cochlear vibrations. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:2889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..At the apex of the chinchilla cochlea, frequency tuning is substantially sharper for ANFs than for available recordings of organ of Corti vibrations. ..
  2. Warren F, Wiggins R, Pitt C, Harnsberger H, Shelton C. Apparent cochlear nerve aplasia: to implant or not to implant?. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1088-94 pubmed publisher
    To describe the imaging findings and clinical outcomes of children with apparent cochlear nerve aplasia undergoing cochlear implantation. Retrospective case review. Tertiary care center...
  3. Palmer A, Shackleton T. Variation in the phase of response to low-frequency pure tones in the guinea pig auditory nerve as functions of stimulus level and frequency. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:233-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This null frequency was often not at the CF. At stimulation frequencies below the null, there was a progressive lag with sound level and a progressive lead for stimulation frequencies above the null. This was maximally 0.2 cycles...
  4. Gunewardene N, Dottori M, Nayagam B. The convergence of cochlear implantation with induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Stem Cell Rev. 2012;8:741-54 pubmed publisher
  5. Versteegh C, Meenderink S, van der Heijden M. Response characteristics in the apex of the gerbil cochlea studied through auditory nerve recordings. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:301-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that mechanical responses in the apex of the cochlea are considerably nonlinear and that these nonlinearities are of a different character than those known from the base of the cochlea. ..
  6. Ospeck M. Fast negative feedback enables mammalian auditory nerve fibers to encode a wide dynamic range of sound intensities. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32384 pubmed publisher
    ..The ANF spike generator remains very sensitive to threshold currents, but efferent feedback is able to lower its gain in response to noise. ..
  7. Lang H, Jyothi V, Smythe N, Dubno J, Schulte B, Schmiedt R. Chronic reduction of endocochlear potential reduces auditory nerve activity: further confirmation of an animal model of metabolic presbyacusis. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2010;11:419-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that dysfunction of the cochlear lateral wall and subsequent chronic reduction in the EP can directly affect the activity patterns of primary auditory neurons in a manner similar to that seen in aged gerbils. ..
  8. Chen W, Jongkamonwiwat N, Abbas L, Eshtan S, Johnson S, Kuhn S, et al. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors. Nature. 2012;490:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results should stimulate further research into the development of a cell-based therapy for deafness. ..
  9. Temchin A, Rich N, Ruggero M. Threshold tuning curves of chinchilla auditory nerve fibers. II. Dependence on spontaneous activity and relation to cochlear nonlinearity. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:2899-906 pubmed publisher
    ..It is shown here that this dependence of tuning on spontaneous rates is consistent with a previously unnoticed nonmonotonic dependence on iso-velocity criterion of the frequency tuning of basilar membrane vibrations. ..
  10. Kujawa S, Liberman M. Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14077-85 pubmed publisher
    ..sensory cells intact, but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear nerve. Results suggest that noise-induced damage to the ear has progressive consequences that are considerably more ..
  11. Wanibuchi M, Fukushima T, McElveen J, Friedman A. Hearing preservation in surgery for large vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no deaths in this series. The results indicate that successful hearing preservation surgery in large VSs is possible with meticulous technique and attention to adhesions between the tumor and the cochlear nerves. ..
  12. Kao S, Kempfle J, Jensen J, Perez Fernandez D, Lysaght A, Edge A, et al. Loss of osteoprotegerin expression in the inner ear causes degeneration of the cochlear nerve and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;56:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..OPG deficiency caused demyelination and degeneration of the cochlear nerve in vivo...
  13. Brill S, Muller J, Hagen R, Möltner A, Brockmeier S, Stark T, et al. Site of cochlear stimulation and its effect on electrically evoked compound action potentials using the MED-EL standard electrode array. Biomed Eng Online. 2009;8:40 pubmed publisher
    ..The Clinical Investigation has the Competent Authority registration number DE/CA126/AP4/3332/18/05. ..
  14. Grant L, Yi E, Glowatzki E. Two modes of release shape the postsynaptic response at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the relative contribution of two modes of multivesicular release, generating monophasic and multiphasic EPSCs, may underlie fundamental characteristics of auditory nerve fibers. ..
  15. Dehmel S, Kopp Scheinpflug C, Weick M, Dörrscheidt G, Rubsamen R. Transmission of phase-coupling accuracy from the auditory nerve to spherical bushy cells in the Mongolian gerbil. Hear Res. 2010;268:234-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the phase-coupling accuracy is improved in a subpopulation of SBCs during transmission from the auditory nerve to the SBCs by reduction of spike rates. ..
  16. Noreña A. An integrative model of tinnitus based on a central gain controlling neural sensitivity. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:1089-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, while cochlear injuries are accompanied by a reduced activity in the cochlear nerve, neural activity is increased at virtually all levels in the central auditory system...
  17. McKay C. Forward masking as a method of measuring place specificity of neural excitation in cochlear implants: a review of methods and interpretation. J Acoust Soc Am. 2012;131:2209-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of unit of measurement on specificity measures and the effects of subject listening strategy on the forward masked functions are also discussed. ..
  18. Temchin A, Ruggero M. Phase-locked responses to tones of chinchilla auditory nerve fibers: implications for apical cochlear mechanics. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2010;11:297-318 pubmed publisher
  19. Mc Laughlin M, Chabwine J, van der Heijden M, Joris P. Comparison of bandwidths in the inferior colliculus and the auditory nerve. II: Measurement using a temporally manipulated stimulus. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:2312-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that binaural sensitivity is more dependent on correlation sensitivity than has hitherto been appreciated and that the mechanisms underlying correlation sensitivity should be addressed in future studies. ..
  20. Zilany M, Carney L. Power-law dynamics in an auditory-nerve model can account for neural adaptation to sound-level statistics. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10380-90 pubmed publisher
  21. Pettingill L, Wise A, Geaney M, Shepherd R. Enhanced auditory neuron survival following cell-based BDNF treatment in the deaf guinea pig. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18733 pubmed publisher
  22. Liu W, Bostrom M, Kinnefors A, Rask Andersen H. Unique expression of connexins in the human cochlea. Hear Res. 2009;250:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Their potential role in the processing of human auditory nerve signaling as well as non-GJ roles of the connexins in human cochlea is discussed. ..
  23. Sennaroglu L, Ziyal I, Atas A, Sennaroglu G, Yucel E, Sevinc S, et al. Preliminary results of auditory brainstem implantation in prelingually deaf children with inner ear malformations including severe stenosis of the cochlear aperture and aplasia of the cochlear nerve. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:708-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study is to present the results of 11 children where auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) was successfully performed to restore hearing...
  24. Amin S, Orlando M, Eddins A, MacDonald M, Monczynski C, Wang H. In utero iron status and auditory neural maturation in premature infants as evaluated by auditory brainstem response. J Pediatr. 2010;156:377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Premature infants with in utero latent iron deficiency have abnormal auditory neural maturation compared with infants with normal in utero iron status. ..
  25. Bahmer A, Peter O, Baumann U. Recording and analysis of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) with MED-EL cochlear implants and different artifact reduction strategies in Matlab. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;191:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..ECAP recordings of a human subject with three different artifact reduction methods (alternating, Miller modified masker-probe, triphasic pulses) are presented and compared. ..
  26. Krishnan A, Plack C. Neural encoding in the human brainstem relevant to the pitch of complex tones. Hear Res. 2011;275:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The scalp recorded FFR may provide for a non-invasive analytic tool to evaluate neural encoding of complex sounds in humans. ..
  27. Wen B, Wang G, Dean I, Delgutte B. Dynamic range adaptation to sound level statistics in the auditory nerve. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that adaptive processing of sound levels first occurs in the auditory periphery and is enhanced along the auditory pathway. ..
  28. Linthicum F, Fayad J. Spiral ganglion cell loss is unrelated to segmental cochlear sensory system degeneration in humans. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:418-422 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the poor performance of cochlear implant in patients after prolonged deafness is not caused by ongoing degeneration of ganglion cells. ..
  29. Maison S, Casanova E, Holstein G, Bettler B, Liberman M. Loss of GABAB receptors in cochlear neurons: threshold elevation suggests modulation of outer hair cell function by type II afferent fibers. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:50-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that GABAergic signaling in type II afferent neurons may be required for normal outer hair cell amplifier function at low sound levels and may also modulate outer hair cell responses to high-level sound. ..
  30. Green T, Faulkner A, Rosen S. Variations in carrier pulse rate and the perception of amplitude modulation in cochlear implant users. Ear Hear. 2012;33:221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, even with very fast stimulation rates, tested over a wide range of modulation frequencies and with two different tasks, there is no evidence of benefit from faster stimulation rates in the perception of amplitude modulation. ..
  31. Kale S, Heinz M. Envelope coding in auditory nerve fibers following noise-induced hearing loss. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2010;11:657-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest the need to consider the relative effects of SNHL on envelope and fine-structure coding in evaluating perceptual deficits in temporal processing of complex stimuli. ..
  32. Sugawara M, Corfas G, Liberman M. Influence of supporting cells on neuronal degeneration after hair cell loss. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2005;6:136-47 pubmed
    In sensorineural hearing loss, hair cell loss is often followed by loss of cochlear nerve fibers, which can continue for years after the insult...
  33. Ozdogmus O, Sezen O, Kubilay U, Saka E, Duman U, San T, et al. Connections between the facial, vestibular and cochlear nerve bundles within the internal auditory canal. J Anat. 2004;205:65-75 pubmed
    ..The present study offers morphometric and scanning electron microscopic data on the fibre connections of the nerves of the IAC. ..
  34. Miller C, Abbas P, Hay McCutcheon M, Robinson B, Nourski K, Jeng F. Intracochlear and extracochlear ECAPs suggest antidromic action potentials. Hear Res. 2004;198:75-86 pubmed
    ..Compared with the feline ECAPs, the human potentials had smaller amplitudes and longer latencies. It is not clear what underlies these differences, although several factors are considered. ..
  35. Le Prell C, Halsey K, Hughes L, Dolan D, Bledsoe S. Disruption of lateral olivocochlear neurons via a dopaminergic neurotoxin depresses sound-evoked auditory nerve activity. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2005;6:48-62 pubmed
    ..This technique for selectively lesioning descending LOC efferents provides a new opportunity for examining LOC modulation of afferent activity and behavioral measures of perception. ..
  36. Day M, Doiron B, Rinzel J. Subthreshold K+ channel dynamics interact with stimulus spectrum to influence temporal coding in an auditory brain stem model. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:534-44 pubmed
  37. Oxenham A, Bernstein J, Penagos H. Correct tonotopic representation is necessary for complex pitch perception. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1421-5 pubmed
    ..The experiments demonstrate that tonotopic representation is crucial to complex pitch perception and provide a new tool in the search for the neural basis of pitch. ..
  38. Yamagata T, Miller J, Ulfendahl M, Olivius N, Altschuler R, Pyykko I, et al. Delayed neurotrophic treatment preserves nerve survival and electrophysiological responsiveness in neomycin-deafened guinea pigs. J Neurosci Res. 2004;78:75-86 pubmed
    ..It is noteworthy that this same degree of ganglion cell loss, secondary to receptor damage, is typically observed after a period equivalent to some years of deafness in humans. ..
  39. Morsnowski A, Charasse B, Collet L, Killian M, Muller Deile J. Measuring the refractoriness of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve. Audiol Neurootol. 2006;11:389-402 pubmed
    ..This can bias the measurement of ECAP thresholds. Additionally, the shape of standard forward masking recovery functions was explained by the influence of latency shift of the neural response. ..
  40. El Badry M, Ding D, McFadden S, Eddins A. Physiological effects of auditory nerve myelinopathy in chinchillas. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1437-46 pubmed
    ..The results support auditory nerve myelinopathy as a possible pathomechanism of auditory neuropathy but indicate that myelinopathy must be severe before physiological measures are affected. ..
  41. Bradley J, Beale T, Graham J, Bell M. Variable long-term outcomes from cochlear implantation in children with hypoplastic auditory nerves. Cochlear Implants Int. 2008;9:34-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In specific cases it may be appropriate to offer a cochlear implant to a child with hypoplastic auditory nerves but careful counselling of the family about likely outcomes is essential. ..
  42. Rhode W. Response patterns to sound associated with labeled globular/bushy cells in cat. Neuroscience. 2008;154:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2 ms notch after the initial spike, to an onset pattern with a low-sustained rate. They can represent low frequency tones and amplitude modulated signals exceptionally well with a temporal code. ..
  43. Nelson P, Carney L. A phenomenological model of peripheral and central neural responses to amplitude-modulated tones. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004;116:2173-86 pubmed
  44. Vlastarakos P, Nikolopoulos T, Tavoulari E, Papacharalambous G, Korres S. Auditory neuropathy: endocochlear lesion or temporal processing impairment? Implications for diagnosis and management. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1135-50 pubmed publisher
  45. Maison S, Emeson R, Adams J, Luebke A, Liberman M. Loss of alpha CGRP reduces sound-evoked activity in the cochlear nerve. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:2941-9 pubmed
    ..This constitutes the most direct evidence to date for a functional role of the lateral OC system in the auditory periphery. ..
  46. Temchin A, Recio Spinoso A, van Dijk P, Ruggero M. Wiener kernels of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers: verification using responses to tones, clicks, and noise and comparison with basilar-membrane vibrations. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:3635-48 pubmed
  47. Ulfendahl M, Hu Z, Olivius P, Duan M, Wei D. A cell therapy approach to substitute neural elements in the inner ear. Physiol Behav. 2007;92:75-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, it is possible that the physical properties of the cochlea, e.g., fluid-filled compartments and very limited space for cell proliferation, are unfavorable, at least in the normal cochlea. ..
  48. Ito T, Tokuriki M, Shibamori Y, Saito T, Nojyo Y. Cochlear nerve demyelination causes prolongation of wave I latency in ABR of the myelin deficient (md) rat. Hear Res. 2004;191:119-24 pubmed
    ..ABRs showed a marked prolongation not only wave II-IV latencies but also wave I latency. Cochlear nerve fibers near the modiolus lost their myelin halfway into the internal auditory canal...
  49. Lane J, Ward H, Witte R, Bernstein M, Driscoll C. 3-T imaging of the cochlear nerve and labyrinth in cochlear-implant candidates: 3D fast recovery fast spin-echo versus 3D constructive interference in the steady state techniques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:618-22 pubmed
    ..5 T is often performed by using three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo or T2* techniques. We evaluated both techniques at 3 T in the preoperative assessment of patients being considered for cochlear implants...
  50. Noushi F, Richardson R, Hardman J, Clark G, O Leary S. Delivery of neurotrophin-3 to the cochlea using alginate beads. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:528-33 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates alginate beads to be a safe, biodegradable and effective delivery system for NT-3 to the cochlea. ..
  51. Miller C, Brown C, Abbas P, Chi S. The clinical application of potentials evoked from the peripheral auditory system. Hear Res. 2008;242:184-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research directions, which will likely involve the integration of various dimensions of the electrically evoked response that have been studied in isolation, are also suggested. ..
  52. Gillespie L, Clark G, Marzella P. Delayed neurotrophin treatment supports auditory neuron survival in deaf guinea pigs. Neuroreport. 2004;15:1121-5 pubmed
    ..Although delayed, the treatment with each neurotrophin prevented further degeneration with similar efficacy. ..
  53. Guevara N, Deveze A, Buza V, Laffont B, Magnan J. Microvascular decompression of cochlear nerve for tinnitus incapacity: pre-surgical data, surgical analyses and long-term follow-up of 15 patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:397-401 pubmed
    ..However, cochlear nerve compression syndrome by vascular loop is still a controversial topic...