vestibulocochlear nerve


Summary: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.

Top Publications

  1. Allen Sharpley M, Tjia M, Cramer K. Differential roles for EphA and EphB signaling in segregation and patterning of central vestibulocochlear nerve projections. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78658 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Eph-ephrin signaling does not specify auditory versus vestibular targets but rather contributes to formation of boundaries for patterning of inner ear projections in the hindbrain...
  2. Duncan J, Lim K, Engel J, Fritzsch B. Limited inner ear morphogenesis and neurosensory development are possible in the absence of GATA3. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, while GATA3 is expressed in the developing vestibulo-cochlear efferent (VCE) neurons, and its absence in the null mutants disrupts VCE projections to the ear, loss of GATA3 does not affect VCE progenitor cell migration. ..
  3. Markowski J, Gierek T, Kluczewska E, Witkowska M. Assessment of vestibulocochlear organ function in patients meeting radiologic criteria of vascular compression syndrome of vestibulocochlear nerve--diagnosis of disabling positional vertigo. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:CR169-73 pubmed
    ..Disabling positional vertigo should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vertigo when accompanied by tinnitus or deafness. ..
  4. Landau M, Barner K. Vestibulocochlear nerve. Semin Neurol. 2009;29:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the authors discuss the anatomy of CN VIII, the clinical evaluation of patients with vertigo and hearing loss, and specific disease entities...
  5. Nakashima K, Morikawa M, Ishimaru H, Ochi M, Kabasawa H, Hayashi K. Three-dimensional fast recovery fast spin-echo imaging of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve. Eur Radiol. 2002;12:2776-80 pubmed
    ..The 3DFRFSE is a beneficial technique for evaluation of lesions in the inner ear as well as the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. ..
  6. van der Steenstraten F, de Ru J, Witkamp T. Is microvascular compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve a cause of unilateral hearing loss?. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:248-52 pubmed
    We sought to confirm earlier findings in the literature that microvascular compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve might cause unilateral sensorineural hearing loss...
  7. Song M, Kim S, Kim J, Chang J, Lee W, Choi J. The cochleovestibular nerve identified during auditory brainstem implantation in patients with narrow internal auditory canals: can preoperative evaluation predict cochleovestibular nerve deficiency?. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:1773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, physicians should be prudent when determining candidacy for cochlear implantation or auditory brainstem implantation in patients with narrow IACs. ..
  8. De Ridder D, Møller A, Verlooy J, Cornelissen M, De Ridder L. Is the root entry/exit zone important in microvascular compression syndromes?. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:427-33; discussion 433-4 pubmed
    ..For the anatomic study, four autopsy specimens and one surgical biopsy specimen of the vestibulocochlear nerve were microscopically and ultramicroscopically analyzed for structural differences between the CNS and PNS ..
  9. Sinnott J, Petersen M, Hopp S. Frequency and intensity discrimination in humans and monkeys. J Acoust Soc Am. 1985;78:1977-85 pubmed
    ..The implications of these data for using monkeys as models of human speech sound discrimination are also discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Wang H, Ying X, Yu W, Zhu Q, Dong X, Sheng Y, et al. Suprafloccular approach via the petrosal fissure and venous corridors for microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve: technique notes and clinical outcomes. J Neurosurg. 2017;:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..approach can be challenging because of blockages from the superior petrosal vein complex, cerebellum, and vestibulocochlear nerve. The authors demonstrate a novel suprafloccular approach via the petrosal fissure and venous corridors ..
  2. De Foer B, Kenis C, Van Melkebeke D, Vercruysse J, Somers T, Pouillon M, et al. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Eur J Radiol. 2010;74:349-58 pubmed publisher
    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve...
  3. Sato K, Momose Sato Y. Optical detection of developmental origin of synaptic function in the embryonic chick vestibulocochlear nuclei. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:3215-24 pubmed
  4. Inamura H, Tada Y, Takahashi N, Aoyagi M. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with bilateral facial paralysis due to malignant lymphoma. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2000;542:58-61 pubmed
    ..Therefore treatment should be performed with consideration given to the possible invasion of the tumor to the CNS. ..
  5. Schwartz J, Simmons A. Encoding of a spectrally-complex communication sound in the bullfrog's auditory nerve. J Comp Physiol A. 1990;166:489-99 pubmed
    ..ALSR plots do not generally provide an accurate representation of the structure of the advertisement call. 5. The data suggest that anuran peripheral auditory fibers may be particularly sensitive to the amplitude envelope of sounds. ..
  6. Henry K. Tuning curves of the difference tone auditory nerve neurophonic. Hear Res. 1996;99:160-7 pubmed
  7. Clock Eddins A, Salvi R, Wang J, Powers N. Threshold-duration functions of chinchilla auditory nerve fibers. Hear Res. 1998;119:135-41 pubmed
    ..The slope of threshold improvement decreased systematically with increasing CF, consistent with previous physiological and psychophysical data. ..
  8. Møller M. Selection criteria and treatment of patients with disabling positional vertigo. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1997;68:270-3 pubmed
    ..Microvascular decompression of the auditory-vestibular nerve in 207 patients with DPV resulted in a cure rate of 79%. However, most of the patients with DPV (approximately 80%) were successfully treated by medication. ..
  9. Xu J, Liu C, Lian N, Yang Y, Tang X. [The status of auditory function in auditory neuropathy]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002;16:9-12 pubmed
  10. Yeung A, Sughrue M, Kane A, Tihan T, Cheung S, Parsa A. Radiobiology of vestibular schwannomas: mechanisms of radioresistance and potential targets for therapeutic sensitization. Neurosurg Focus. 2009;27:E2 pubmed publisher
    ..An improved understanding of the radiobiological behavior of VS may help guide appropriate patient selection for SRS and potentially aid in the design of novel therapies to treat radioresistant tumors. ..
  11. Angeles Fernández Gil M, Palacios Bote R, Leo Barahona M, Mora Encinas J. Anatomy of the brainstem: a gaze into the stem of life. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2010;31:196-219 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article we discuss the anatomy of the brainstem and highlight the features and landmarks that are important in interpreting magnetic resonance imaging. ..
  12. Schlauch R, Lanthier N, Neve J. Forward-masked intensity discrimination: duration effects and spectral effects. J Acoust Soc Am. 1997;102:461-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that perceptual similarity plays a role in forward-masked intensity discrimination but does not account entirely for the mid-level elevation of the Weber fraction. ..
  13. Hirsch A. Hydrogen sulfide exposure without loss of consciousness: chronic effects in four cases. Toxicol Ind Health. 2002;18:51-61 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that exposures to even relatively low concentrations of H2S are hazardous. A rigorous epidemiologic investigation of persons who work with H2S is warranted. ..
  14. Hofmann E, Chone L. [Imaging of acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). Breakthrough or dilemma?]. HNO. 2011;59:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up of surgical as well as non-surgical patients is another important role of MRI. Computed tomography (CT) is restricted to pre-surgical workup and to the immediate postoperative period. ..
  15. Thirumala P, Ilangovan P, Habeych M, Crammond D, Balzer J. Analysis of interpeak latencies of brainstem auditory evoked potential waveforms during microvascular decompression of cranial nerve VII for hemifacial spasm. Neurosurg Focus. 2013;34:E6 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in IPL measurements did not increase the odds of postoperative hearing loss. This information might be helpful in evaluating the value of IPLs as alarm criteria during MVD to prevent hearing loss. ..
  16. Liang C, Zhang B, Wu L, Du Y, Wang X, Liu C, et al. The superiority of 3D-CISS sequence in displaying the cisternal segment of facial, vestibulocochlear nerves and their abnormal changes. Eur J Radiol. 2010;74:437-40 pubmed publisher
  17. Tilikete C, Vighetto A. [Vertigo treatment according to their mechanisms]. Neurochirurgie. 2009;55:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..A therapeutic test with antiepileptic drugs is helpful. The treatment includes these drugs as a first option but may require a neurosurgical approach if medical treatment fails. ..
  18. McAnally K, Brown M, Clark G. Estimating mechanical responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the cochlea. Hear Res. 1997;106:146-53 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the generation of a mechanical response to the electrical stimulus. ..
  19. Heine C, Klingebiel R, Lehmann R. Three-dimensional MR visualization of the intracisternal course of the cranial nerves V-VIII by virtual cisternoscopy. Acta Radiol. 2002;43:242-8 pubmed
    ..The data acquisition and post-processing protocol presented here allows comprehensive and standardized intracisternal 3D visualization of the cranial nerves V-VIII in a routine setting as a complementary imaging procedure. ..
  20. Tringali S, Ferber Viart C, Fuchsmann C, Buiret G, Zaouche S, Dubreuil C. Hearing preservation in retrosigmoid approach of small vestibular schwannomas: prognostic value of the degree of internal auditory canal filling. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1469-72 pubmed
    ..In case of patient with small tumor and IAC empty or filled less than 75% and with free fundus, surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with serviceable hearing and the desire to retain it. ..
  21. Ozer F, Duransoy Y, Camlar M. Atypic geniculate neuralgia: atypic anatomic correlation of cranial nerve roots and AICA. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:1003-4; discussion 1004 pubmed publisher
    ..At operation the anterior inferior cerebellar artery was coursing with the nerves and was separated. After the decompression the pain resolved immediately. ..
  22. Ala Eddine C, Williams M, Ayache D. [Useful imaging of the ear]. J Radiol. 2006;87:1728-42 pubmed
    ..Anatomic definitions of the external ear, middle ear, and bony labyrinth are described on routine spiral CT, and the anatomic definition of the membranous labyrinth and the cochleovestibular nerve on MRI is reviewed. ..
  23. Hitier M, Besnard S, Vignaux G, Denise P, Moreau S. The ventrolateral surgical approach to labyrinthectomy in rats: anatomical description and clinical consequences. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32:835-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a description of a surgical ventrolateral approach to labyrinthectomy in rats, with preservation of the stapedial artery...
  24. Regala C, Duan M, Zou J, Salminen M, Olivius P. Xenografted fetal dorsal root ganglion, embryonic stem cell and adult neural stem cell survival following implantation into the adult vestibulocochlear nerve. Exp Neurol. 2005;193:326-33 pubmed
    ..Protein (EGFP) or lacZ reporter genes, EGFP-expressing ES cells or lacZ-expressing ANSC into the injured vestibulocochlear nerve of adult rats and guinea pigs. Survival of the implants was assessed 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively...
  25. Gacek R. Efferent system degeneration in the human temporal bone. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:947-54 pubmed
    ..The variable location and size of these deposits (buds) in the labyrinthine sense organs is described to aid in the recognition of efferent system injury in human temporal bones. ..
  26. Cai Y, Geisler C. Suppression in auditory-nerve fibers of cats using low-side suppressors. I. Temporal aspects. Hear Res. 1996;96:94-112 pubmed
    ..The threshold of synchronization in the SUP-alone segment and threshold of suppression were in between. In some low-SR fibers, complete suppression can be seen. ..
  27. Bulsara K, Leveque J, Gray L, Fukushima T, Friedman A, Villavicencio A. Three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of the relationship between the arcuate eminence and the superior semicircular canal. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:ONS7-12; discussion ONS7-12 pubmed
    ..Detailed preoperative information regarding the relationship between the AE, SSC, and other bony landmarks can be easily and quickly assessed using 3-D CT. ..
  28. van Dijk P, Wit H, Segenhout J. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise. II. Temperature dependence of inner ear function. Hear Res. 1997;114:243-51 pubmed
    ..The temperature dependence of the second filter may have resulted from a decrease of the hair cell membrane resistance, but may also reflect changes in subsequent staging of nerve fiber excitation. ..
  29. Nixon J, Dempsey J, Doherty D, Ishak G. Temporal bone and cranial nerve findings in pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Neuroradiology. 2016;58:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..the 24 total duplicated internal auditory canals, all 24 (100%) demonstrated stenosis or atresia of the vestibulocochlear nerve canal, as well as ipsilateral vestibulocochlear nerve aplasia...
  30. Liberman M, O Grady D, Dodds L, McGee J, Walsh E. Afferent innervation of outer and inner hair cells is normal in neonatally de-efferented cats. J Comp Neurol. 2000;423:132-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the postnatal presence of an efferent system is not required for the normal development of cochlear afferent innervation, and the synaptic competition hypothesis is not supported. ..
  31. Grauvogel J, Scheiwe C, Kaminsky J. Use of piezosurgery for internal auditory canal drilling in acoustic neuroma surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:1941-7; discussion 1947 pubmed publisher
    ..Piezosurgery has the potential to replace RD for this indication because of its safe and precise bone-cutting properties. ..
  32. Simon M. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring of the vestibulocochlear nerve. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;28:566-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Along these lines, the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and, to a greater extent, the auditory pathways as they pass through the brain stem are ..
  33. May B, Huang A. Spectral cues for sound localization in cats: a model for discharge rate representations in the auditory nerve. J Acoust Soc Am. 1997;101:2705-19 pubmed
    ..These modeling results correspond well with previously described patterns in the cat's localization behaviors. ..
  34. Cazals Y, Huang Z. Average spectrum of cochlear activity: a possible synchronized firing, its olivo-cochlear feedback and alterations under anesthesia. Hear Res. 1996;101:81-92 pubmed
    ..Overall these data indicate that ASECA would reflect synchronized firings and they provide evidence for an influence of olivo-cochlear feedback sensitive to the state of awakeness. ..
  35. Boyer S, Ruel J, Puel J, Chabbert C. A procedure to label inner ear afferent nerve endings for calcium imaging. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2004;13:91-8 pubmed
    ..Typical recordings are presented and potential interests for pharmacological studies of inner ear sensory cell synapses are discussed. ..
  36. Yap L, Pothula V, Lesser T. Microvascular decompression of cochleovestibular nerve. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, the results suggest that MVD of the eighth nerve produces good outcome with low morbidity in selected cases. ..
  37. Ferraro J, Tibbils R. SP/AP area ratio in the diagnosis of Ménière's disease. Am J Audiol. 1999;8:21-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that measurement of the SP/AP area ratio holds promise for improving the sensitivity of ECochG in the diagnosis of MD. ..
  38. Bajo V, Villa A, de Ribaupierre F, Rouiller E. Discharge properties of single neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of the rat. Brain Res Bull. 1998;47:595-610 pubmed
    ..The DNLL exhibits a loose tonotopic organization, where there is a concentric pattern with high BF units located in the most dorsal and ventral parts of the DNLL and lower BF units in the middle part of the nucleus. ..
  39. Cheng L, Yang J, Wu H, Huang Q, Cao W, Li Y. [Evaluation with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 1 case of cochleovestibular nerve malformation in children before cochlear implantation and review of the literature]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010;24:217-20 pubmed
    ..fMRI would be an effective measure in the assessments for the cochlear implantation candidates, combining with audiometry and radiological examination, especially when MRI shows cochleovestibular nerve malformation in these patients. ..
  40. Hess A, Bloch W, Arnhold S, Andressen C, Stennert E, Addicks K, et al. Nitric oxide synthase in the vestibulocochlear system of mice. Brain Res. 1998;813:97-102 pubmed
    ..NOS detection was accompanied by immunoreactivity to sGC. The findings imply that NOS I and III-generated NO is involved in neurotransmission and other regulative processes in the vestibulocochlear system. ..
  41. Takanashi Y, Kawase T, Tatewaki Y, Suzuki J, Yahata I, Nomura Y, et al. Duplicated internal auditory canal with inner ear malformation: Case report and literature review. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2018;45:351-357 pubmed publisher
    ..Narrow internal auditory canal is believed to occur as a result of aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Narrow duplication of the internal auditory canal is considered to be very rare...
  42. Horner K, Troadec J, Blanchard M, Dallaporta M, Pio J. Receptors for leptin in the otic labyrinth and the cochlear-vestibular nerve of guinea pig are modified in hormone-induced anorexia. Hear Res. 2010;270:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptin disturbance might contribute to metabolic syndromes involving the audiovestibular system. ..
  43. Sirikci A, Bayazit Y, Ozer E, Ozkur A, Adaletli I, Cüce M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging based classification of anatomic relationship between the cochleovestibular nerve and anterior inferior cerebellar artery in patients with non-specific neuro-otologic symptoms. Surg Radiol Anat. 2005;27:531-5 pubmed
    ..Although, MR images can show the anatomical relationship accurately, diagnosis of vascular conflict should not be based on imaging findings alone. ..
  44. Chiu T, Liu Y, Poon P. Transient frequency and intensity sensitivities of central auditory neurons determined with sweep tone. Chin J Physiol. 1998;41:133-8 pubmed
    ..91) than for MT (r=0.78). Such discrepancy was discussed in relation to the response characteristics of these central auditory neurons. ..
  45. Ramos H, Barros F, Yamashita H, Penido N, Souza A, Yamaoka W. Magnetic resonance imaging in sudden deafness. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;71:422-6 pubmed
    ..2% of our cases, among other treatable causes, justifies the recommendation of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance use, not only to study the auditory peripheral pathway, but to study the whole auditory pathway including the brain. ..
  46. Miller R, Calhoun B, Young E. Discriminability of vowel representations in cat auditory-nerve fibers after acoustic trauma. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999;105:311-25 pubmed
    ..However, information that could allow discrimination remains in the temporal (phase-locked) aspects of the responses. ..
  47. Shyam Kishore K. A new vision on audition: a comparative study of the apparatus concerned with equilibrium and hearing. J Postgrad Med. 2003;49:88-9 pubmed
  48. Giguere C, Woodland P. A computational model of the auditory periphery for speech and hearing research. I. Ascending path. J Acoust Soc Am. 1994;95:331-42 pubmed
    ..The output is the tonotopic distribution of firing activity in the auditory nerve. A companion article addresses the modeling of the descending paths [C. Giguère and P. C. Woodland, J. Acoust, Soc. Am. 94, 343-349 (1993)]...
  49. Miyoshi S, Shimizu S, Matsushima J, Ifukube T. Proposal of a new method for narrowing and moving the stimulated region of cochlear implants: animal experiment and numerical analysis. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1999;46:451-60 pubmed
    ..Also we succeeded in continuously moving the stimulation site by modifying the currents emitted from the two lateral electrodes. ..
  50. McCarron M, McKinstry C, Gibson J. Superficial siderosis 20 years after brain tumour. Lancet Neurol. 2002;1:326 pubmed
  51. Corrales C, Monfared A, Jackler R. Facial and vestibulocochlear nerve avulsion at the fundus of the internal auditory canal in a child without a temporal bone fracture. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:1508-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A potential mechanism of avulsion is explained. ..
  52. Freeman S, Plotnik M, Elidan J, Rosen L, Sohmer H. Effect of white noise "masking" on vestibular evoked potentials recorded using different stimulus modalities. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999;119:311-5 pubmed
    ..The A-VsEP was also affected by the BBN. The overall effect was relatively small (on average, 10-25% depression of the first wave of the different VsEPs). The responses showed recovery 5 min later. ..
  53. Versnel H, Prijs V, Schoonhoven R. Auditory-nerve fiber responses to clicks in guinea pigs with a damaged cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am. 1997;101:993-1009 pubmed
    ..The various features in the click responses were in most cases consistent with the type of FTC. The results can be used to explain deviations in whole-nerve recordings in abnormal cochleas. ..