maxillary nerve


Summary: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.

Top Publications

  1. Nicholson J, Berry T, Summitt J, Yuan C, Witten T. Pain perception and utility: a comparison of the syringe and computerized local injection techniques. Gen Dent. 2001;49:167-73 pubmed
    ..Reduced postoperative discomfort using the Wand for the inferior alveolar nerve block was significant. Both of the dentists in the study and those patients who stated a preference favored the Wand system. ..
  2. David H, Aminzadeh K, Kae A, Radomsky S. Instrument retraction to avoid needle-stick injuries during intraoral local anesthesia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:e11-3 pubmed
    ..We present a new retraction technique for the intraoral injection of a local anesthetic. This approach eliminates the hazards associated with needle-stick injuries during the injection procedure. ..
  3. Primosch R, Brooks R. Influence of anesthetic flow rate delivered by the Wand Local Anesthetic System on pain response to palatal injections. Am J Dent. 2002;15:15-20 pubmed
    ..Contrary to the manufacturer's claim, the WLAS reduced but did not eliminate pain elicited by palatal injections in some patients. ..
  4. Thygesen T, Bardow A, Norholt S, Jensen J, Svensson P. Surgical risk factors and maxillary nerve function after Le Fort I osteotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to describe prospectively the overall postoperative changes in maxillary nerve function after LFO, and to correlate these changes with a number of possible intraoperative risk factors.
  5. Rosenberg E. A computer-controlled anesthetic delivery system in a periodontal practice: patient satisfaction and acceptance. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2002;14:39-46 pubmed
  6. Methathrathip D, Apinhasmit W, Chompoopong S, Lertsirithong A, Ariyawatkul T, Sangvichien S. Anatomy of greater palatine foramen and canal and pterygopalatine fossa in Thais: considerations for maxillary nerve block. Surg Radiol Anat. 2005;27:511-6 pubmed
    ..greater palatine canal (GPC) and pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) with special reference to the blockage of the maxillary nerve. A correlation between the length of GPC and PPF and the heights of the orbit and the maxilla was also ..
  7. Ram D, Kassirer J. Assessment of a palatal approach-anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA) nerve block with the Wand in paediatric dental patients. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006;16:348-51 pubmed
    ..They did not scratch the upper lip/nose and/or cried after treatment when they received the PDLi and the P-ASA, whereas they did when receiving a CBi. ..
  8. Blanton P, Jeske A. Dental local anesthetics: alternative delivery methods. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:228-34 pubmed
    ..Alternative local anesthetic delivery systems may offer some advantages over conventional techniques in certain situations, although the costs may outweigh the advantages in certain cases. ..
  9. Rath E. Surgical treatment of maxillary nerve injuries. The infraorbital nerve. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2001;9:31-41 pubmed
    ..In specific instances, improvement in ION sensory function or alleviation of pain within the distribution of the ION can be expected...

More Information


  1. Imamura Y, Kawamoto H, Nakanishi O. Characterization of heat-hyperalgesia in an experimental trigeminal neuropathy in rats. Exp Brain Res. 1997;116:97-103 pubmed
    ..The hyperalgesia is seen both ipsi- and contralateral to the side of nerve injury, but is significantly more severe ipsilaterally, and lasts about 12 days. ..
  2. Friedman M, Hochman M. Using AMSA and P-ASA nerve blocks for esthetic restorative dentistry. Gen Dent. 2001;49:506-11 pubmed
    ..Although safety and efficacy studies are only beginning to emerge, these injections appear to be useful additions to local anesthetic techniques, especially when anterior esthetic restorative procedures are being performed. ..
  3. Lee S, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) injection. Anesth Prog. 2004;51:80-9 pubmed
  4. Allen K, Kotil D, Larzelere R, Hutfless S, Beiraghi S. Comparison of a computerized anesthesia device with a traditional syringe in preschool children. Pediatr Dent. 2002;24:315-20 pubmed
  5. Fukayama H, Yoshikawa F, Kohase H, Umino M, Suzuki N. Efficacy of anterior and middle superior alveolar (AMSA) anesthesia using a new injection system: the Wand. Quintessence Int. 2003;34:537-41 pubmed
    ..AMSA injection using the Wand method seems to avoid severe injection pain and seems to be very effective for pulpal anesthesia at lateral incisors, canines, and premolars. ..
  6. Tubbs R, Loukas M, May W, Cohen Gadol A. A variation of the infraorbital nerve: its potential clinical consequence especially in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: case report. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:onsE315; discussion onsE315 pubmed publisher
    ..nerve is also relevant for application of local anesthesia to portions of the face innervated by the maxillary nerve. During cadaveric dissection of the face of a male specimen, 2 branches of the infraorbital nerve were ..
  7. Omoti A, Omoti C. Maxillary herpes zoster with corneal involvement in a HIV positive pregnant woman. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007;11:133-6 pubmed
    ..She was HIV positive and was on treatment with the highly active antiretroviral therapy. She was treated with topical and systemic acyclovir with rapid resolution of the ocular features...
  8. Ashkenazi M, Blumer S, Eli I. Effectiveness of various modes of computerized delivery of local anesthesia in primary maxillary molars. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28:29-38 pubmed
    ..All procedures achieved anesthesia effectiveness (86%), with no differences between primary maxillary first and second molars. ..
  9. Genese J. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for facial numbness and pain after whiplash injury. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2013;113:564-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal portion of the cranium played a major role in the strain on the maxillary. ..
  10. Aggarwal V, Singla M, Miglani S, Ansari I, Kohli S. A prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod. 2011;37:1491-4 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the tested methods gave 100% anesthetic success rates in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. ..
  11. Gao L, Huang X. [The progress of research about anatomy of posterolateral wall of maxillary sinus in endoscopic surgery]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2015;29:2181-4 pubmed
    ..of maxillary sinus can help to locate numbers of significant signs such as maxillary artery and its branches, maxillary nerve and infraorbital nerve, infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa etc...
  12. Juriloff D, Harris M, Miller J, Jacobson D, Martin P. Is Far a Hox mutation?. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1992;12:119-29 pubmed
    ..origin of the most consistently expressed dominant effect caused by Far, an abnormal major bifurcation of the maxillary nerve. Nerve-stained whole-mount preparations of day 12 embryos showed that in Far mutants the maxillary nerve ..
  13. Magliocca K, Kessel N, Cortright G. Transient diplopia following maxillary local anesthetic injection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:730-3 pubmed
    ..Complete resolution occurred within 3 hours. The clinical examination and management plan are reviewed for this uncommon occurrence. The relevant anatomical pathways are discussed and illustrated with photographs. ..
  14. Kimi H, Yamashiro M, Hashimoto S. The local pharmacokinetics of ³H-ropivacaine and ¹?C-lidocaine after maxillary infiltration anesthesia in rats. Anesth Prog. 2012;59:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The animals were sacrificed at various times and the maxillas were removed. The palatal mucosa and maxillary nerve were resected, and the bone was divided into 6 portions...
  15. Yoshida S, Kawai T, Asaumi R, Miwa Y, Imura K, Koseki H, et al. Evaluation of the blood and nerve supply patterns in the molar region of the maxillary sinus in Japanese cadavers. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2010;87:129-33 pubmed
    ..9%, 2/34). CBCT is the most accurate tool to evaluate important anatomical parameters, such as the distance of the blood supply, for the implant of grafts in the floor of the MS during surgical procedures. ..
  16. Decima E, Prchal A, Dürig F. Blockage of vibrissae afferents: II. Footshock threshold increments. Arch Ital Biol. 2004;142:25-33 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in reference to the tonic or level-setting function of afferent systems. ..
  17. Bahl R. Local anesthesia in dentistry. Anesth Prog. 2004;51:138-42 pubmed
  18. Michot B, Bourgoin S, Viguier F, Hamon M, Kayser V. Differential effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor blockade by olcegepant on mechanical allodynia induced by ligation of the infraorbital nerve vs the sciatic nerve in the rat. Pain. 2012;153:1939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CGRP receptor blockade might be of potential interest to alleviate trigeminal neuropathic pain. ..
  19. Kamitani T, Kuroiwa Y, Hidaka M. Isolated hypesthesia in the right V2 and V3 dermatomes after a midpontine infarction localised at an ipsilateral principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1508-9 pubmed
  20. Zhang H, Zhang Q, Wei Y, Zhang Z, Li S, Ren W. [Approach to the maxillary sinus, the peterygopalatofossa for resecting maxillary nerve under the endoscopy]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2004;18:80-1 pubmed
    ..All patients were treated through the maxillary sinus, the peterygopalatofossa for resecting maxillary nerve with endoscopic surgery...
  21. Cho J, Kim J, Lee J, Yoon J. Sphenoid sinus pneumatization and its relation to bulging of surrounding neurovascular structures. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:646-50 pubmed
    ..Bulging and dehiscence of the internal carotid artery (ICA), optic nerve, maxillary nerve, and vidian nerve were examined, and the distances between these structures and the anterior or superior wall ..
  22. Luiz A, Schroeder S, Chichorro J, Calixto J, Zampronio A, Rae G. Kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors contribute to orofacial heat hyperalgesia induced by infraorbital nerve constriction injury in mice and rats. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Perhaps kinin B(1) and B(2) receptor antagonists might constitute effective preventive and curative treatments for orofacial thermal hyperalgesia induced by nerve injury. ..
  23. Prchal A, Albarracín A, Decima E. Blockage of vibrissae afferents: I. Motor effects. Arch Ital Biol. 2004;142:11-23 pubmed
    ..These data are discussed in reference to a tonic or general excitatory function of sensory inputs upon the central nervous system. ..
  24. Oomen K, Ebbeling M, de Ru J, Hordijk G, Bleys R. A previously undescribed branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25:50-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Because it is likely that the nerve contains sensory fibers, our findings may provide an anatomic basis for unexplained pain relief in the ophthalmic area after PPG blockage. ..
  25. Wanzeler A, Marinho C, Alves Junior S, Manzi F, Tuji F. Anatomical study of the canalis sinuosus in 100 cone beam computed tomography examinations. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;19:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..0303). In the sample, CS was frequent and similar in both genders, with course distance to the alveolar bone crest and termination in different locations that ought to be analyzed on CBCT prior to surgical procedures. ..
  26. Nakai K, Nakae A, Oba S, Mashimo T, Ueda K. P2X4 receptor expression in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Neuroreport. 2010;21:559-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunostaining showed that macrophages are the source of P2X4R. Our results suggest that the expression of P2X4R in our model is modulated not by neuropathic pain, but by slight nerve injury. ..
  27. Manhães Júnior L, Villaça Carvalho M, Moraes M, Lopes S, Silva M, Junqueira J. Location and classification of Canalis sinuosus for cone beam computed tomography: avoiding misdiagnosis. Braz Oral Res. 2016;30:e49 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the location of the CS varies in relation to the alveolar ridge crest and buccal cortical bone, assuming that it is going to be located by the upper lateral incisor palatine. ..
  28. Mesnil M, Dadure C, Captier G, Raux O, Rochette A, Canaud N, et al. A new approach for peri-operative analgesia of cleft palate repair in infants: the bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary aim of this prospective and descriptive study was to observe the effectiveness of bilateral maxillary nerve blocks (BMB) using a suprazygomatic approach on pain relief and consumption of rescue analgesics following CP ..
  29. Sandulescu M, Rusu M, Ciobanu I, Ilie A, Jianu A. More actors, different play: sphenoethmoid cell intimately related to the maxillary nerve canal and cavernous sinus apex. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2011;52:931-5 pubmed
    ..overriding the superior aspect of the sphenoid but also its lateral side to get intimately related to the maxillary nerve. As that SEC expanded medially to the cavernous sinus apex, it altered the usual endosinusal morphological ..
  30. Budenz A. Local anesthetics in dentistry: then and now. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003;31:388-96 pubmed
    ..General guidelines for addressing difficulties encountered in anesthetizing patients are also discussed. ..
  31. Miller J, Davila J, Hodges J, Tulkki M, Vayda P. Effect of surgical denervation on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:620-6 pubmed
    ..differences in orthodontic tooth movement between rats treated with and without surgical transection of the maxillary nerve. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: (1) those with surgical transection of the ..
  32. Warman M, Halperin D. [Varicella zoster virus infection involving the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve]. Harefuah. 2007;146:89-91, 167 pubmed
    ..The maxillary nerve is the least frequently affected branch of the trigeminal nerve and only rarely causes ocular injury...
  33. Chichorro J, Zampronio A, Souza G, Rae G. Orofacial cold hyperalgesia due to infraorbital nerve constriction injury in rats: reversal by endothelin receptor antagonists but not non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pain. 2006;123:64-74 pubmed
    ..If this CION injury model bears predictive value to trigeminal neuralgia (i.e., paroxysmal orofacial pain triggered by various stimuli), endothelin receptors might constitute new targets for treatment of this disorder. ..
  34. Alix T, Boutet C, Caquant L, Mohammedi R, Barral F, Seguin P. [Intracranial spread of a melanoma of the face: the trigeminal pathway]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2008;109:172-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The intracranial evolution of cutaneous melanoma is usually due to metastases. Neurotropic invasion mainly concerns the trigeminal and the facial nerves. The melanoma is a rare entity among neurotropic tumors...
  35. Chrcanovic B, Custódio A. Anatomical variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:109-13 pubmed
    ..Our results would help clinicians locate the greater palatine foramen in patients with and without upper molars. ..
  36. Koumoura F, Papageorgiou G. Diplopia as a complication of local anesthesia: a case report. Quintessence Int. 2001;32:232-4 pubmed
    ..Possible causes of the anesthetic effects are reported. The most accepted explanation is that the anesthetic diffuses on the abducent nerve in the cavernous sinus. The necessary actions that the dental surgeon must perform are reported. ..
  37. Tan H, Ong Y. Sphenoid sinus: an anatomic and endoscopic study in Asian cadavers. Clin Anat. 2007;20:745-50 pubmed
    ..The incidence of accessory septae, carotid artery, optic nerve, maxillary nerve, and vidian nerve bulges were 70.8%, 67.7%, 69.8%, 61.5%, and 64.6%, respectively...
  38. Ogle O, Mahjoubi G. Local anesthesia: agents, techniques, and complications. Dent Clin North Am. 2012;56:133-48, ix pubmed publisher
    ..The techniques for the administration of local anesthetics with the relevant anatomy are explained. An overview is given of the possible complications that can occur because of local anesthetic use and their possible treatment options. ..
  39. Singh P. Root canal complications: 'the hypochlorite accident'. SADJ. 2010;65:416-9 pubmed
    ..It is important to minimize the risk of sodium-hypochlorite-induced damage during root canal therapy by use of protective measures, appropriate instrumentation and techniques, and consider alternate irrigation solutions. ..
  40. Shiokawa Y, Delgado Zygmunt T, Arbab M, Svendgaard N. Effect of pre- and postganglionic lesioning of the trigeminal nerve on cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in the squirrel monkey. Br J Neurosurg. 1992;6:211-25 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that the trigeminal system is involved in the regulation of cerebral metabolism via a brainstem centre. ..
  41. Corbett I, Jaber A, Whitworth J, Meechan J. A comparison of the anterior middle superior alveolar nerve block and infraorbital nerve block for anesthesia of maxillary anterior teeth. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141:1442-8 pubmed
    ..The IONB and AMSA nerve block produced similar levels of injection discomfort. ..
  42. Nortje C. General practitioner's radiology case 60. Herpes zoster infection. SADJ. 2008;63:048 pubmed
  43. Ishikawa H, Ezure H, Goto N, Kamiyama A, Yanai T. Morphometric difference in the human maxillary nerve fibers between dentulous and edentulous jaw subjects. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2005;81:129-34 pubmed
    This study was conducted to quantify the change in the number and size of myelinated nerve fibers of the maxillary nerve with tooth loss in humans...
  44. Prado F, Groppo F, Volpato M, Caria P. Morphological changes in the position of the mandibular foramen in dentate and edentate Brazilian subjects. Clin Anat. 2010;23:394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mandibular foramen position changes with loss of teeth and this variability may be responsible for occasional failure of inferior alveolar nerve block. ..
  45. Siqueira S, Nóbrega J, Teixeira M, Siqueira J. Olfactory threshold increase in trigeminal neuralgia after balloon compression. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;108:721-5 pubmed
    ..048). We concluded that injured trigeminal fibers are probably associated with the increase in the olfactory threshold after the surgery, supporting the sensorial interaction theory. ..
  46. Unal B, Bademci G, Bilgili Y, Batay F, Avci E. Risky anatomic variations of sphenoid sinus for surgery. Surg Radiol Anat. 2006;28:195-201 pubmed
    ..or internal carotid artery; protrusions and dehiscences of the walls of internal carotid artery, optic nerve, maxillary nerve and vidian nerve; extreme medial course of internal carotid artery; patterns of aeration of the anterior ..
  47. Liu W, Møller M. Innervation of the rat pineal gland by PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers originating in the trigeminal ganglion: a degeneration study. Cell Tissue Res. 2000;301:369-73 pubmed
    ..This research provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that PACAP-immunoreactive nerves regulate the synthesis and/or secretion of melatonin in the pineal gland. ..
  48. Carrier S, Castagneyrol B, Beylacq L, Nouette Gaulain K, Montaudon M, Laurentjoye M. Anatomical landmarks for maxillary nerve block in the pterygopalatine fossa: A radiological study. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;118:90-94 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical landmarks for maxillary nerve block in the pterygopalatine fossa. The risk of injury to the skull base and maxillary artery was assessed...
  49. Türk Börü U, Duman A, Bölük C, Coşkun Duman S, Taşdemir M. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: 6-Month follow-up. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8133 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection to the maxillary and mandibular roots seems to be a highly effective method. In the event of recurrence, after each injection, the pain severity and attack frequency decreased. ..
  50. Dia Tine S, Tamba B, Gassama B, Niang P, Dia L, Kébé Ndèye F, et al. [Clinical and therapeutic aspects of trigeminal neuralgia. Apropos of 27 cases treated at the General Hospital of Grand-Yoffin Dakar]. Odontostomatol Trop. 2009;32:5-12 pubmed
    ..The alcoholization of the trigeminal nerve remains an effective cure and constitutes an accessible alternative under our work conditions in Africa. ..
  51. Al Amoudi N, Feda M, Sharaf A, Hanno A, Farsi N. Assessment of the anesthetic effectiveness of anterior and middle superior alveolar injection using a computerized device versus traditional technique in children. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2008;33:97-102 pubmed
    ..No significant difference was found between first and second primary molars in the effectiveness of both techniques. The AMSA injection using CCLAD was found to be effective in children. ..
  52. Freire M, Franca J, Picanço Diniz C, Pereira A. Neuropil reactivity, distribution and morphology of NADPH diaphorase type I neurons in the barrel cortex of the adult mouse. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;30:71-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results show a distribution of type I cells which is very similar to that previously described for the rat's barrel field. ..
  53. Muske L, Fernald R. Control of a teleost social signal. I. Neural basis for differential expression of a color pattern. J Comp Physiol A. 1987;160:89-97 pubmed
    ..The eyebar melanophores are controlled by a specialized branch of the maxillary nerve. Lesioning the 'eyebar nerve' resulted in immediate melanin dispersion and consequent darkening of the eyebar ..