trigeminal nerve


Summary: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.

Top Publications

  1. Cook I, Espinoza R, Leuchter A. Neuromodulation for depression: invasive and noninvasive (deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, trigeminal nerve stimulation). Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014;25:103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..update readers on 3 particular interventions: deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and trigeminal nerve stimulation...
  2. Yekta S, Smeets R, Stein J, Ellrich J. Assessment of trigeminal nerve functions by quantitative sensory testing in patients and healthy volunteers. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:2437-51 pubmed publisher
    ..QST might be useful in the diagnosis of inferior alveolar nerve disorders in patients. In dentistry, the monitoring of afferent nerve fiber functions by QST might support decisions on further interventions. ..
  3. Wolford L, Rodrigues D. Autogenous grafts/allografts/conduits for bridging peripheral trigeminal nerve gaps. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2011;19:91-107 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more research studies using these materials for TN repairs are essential to validate the superiority of these procedures. ..
  4. Wang Y, Chang R, Liman E. TRPA1 is a component of the nociceptive response to CO2. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12958-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TRPA1, by sensing intracellular acidification, constitutes an important component of the nociceptive response to CO(2)...
  5. Matsuda S, Nagano O, Serizawa T, Higuchi Y, Ono J. Trigeminal nerve dysfunction after Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: a detailed analysis. J Neurosurg. 2010;113 Suppl:184-90 pubmed
    ..The incidence of trigeminal nerve dysfunction, such as facial numbness or dysesthesia, has been reported to be higher than previously published,..
  6. Jeon H, Han S, Lim K, Won K, Bae Y, Ahn D. Intracisternal administration of NR2 subunit antagonists attenuates the nociceptive behavior and p-p38 MAPK expression produced by compression of the trigeminal nerve root. Mol Pain. 2011;7:46 pubmed publisher the modulation of nociceptive behavior and p-p38 MAPK expression in a rat model with compression of the trigeminal nerve root...
  7. Luo D, Zhang T, Zuo C, Zuo Z, Li H, Wu S, et al. An animal model for trigeminal neuralgia by compression of the trigeminal nerve root. Pain Physician. 2012;15:187-96 pubmed
    Microvascular compression of the trigeminal nerve root is a major cause of most trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in patients; however, no reliable animal model to further study the pathogenesis of TN currently exists.
  8. Freire R, Dunston E, Fowler E, McKenzie G, Quinn C, Michelsen J. Conditioned response to a magnetic anomaly in the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) involves the trigeminal nerve. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:2399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..The trigeminal nerve was anaesthetised by injection of lignocaine hydrochloride 2-3 mm caudal to the medial canthus of each eye, ..
  9. DeGiorgio C, Soss J, Cook I, Markovic D, Gornbein J, Murray D, et al. Randomized controlled trial of trigeminal nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy. Neurology. 2013;80:786-91 pubmed publisher
    To explore the safety and efficacy of external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) using a double-blind randomized controlled trial design, and to test the suitability of treatment and ..

More Information


  1. Hillerup S, Jensen R, Ersbøll B. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142:531-9 pubmed
    ..Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations for block anesthesia in the trigeminal area in cases in which there are viable alternatives. ..
  2. Kopp C, Fauser C, Muller A, Astner S, Jacob V, Lumenta C, et al. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy and LINAC radiosurgery in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma-report about both stereotactic methods from a single institution. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1485-91 pubmed publisher
    ..1 months. Hearing function was preserved after RS in 85% of the patients and after SFR in 79%. Facial and trigeminal nerve function remained mostly unaffected after SFR...
  3. Park J, Lee S, Kim S. Pharmacologic management of trigeminal nerve injury pain after dental implant surgery. Int J Prosthodont. 2010;23:342-6 pubmed
    Injuries to the trigeminal nerve are a common postoperative complication of dental implant surgery...
  4. Haehner A, Gruenewald G, DiBenedetto M, Hummel T. Responses to olfactory and intranasal trigeminal stimuli: relation to the respiratory cycle. Neuroscience. 2011;175:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate on an electrophysiological level that there is priming of both olfactory and trigeminally mediated sensations in relation to the respiratory cycle. ..
  5. An J, He Y, Qian X, Wu J, Xie Y, Guo Q, et al. A new animal model of trigeminal neuralgia produced by administration of cobra venom to the infraorbital nerve in the rat. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:652-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The cobra venom model may provide a reasonable model for investigating the mechanism of trigeminal neuropathic pain. ..
  6. Kim M, Shin H, Won K, Yang K, Ju J, Park Y, et al. Progesterone produces antinociceptive and neuroprotective effects in rats with microinjected lysophosphatidic acid in the trigeminal nerve root. Mol Pain. 2012;8:16 pubmed publisher
    In our present study, we studied the role of demyelination of the trigeminal nerve root in the development of prolonged nociceptive behavior in the trigeminal territory...
  7. Hellinger J, Hoffmann K. Magnetic field perception in the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss: magnetite mediated, light dependent or both?. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2012;198:593-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve by local anaesthesia revealed its role in the perception of intensity/inclination of the magnetic field by ..
  8. Heyers D, Zapka M, Hoffmeister M, Wild J, Mouritsen H. Magnetic field changes activate the trigeminal brainstem complex in a migratory bird. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9394-9 pubmed publisher
    ..contains putative magnetosensory ferro-magnetic structures, is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1)...
  9. Moulton E, Pendse G, Morris S, Aiello Lammens M, Becerra L, Borsook D. Segmentally arranged somatotopy within the face representation of human primary somatosensory cortex. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30:757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..sites were arranged in a vertical, horizontal, and circular manner encompassing the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve. To minimize inter-individual morphological differences in the post-central gyrus across subjects, cortical ..
  10. Guarneros M, Hummel T, Martínez Gómez M, Hudson R. Mexico City air pollution adversely affects olfactory function and intranasal trigeminal sensitivity. Chem Senses. 2009;34:819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Mexico City air pollution impairs olfactory function and intranasal trigeminal sensitivity, even in otherwise healthy young adults. ..
  11. Park C, Kim K, Jung S, Kim M, Ahn D, Hong S, et al. Molecular mechanism for local anesthetic action of eugenol in the rat trigeminal system. Pain. 2009;144:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol may serve as local anesthetics for other pathological pain conditions in addition to its wide use in dental clinic. ..
  12. Pollock B. Radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: is sensory disturbance required for pain relief?. J Neurosurg. 2006;105 Suppl:103-6 pubmed
  13. Rombaux P, Mouraux A, Bertrand B, Guerit J, Hummel T. Assessment of olfactory and trigeminal function using chemosensory event-related potentials. Neurophysiol Clin. 2006;36:53-62 pubmed
    ..Chemosensory ERPs were obtained after stimulation of the olfactory nerve (olfactory ERPs) or the trigeminal nerve (somatosensory or trigeminal ERPs)...
  14. Zapka M, Heyers D, Hein C, Engels S, Schneider N, Hans J, et al. Visual but not trigeminal mediation of magnetic compass information in a migratory bird. Nature. 2009;461:1274-7 pubmed publisher detected by magnetoreceptors in the upper beak and transmitted through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve to the brain...
  15. Rombaux P, Bertrand B, Keller T, Mouraux A. Clinical significance of olfactory event-related potentials related to orthonasal and retronasal olfactory testing. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1096-101 pubmed
    ..Interpretation of both orthonasal and retronasal psychophysical olfactory testing should be supported by the recording of OERPs in a clinical setting. ..
  16. Truini A, Galeotti F, Pennisi E, Casa F, Biasiotta A, Cruccu G. Trigeminal small-fibre function assessed with contact heat evoked potentials in humans. Pain. 2007;132:102-7 pubmed
    ..Contact heat stimulation, as well as laser stimulation, easily yields large-amplitude brain potentials and nociceptive reflexes, both related to the Adelta input. However CHEPs are not suitable for C-fibres potentials recording. ..
  17. Lampl C, Huber G, Haas S, Rittberger E, Diener H. Difference in triptan effect in patients with migraine and early allodynia. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:1031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The study results indicate that migraine headache intensity can be reduced within 1 h by using zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray in spite of the presence of early cutaneous allodynia. ..
  18. Bensafi M, Iannilli E, Gerber J, Hummel T. Neural coding of stimulus concentration in the human olfactory and intranasal trigeminal systems. Neuroscience. 2008;154:832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest separate but overlapping neural networks involved in encoding stimulus intensity in the two chemosensory systems. ..
  19. Forssell H, Tenovuo O, Silvoniemi P, Jääskeläinen S. Differences and similarities between atypical facial pain and trigeminal neuropathic pain. Neurology. 2007;69:1451-9 pubmed
    ..Without detailed neurophysiologic and quantitative sensory examinations, neuropathic cause of chronic orofacial pain may be overlooked. ..
  20. Gulbransen B, Silver W, Finger T. Solitary chemoreceptor cell survival is independent of intact trigeminal innervation. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..2003] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8981-8986). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al...
  21. Gagliardo A, Ioalè P, Savini M, Wild M. Navigational abilities of adult and experienced homing pigeons deprived of olfactory or trigeminally mediated magnetic information. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..and conditioning experiments have suggested that magnetoreceptors innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve are located in the upper beak of homing pigeons...
  22. Tizzano M, Gulbransen B, Vandenbeuch A, Clapp T, Herman J, Sibhatu H, et al. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa...
  23. Hillerup S. Iatrogenic injury to oral branches of the trigeminal nerve: records of 449 cases. Clin Oral Investig. 2007;11:133-42 pubmed
    The aims of this study were threefold: (1) to describe iatrogenic lesions to oral branches of the trigeminal nerve, signs and symptoms, and functional status, (2) to report on a simple neurosensory examination method, and (3) to discuss ..
  24. Silver W, Clapp T, Stone L, Kinnamon S. TRPV1 receptors and nasal trigeminal chemesthesis. Chem Senses. 2006;31:807-12 pubmed
    The trigeminal nerve responds to a wide variety of irritants...
  25. Boesveldt S, Haehner A, Berendse H, Hummel T. Signal-to-noise ratio of chemosensory event-related potentials. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:690-5 pubmed
    ..An optimal S/N ratio is essential when recording CSERP in neurodegenerative disorders, where responses may be of low amplitude, and for medico-legal purposes. ..
  26. Lin W, Ezekwe E, Zhao Z, Liman E, Restrepo D. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:114 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons and nasal solitary chemosensory cells. ..
  27. Sindou M, Leston J, Decullier E, Chapuis F. Microvascular decompression for primary trigeminal neuralgia: long-term effectiveness and prognostic factors in a series of 362 consecutive patients with clear-cut neurovascular conflicts who underwent pure decompression. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:1144-53 pubmed
    ..with a clear-cut neurovascular conflict (vascular contact and/or compression of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve) found at surgery and treated with "pure" MVD (decompression of the root without any additional ..
  28. Iannilli E, Gerber J, Frasnelli J, Hummel T. Intranasal trigeminal function in subjects with and without an intact sense of smell. Brain Res. 2007;1139:235-44 pubmed
    ..To investigate the cerebral processing of sensory information from the trigeminal nerve in detail we studied subjects with and without olfactory function using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
  29. Brocard F, Verdier D, Arsenault I, Lund J, Kolta A. Emergence of intrinsic bursting in trigeminal sensory neurons parallels the acquisition of mastication in weanling rats. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:2410-24 pubmed
    ..Lowering extracellular [Ca(2+)] increased both I(NaP) and probability of bursting. We suggest that these mechanisms underlie burst generation in mastication and that similar processes may be found in other motor pattern generators. ..
  30. Meng Q, Yang Y, Zhou M, Li X. Trigemino-cardiac reflex: the trigeminal depressor responses during skull base surgery. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:662-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1) Manipulation at or near the trigeminal nerve during the skull base surgery may cause TCR, even if premedication with anticholinergic drug is used; (2) ..
  31. Lombion S, Comte A, Tatu L, Brand G, Moulin T, Millot J. Patterns of cerebral activation during olfactory and trigeminal stimulations. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30:821-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are discussed in relation to the characteristics of these odorants compared with those tested in previous studies. ..
  32. Busch V, Jakob W, Juergens T, Schulte Mattler W, Kaube H, May A. Occipital nerve blockade in chronic cluster headache patients and functional connectivity between trigeminal and occipital nerves. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:1206-14 pubmed
  33. De Marinis M, Pujia A, Colaizzo E, Accornero N. The blink reflex in "chronic migraine". Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:457-63 pubmed
    ..The blink reflex and its habituation may help shed light on the subtle neurophysiological changes that occur in migraine patients between and during attacks. ..
  34. Cohen A, Matharu M, Goadsby P. Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) or cranial autonomic features (SUNA)--a prospective clinical study of SUNCT and SUNA. Brain. 2006;129:2746-60 pubmed
  35. Frasnelli J, Schuster B, Hummel T. Interactions between olfaction and the trigeminal system: what can be learned from olfactory loss. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2268-75 pubmed
    The olfactory and the trigeminal systems have a close relationship. Most odorants also stimulate the trigeminal nerve. Further, subjects with no sense of smell exhibit a decreased trigeminal sensitivity with unclear underlying mechanisms...
  36. Giniatullin R, Nistri A, Fabbretti E. Molecular mechanisms of sensitization of pain-transducing P2X3 receptors by the migraine mediators CGRP and NGF. Mol Neurobiol. 2008;37:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The different time domains of P2X3 receptor modulation by NGF and CGRP suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of novel antimigraine drugs depends on the time of administration. ..
  37. Rombaux P, Mouraux A, Collet S, Eloy P, Bertrand B. Usefulness and feasibility of psychophysical and electrophysiological olfactory testing in the rhinology clinic. Rhinology. 2009;47:28-35 pubmed
    ..Olfactory acuity assessment should be based on psychophysical and CSERPs evaluation in a clinical setting. ..
  38. Magis D, Allena M, Bolla M, De Pasqua V, Remacle J, Schoenen J. Occipital nerve stimulation for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache: a prospective pilot study. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:314-21 pubmed
    ..The delay of 2 months or more between implantation and significant clinical improvement suggests that the procedure acts via slow neuromodulatory processes at the level of upper brain stem or diencephalic centres. ..
  39. Goadsby P. Recent advances in understanding migraine mechanisms, molecules and therapeutics. Trends Mol Med. 2007;13:39-44 pubmed
    ..These data lead to the view that migraine is a form of sensory dysmodulatio--a system failure of normal sensory processing. ..
  40. Oury F, Murakami Y, Renaud J, Pasqualetti M, Charnay P, Ren S, et al. Hoxa2- and rhombomere-dependent development of the mouse facial somatosensory map. Science. 2006;313:1408-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, early Hoxa2 expression in neuroepithelium prevents the trigeminal nerve from ectopically projecting to the cerebellum, whereas late expression in the principal sensory nucleus ..
  41. Ohmoto M, Matsumoto I, Yasuoka A, Yoshihara Y, Abe K. Genetic tracing of the gustatory and trigeminal neural pathways originating from T1R3-expressing taste receptor cells and solitary chemoreceptor cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the t1r3-WGA transgenic mice revealed the sweet/umami gustatory pathways from taste receptor cells and the trigeminal neural pathway from solitary chemoreceptor cells...
  42. Schurks M, Diener H. Migraine, allodynia, and implications for treatment. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:1279-85 pubmed
    ..Regardless--based on available randomized controlled trials--the recommendation prevails to initiate abortive treatment as soon as possible after attack onset when pain is still mild. ..
  43. Xu M, Aita M, Chavkin C. Partial infraorbital nerve ligation as a model of trigeminal nerve injury in the mouse: behavioral, neural, and glial reactions. J Pain. 2008;9:1036-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Trigeminal nerve damage often leads to chronic pain syndromes including trigeminal neuralgia, a severely debilitating chronic orofacial pain syndrome...
  44. Marinkovic S, Todorovic V, Gibo H, Budec M, Drndarevic N, Pesić D, et al. The trigeminal vasculature pathology in patients with neuralgia. Headache. 2007;47:1334-9 pubmed
    ..The observed pathological changes of the trigeminal vasculature could be the primary factor, while demyelination of the trigeminal nerve fibers could be the secondary process in some patients with neuralgia.
  45. Bensafi M, Frasnelli J, Reden J, Hummel T. The neural representation of odor is modulated by the presence of a trigeminal stimulus during odor encoding. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:696-701 pubmed
    ..The neural representation of odors comprises not only the odor itself but also contextual information (trigeminal in the present case) presented during encoding. ..
  46. Gorgulho A, De Salles A, McArthur D, Agazaryan N, Medin P, Solberg T, et al. Brainstem and trigeminal nerve changes after radiosurgery for trigeminal pain. Surg Neurol. 2006;66:127-35; discussion 135 pubmed
    ..Pons volume irradiated did not predict enhancement occurrence. Radiation delivery to the brainstem-REZ interface seems to improve pain outcome, although more paresthesias should be expected. ..
  47. Williams M, Bazina R, Tan L, Rice H, Broadley S. Microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve in the treatment of SUNCT and SUNA. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:992-6 pubmed publisher
    ..medical treatment and had an aberrant arterial loop either in contact with or compressing the appropriate trigeminal nerve demonstrated on MRI...
  48. Lobato Polo J, Kondziolka D, Zorro O, Kano H, Flickinger J, Lunsford L. Gamma knife radiosurgery in younger patients with vestibular schwannomas. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:294-300; discussion 300-1 pubmed publisher
    ..017). At the last assessment, facial and trigeminal nerve function was preserved in 98.2% and 96...
  49. Miller J, Acar F, Hamilton B, Burchiel K. Radiographic evaluation of trigeminal neurovascular compression in patients with and without trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2009;110:627-32 pubmed publisher
    Neurovascular compression (NVC) of the trigeminal nerve is associated with trigeminal neuralgia (TN), but also occurs in many patients without facial pain...
  50. Watson J. From paroxysmal to chronic pain in trigeminal neuralgia: implications of central sensitization. Neurology. 2007;69:817-8 pubmed
  51. Boyle J, Heinke M, Gerber J, Frasnelli J, Hummel T. Cerebral activation to intranasal chemosensory trigeminal stimulation. Chem Senses. 2007;32:343-53 pubmed
    ..The overlapping pattern of cortical activation for trigeminal and olfactory stimuli is assumed to be due to the intimate connections in the processing of information from the 2 major intranasal chemosensory systems. ..
  52. Thorat J, Hwang P. Peculiar geometric alopecia and trigeminal nerve dysfunction in a patient after Guglielmi detachable coil embolization of a ruptured aneurysm. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;16:40-2 pubmed
    ..We present a case with a delayed onset of a graphic but peculiar geometric alopecia associated with trigeminal nerve pattern dysfunction, which was related to the fluoroscopic radiation for coil embolization of an anterior ..
  53. Lovati C, D AMICO D, Rosa S, Suardelli M, Mailland E, Bertora P, et al. Allodynia in different forms of migraine. Neurol Sci. 2007;28 Suppl 2:S220-1 pubmed
    ..This observation may suggest that both frequency of attacks and presence of aura episodes may contribute to induce changes in neuronal activation threshold thought to sustain allodynia. ..