cranial nerves


Summary: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.

Top Publications

  1. Guthrie S. Patterning and axon guidance of cranial motor neurons. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007;8:859-71 pubmed
    ..The recent identification of genes that are mutated in human cranial dysinnervation disorders is now shedding light on the functional consequences of perturbations of cranial motor neuron development. ..
  2. Borges A, Casselman J. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts. Eur Radiol. 2007;17:2332-44 pubmed provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that ..
  3. Hoshino H, Uchida T, Otsuki T, Kawamoto S, Okubo K, Takeichi M, et al. Cornichon-like protein facilitates secretion of HB-EGF and regulates proper development of cranial nerves. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1143-52 pubmed
    ..This phenotype closely resembled that of ErbB4 knockout mouse embryos. Because HB-EGF was uniformly expressed in the embryonic hindbrain, CNIL seems to confine the site of HB-EGF action to r3 and r5 in concert with ErbB4. ..
  4. Schuff M, Rössner A, Wacker S, Donow C, Gessert S, Knöchel W. FoxN3 is required for craniofacial and eye development of Xenopus laevis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:226-39 pubmed Xenopus laevis, leads to an abnormal formation of the jaw cartilage, absence or malformation of distinct cranial nerves, and reduced size of the eye...
  5. Cavalcanti D, Garcia Gonzalez U, Agrawal A, Tavares P, Spetzler R, Preul M. A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle. World Neurosurg. 2010;74:188-94 pubmed publisher
    The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches. Prompt recognition of these structures using basic landmarks could reduce surgical time and morbidity...
  6. Meek M, Coert J. US Food and Drug Administration /Conformit Europe- approved absorbable nerve conduits for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;60:466-72 pubmed the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformit Europe (CE) for clinical repair of peripheral and cranial nerves . Surgeons are often not aware of the different(bio) materials of these conduits when performing nerve repair...
  7. Hofling A, Kim J, Fantz C, Sands M, Song S. Diffusion tensor imaging detects axonal injury and demyelination in the spinal cord and cranial nerves of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy. NMR Biomed. 2009;22:1100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This first reported application of spinal cord DTI in the setting of GLD holds potential as a noninvasive, quantitative assay of therapeutic efficacy in future treatment studies...
  8. Hatakeyama J, Sakamoto S, Kageyama R. Hes1 and Hes5 regulate the development of the cranial and spinal nerve systems. Dev Neurosci. 2006;28:92-101 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hes1 and Hes5 play an important role in the formation of the cranial and spinal nerve systems. ..
  9. Meng L, Quinlan J. Assessing risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting: a retrospective study in patients undergoing retromastoid craniectomy with microvascular decompression of cranial nerves. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2006;18:235-9 pubmed
    We have observed that patients, after retromastoid craniectomy (RMC) with microvascular decompression (MVD) of cranial nerves, frequently experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...

More Information


  1. Geibprasert S, Pongpech S, Armstrong D, Krings T. Dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomoses and supply to the cranial nerves: vessels the neurointerventionalist needs to know. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To avoid cranial nerve palsy, one must have knowledge of the supply to the lower cranial nerves: The petrous branch of the middle meningeal artery and the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular ..
  2. Tashiro Y, Oyabu A, Imura Y, Uchida A, Narita N, Narita M. Morphological abnormalities of embryonic cranial nerves after in utero exposure to valproic acid: implications for the pathogenesis of autism with multiple developmental anomalies. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, to investigate the development of peripheral cranial nerves for use in an animal model of autism, rat embryos were treated with valproic acid (VPA) in utero and their ..
  3. Akagami R, Dong C, Westerberg B. Localized transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials for monitoring cranial nerves in cranial base surgery. Neurosurgery. 2005;57:78-85; discussion 78-85 pubmed
    ..This technique can also be used to monitor other motor cranial nerves in cranial base surgery.
  4. Ciftci E, Anik Y, Arslan A, Akansel G, Sarisoy T, Demirci A. Driven equilibrium (drive) MR imaging of the cranial nerves V-VIII: comparison with the T2-weighted 3D TSE sequence. Eur J Radiol. 2004;51:234-40 pubmed
    ..The nerve identification and image quality were graded for the cranial nerves V-VIII as well as inner ear structures...
  5. Chisaka O, Musci T, Capecchi M. Developmental defects of the ear, cranial nerves and hindbrain resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse homeobox gene Hox-1.6. Nature. 1992;355:516-20 pubmed the formation of the external, middle and inner ears as well as in specific hindbrain nuclei, and in cranial nerves and ganglia...
  6. Ota M, Loebel D, O Rourke M, Wong N, Tsoi B, Tam P. Twist is required for patterning the cranial nerves and maintaining the viability of mesodermal cells. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:216-28 pubmed
  7. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse. Development. 1999;126:5051-9 pubmed
    ..Int. J. Dev. Biol. 41, 425-447). In a search for neural crest defects, we have analysed the rhombomeres, cranial nerves and pharyngeal arches of these double null mutants at early embryonic stages...
  8. Gavalas A, Studer M, Lumsden A, Rijli F, Krumlauf R, Chambon P. Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 synergize in patterning the hindbrain, cranial nerves and second pharyngeal arch. Development. 1998;125:1123-36 pubmed
    ..labelling of motor neurons indicated that Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 synergise in patterning the VIIth through XIth cranial nerves. The second arch expression of neural crest cell markers was abolished or dramatically reduced, suggesting a ..
  9. Schneider Maunoury S, Topilko P, Seitandou T, Levi G, Cohen Tannoudji M, Pournin S, et al. Disruption of Krox-20 results in alteration of rhombomeres 3 and 5 in the developing hindbrain. Cell. 1993;75:1199-214 pubmed
    ..Anatomical analysis of the hindbrain and of the cranial nerves during embryogenesis, combined with the determination of the expression patterns of rhombomere-specific genes, ..
  10. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Le Roux I, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. The regional pattern of retinoic acid synthesis by RALDH2 is essential for the development of posterior pharyngeal arches and the enteric nervous system. Development. 2003;130:2525-34 pubmed
    ..Patterning and axonal outgrowth of the posterior (9th-12th) cranial nerves is also altered...
  11. Parrish M, Ott T, Lance Jones C, Schuetz G, Schwaeger Nickolenko A, Monaghan A. Loss of the Sall3 gene leads to palate deficiency, abnormalities in cranial nerves, and perinatal lethality. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7102-12 pubmed
    ..5. In E10.5 embryos, deficiencies in cranial nerves that normally innervate oral structures, particularly the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), were observed...
  12. HanalioÄŸlu Å, Işıkay Ä, Berker M. Splitting of the Optic Nerve by a Pituitary Macroadenoma. World Neurosurg. 2016;89:726.e11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..An overlooked duplication or penetration of cranial nerves may result in inadvertent injury to important structures and loss of function.
  13. Nowinski W, Chua B. Three-dimensional interactive atlas of cranial nerve-related disorders. Neuroradiol J. 2013;26:263-75 pubmed
    Anatomical knowledge of the cranial nerves (CN) is fundamental in education, research and clinical practice...
  14. Tatagiba M, Rigante L, Mesquita Filho P, Ebner F, Roser F. Endoscopic-Assisted Posterior Intradural Petrous Apicectomy in Petroclival Meningiomas: A Clinical Series and Assessment of Perioperative Morbidity. World Neurosurg. 2015;84:1708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..are familiarity with the retrosigmoid route; the absence of temporal lobe retraction; and early control of the cranial nerves, vessels, and brainstem...
  15. Simon F, Marečková Štolcová E, Páč L. On the terminology of cranial nerves. Ann Anat. 2011;193:447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In several cases, reference is made to the process called terminologization, meaning when a certain expression acquires technical meaning and the characteristic/feature of the term. ..
  16. Denier C, Tertian G, Ribrag V, Lozeron P, Bilhou Nabera C, Lazure T, et al. Multifocal deficits due to leukemic meningoradiculitis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Neurol Sci. 2009;277:130-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A post mortem study showed massive infiltration of cranial nerves and spinal roots by large B lymphomatous cells...
  17. Querol Pascual M. Clinical approach to brainstem lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2010;31:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The brainstem contains 9 of the 12 cranial nerves and is crossed by ascending, descending, and cerebellar pathways and their nuclei as well as the reticular ..
  18. Javan R, Davidson D, Javan A. Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves. J Digit Imaging. 2017;30:576-583 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Materialise Mimics, or utilizing a combination of the widely available software Adobe Photoshop, as well as a freeware software, OsiriX Lite. ..
  19. Horiuchi T, Nagm A, Hasegawa T, Hongo K. Transjugular tubercle-preaccessory approach for ventrocaudally located PICA aneurysm. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017;159:641-644 pubmed publisher
    ..The ventocaudal PICA aneurysm was clipped through the outside of the spinal accessory nerve without surgical manipulation of other lower cranial nerves. This approach is worthwhile to avoid dysphagia.
  20. Cortés Medina J, Cárdenas Lara A, Guerrero Rascón C, Rodríguez Bautista H. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J]. Cir Cir. 2014;82:309-15 pubmed
    ..clinical manifestation in the diagnosis of injury that justifies the compression of the brainstem and lower cranial nerves. To emphasize the study of dysphagia in a patient with Chiari I malformation associated with syringomyelia in ..
  21. Borday C, Coutinho A, Germon I, Champagnat J, Fortin G. Pre-/post-otic rhombomeric interactions control the emergence of a fetal-like respiratory rhythm in the mouse embryo. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:1285-301 pubmed
    ..Three days after grafting, in vitro recordings of the activity in the cranial nerves exiting the grafts indicate that a high frequency (HF) rhythm (order: 10 bursts/min) is generated in post-otic ..
  22. Gurdal E, Cakmak Y, Ozdogmus O, Yalcinkaya M, Uzun I, Gögüsgeren M, et al. Morphometric measurements of the caudal cranial nerves in the petroclival region. Zentralbl Neurochir. 2007;68:47-9 pubmed
    The dural zone of entry or exit of the caudal cranial nerves in the petroclival region does not have a constant localization...
  23. Stark T, McKinney A, Palmer C, Maisel R, Truwit C. Dilation of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves with petrous apex cephaloceles in Usher syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:434-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the specific appearance of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves has not yet been described...
  24. Cartwright M, Brown M, Eulitt P, Walker F, Lawson V, Caress J. Diagnostic nerve ultrasound in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B. Muscle Nerve. 2009;40:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to characterize the ultrasonographic findings in the peripheral nerves of individuals with CMT 1B. ..
  25. Mercier P, Brassier G, Fournier H, DeLion M, Papon X, Lasjaunias P. [Morphological anatomy of the cranial nerves in their cisternal segment (III-XII)]. Neurochirurgie. 2009;55:78-86 pubmed publisher and studied under optic magnification) illustrate this anatomic chapter concerning the microsurgical anatomy of the cisternal segment, the neurovascular relationships, and the blood supply of the IIIrd to the XIIth cranial nerves.
  26. San juan D, Escanio Cortés M, Tena Suck M, Orozco Garduño A, López Pizano J, Villanueva Domínguez J, et al. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring during an optic nerve schwannoma removal. J Clin Monit Comput. 2017;31:1059-1064 pubmed publisher
    ..the left optic nerve through a left orbitozygomatic approach with intraoperative monitoring of left II and III cranial nerves. We used Nicolet Endeavour CR IOM (Carefusion, Middleton WI, USA) to performed visual evoked potentials ..
  27. Danieli L, Montali M, Remonda L, Killer H, Colosimo C, Cianfoni A. Clinically Directed Neuroimaging of Ophthalmoplegia. Clin Neuroradiol. 2018;28:3-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The cranial nerves responsible for ocular movements can be affected intrinsically or extrinsically along their nuclei, their ..
  28. Müllhaupt D, Augsburger H, Schwarz A, Fischer G, Kircher P, Hatt J, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the rabbit brain at 3 T. Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:47 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose of this study to generate an MRI atlas of the normal rabbit brain including the pituitary gland, the cranial nerves and major vessels by the use of a 3 T magnet...
  29. Lydiatt D, Bucher G. The historical Latin and etymology of selected anatomical terms of the larynx. Clin Anat. 2010;23:131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Harvey, working 75 years later in England, offers an evolutionary window from Vesalius. Harvey's laryngeal studies preceded by a decade his groundbreaking studies on the circulation of blood. ..
  30. Stuart R, Winfree C. Neurostimulation techniques for painful peripheral nerve disorders. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2009;20:111-20, vii-viii pubmed publisher
    ..The increasing spectrum of disorders and pain syndromes amenable to PNS also is discussed. ..
  31. Dabrowski P, Gronkiewicz S, Solinski D, Pers A, Lachowski K, Domagała Z. A case of elongated styloid process in a modern-age skull from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2015;74:475-8 pubmed publisher
    ..calcification of the left ligament in anterior orientation could have caused irritation to the structure of cranial nerves, running within the parapharyngeal space, and to sympathetic fibres running in the wall of cervical arteries...
  32. Vanneste S, Langguth B, De Ridder D. Do tDCS and TMS influence tinnitus transiently via a direct cortical and indirect somatosensory modulating effect? A combined TMS-tDCS and TENS study. Brain Stimul. 2011;4:242-52 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, it is it is argued that TENS only modulates the tinnitus brain circuit indirectly, whereas TMS and tDCS have a dual working mechanism, a TENS-like mechanism plus a direct brain modulating mechanism. ..
  33. Rene C. Update on orbital anatomy. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1119-29 pubmed
    ..The anatomy of the orbit is discussed with reference to relevant orbital disease. ..
  34. Zordan P, Tavella S, Brizzolara A, Biticchi R, Ceccherini I, Garofalo S, et al. The immediate upstream sequence of the mouse Ret gene controls tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:601-8 pubmed
    ..In particular, proper expression in the developing excretory system seemed quite significant when considering that the appropriate regulation was obtained with a very short, 380 bp, fragment of Ret 5' flanking sequence. ..
  35. Taklalsingh N, Falcone F, Velayudhan V. Gradenigo's Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis. Am J Case Rep. 2017;18:1039-1043 pubmed the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis (apical petrositis), and bacterial meningitis.
  36. Zhu W, Mao Y, Zhou L, Zhang R, Chen L. Combined subtemporal and retrosigmoid keyhole approach for extensive petroclival meningioma surgery: report of experience with 7 cases. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2007;50:106-10 pubmed
    ..Our experience of 7 cases using a combined subtemporal and retrosigmoid keyhole approach surgery was evaluated for the treatment of extensive petroclival meningiomas...
  37. Alonso F, Kassem M, Iwanaga J, Oskouian R, Loukas M, Demerdash A, et al. Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Arteries Juxtaposed with the Internal Acoustic Meatus and Their Relationship to the Cranial Nerve VII/VIII Complex. Cureus. 2017;9:e1570 pubmed publisher
    Vascular loops in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and their relationship to cranial nerves have been used to explain neurological symptoms...
  38. Petrović S, Grozdanović D, Kovacevic P, Visnjic M, Petrović D. Collet Sicard syndrome as atypical presentation of neck fibrosarcoma: a case report. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2011;11:137-40 pubmed
    ..The patient has been treated surgically in general anesthesia and pathologic diagnosis was fibrosarcoma. ..
  39. Hedlund E, Karlsson M, Osborn T, Ludwig W, Isacson O. Global gene expression profiling of somatic motor neuron populations with different vulnerability identify molecules and pathways of degeneration and protection. Brain. 2010;133:2313-30 pubmed publisher
    ..001, ANOVA), indicating that our approach can identify factors that protect or make neurons more susceptible to degeneration. ..
  40. McNeill E, Roos K, Moechars D, Clagett Dame M. Nav2 is necessary for cranial nerve development and blood pressure regulation. Neural Dev. 2010;5:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nav2 mutant embryos show an overall reduction in nerve fiber density, as well as specific defects in cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus)...
  41. Jastrow H, Oelschläger H. Terminal nerve in the mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis): ontogenetic aspects. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:1201-15 pubmed
    ..Additional smaller ganglia may occur in this region. The TN and its ganglia persist in postnatal and adult bats but the number of perikarya is reduced here. Moreover, the different potential functions of the TN are discussed briefly. ..
  42. Mueller S, Iro H, Lell M, Seifert F, Bohr C, Scherl C, et al. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC)-like squamous cell carcinoma as a differential diagnosis to Bell´s palsy: review of guidelines for refractory facial nerve palsy. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;46:1 pubmed publisher
    Bell´s palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis worldwide and the most common disorder of the cranial nerves. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, accounting for 60-75% of all acquired peripheral facial nerve palsies...
  43. Baumgartner R, Bogousslavsky J. Clinical manifestations of carotid dissection. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2005;20:70-6 pubmed
    ..Cranial nerve palsy is reported in 8-16%; the lower cranial nerves IX-XII are most commonly affected, in particular the hypoglossal nerve...
  44. Kiyofuji S, Perry A, Graffeo C, Giannini C, Link M. The dangers of the "Head Down" position in patients with untreated pituitary macroadenomas: case series and review of literature. Pituitary. 2018;21:231-237 pubmed publisher
    Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare phenomenon, characterized by simultaneous neuropathies of cranial nerves III-VI...
  45. Liu J. Extended middle fossa approach with anterior petrosectomy for resection of upper petroclival meningioma involving Meckel's cave: operative video and technical nuances. Neurosurg Focus. 2017;43:V8 pubmed publisher
    ..very useful for accessing deep tumors located above and below the tentorium, and between the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. Access to Meckel's cave is readily achieved by opening the fibrous ring of the porous trigeminus...
  46. Lu Emerson C, Plotkin S. The neurofibromatoses. Part 2: NF2 and schwannomatosis. Rev Neurol Dis. 2009;6:E81-6 pubmed
    ..Recently, germline alterations in the SMARCB1/INI1 gene have been implicated in both familial and sporadic forms of this disorder. Neurologists play an important role in the diagnosis and management of the neurofibromatoses...
  47. Hu R, Li Y, Xu W, Cheng L, Ren H. Clinical and Electromyographic Characteristics of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis With Lower Cranial Nerve Injury. J Voice. 2017;31:126.e1-126.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients with clinically "idiopathic" UVFP, physical examinations of the lower cranial nerves are essential screening procedures...
  48. Gritli Linde A, Vaziri Sani F, Rock J, Hallberg K, Iribarne D, Harfe B, et al. Expression patterns of the Tmem16 gene family during cephalic development in the mouse. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:178-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally and remarkably, osteoblasts and chondrocytes were particularly loaded with Tmem16a, Tmem16c and Tmem16f transcripts. ..
  49. Fresco V, Kern C, Mohammadi M, Twal W. Fibulin-1 Binds to Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 with High Affinity: EFFECTS ON EMBRYO SURVIVAL. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..valve development and in the formation of neural crest-derived structures, including aortic arch, thymus, and cranial nerves. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a member of a large family of growth factors, and its functions include ..
  50. Seror P. Neuralgic amyotrophy. An update. Joint Bone Spine. 2017;84:153-158 pubmed publisher
    ..brachial plexus rather than the other parts but also may involve the cervical plexus, lumbosacral plexus and cranial nerves. The impairment can be restricted to one fascicule of one nerve, plexus or root; limited to a few ones; or ..
  51. Ogawa G, Kaida K, Kuwahara M, Kimura F, Kamakura K, Kusunoki S. An antibody to the GM1/GalNAc-GD1a complex correlates with development of pure motor Guillain-Barré syndrome with reversible conduction failure. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;254:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The CB may be generated through alteration of the regulatory function of sodium channels in the nodal axolemma. ..
  52. Malandraki G, Johnson S, Robbins J. Functional MRI of swallowing: from neurophysiology to neuroplasticity. Head Neck. 2011;33 Suppl 1:S14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Methodologic challenges and caveats are discussed, and a case study of a pre-posttreatment paradigm is presented to highlight potential future directions of fMRI applications in swallowing research and clinical practice. ..
  53. Moon H, You S, Baek H, Jeon Y, Park C, Cheong J, et al. 7.0?Tesla MRI tractography in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Magn Reson Imaging. 2018;54:265-270 pubmed publisher
    ..T) high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can supply information on changing microstructures in cranial nerves. We investigated DTI parameters and the feasibility of DTI criteria for diagnosing trigeminal neuralgia (TN)...