neuroeffector junction


Summary: The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.

Top Publications

  1. Townsend S, Jung A, Hoe Y, Lefkowitz R, Khan S, Lemmon C, et al. Critical role for the alpha-1B adrenergic receptor at the sympathetic neuroeffector junction. Hypertension. 2004;44:776-82 pubmed
    ..a critical role for the alpha(1B)AR in baroreceptor-mediated adrenergic signaling at the vascular neuroeffector junction. Moreover, alpha(1B)ARs modulate inotropic responses to baroreceptor activation...
  2. White M, Roden R, Minobe W, Khan M, Larrabee P, Wollmering M, et al. Age-related changes in beta-adrenergic neuroeffector systems in the human heart. Circulation. 1994;90:1225-38 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the age-related changes in the beta-receptor-G protein-adenylyl cyclase complex in nonfailing human hearts...
  3. Mallat M, Chamak B. Brain macrophages: neurotoxic or neurotrophic effector cells?. J Leukoc Biol. 1994;56:416-22 pubmed
    ..We discuss different mechanisms whereby macrophages could directly influence the survival of neurons and the growth of their processes. ..
  4. Sarna S, Gonzalez A, Ryan R. Enteric locus of action of prokinetics: ABT-229, motilin, and erythromycin. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;278:G744-52 pubmed
    ..The final neurotransmitter at the neuroeffector junction was ACh. Motilin and erythromycin, but not ABT-229, also released nitric oxide...
  5. Karler R, Chaudhry I, Calder L, Turkanis S. Amphetamine behavioral sensitization and the excitatory amino acids. Brain Res. 1990;537:76-82 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the characteristics of amphetamine behavioral sensitization to stereotypy are similar to those of long-term potentiation. ..
  6. Opere C, Ohia S. Prejunctional alpha2-adrenoceptors and peroxide-induced potentiation of norepinephrine release from the bovine iris. Neurochem Res. 1998;23:1093-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, excitatory effects of peroxides on sympathetic neurotransmission in bovine irides are not mediated by prejunctional alpha2-adrenoceptors. ..
  7. Maggi C, Meli A, Santicioli P. Neuroeffector mechanisms in the voiding cycle of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. J Auton Pharmacol. 1987;7:295-308 pubmed
    ..GABA exerts a complex neuromodulatory influence on voiding function, its overall effect being mainly influenced by resting parameters. ..
  8. Cheung D. Vascular neuroeffector mechanisms in hypertension. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1989;67:1146-50 pubmed
    ..A more important role for ATP in the neural regulation of the SHR tail artery has been proposed. In future studies, the possible contribution of co-transmitters to the responses should be taken into consideration. ..
  9. Dexter F, Rudy Y, Levy M, Bruce E. Mathematical model of cellular basis for the respiratory sinus arrhythmia. J Theor Biol. 1991;150:157-73 pubmed
    ..Therefore, cardiac cycle length oscillated at several integer multiples of the frequency of breathing, but not at these higher frequencies. ..

More Information


  1. Yang X, Chiba S. Separate modulation of neuropeptide Y1 receptor on purinergic and on adrenergic neuroeffector transmission in canine splenic artery. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38 Suppl 1:S17-20 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the activation of NPY Y1 receptors may enhance the prolonged adrenergic vasoconstriction but not the transient purinergic response in the canine splenic artery. ..
  2. Haselton J, Reynolds A, Schultz H. Vagal neuroeffector mechanisms affecting transpulmonary pressure in the intact rat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1995;79:1233-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, nonadrenergic noncholinergic systems did not appear to play an independent role in the response of the airways to the activation of the vagus nerves. ..
  3. Shinozuka K, Bjur R, Westfall D. Effects of alpha,beta-methylene ATP on the prejunctional purinoceptors of the sympathetic nerves of the rat caudal artery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990;254:900-4 pubmed
    ..alpha,beta-Methylene ATP also appears to act as an antagonist against endogenously released adenine nucleosides and nucleotides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  4. Nakamaru M, Tabuchi Y, Rakugi H, Nagano M, Ogihara T. Actions of endothelin on adrenergic neuroeffector junction. J Hypertens Suppl. 1989;7:S132-3 pubmed
    The effect of endothelin, a novel vasoconstrictor peptide, on the adrenergic neuroeffector junction was investigated in isolated perfused rat mesenteric arteries...
  5. Sanger G, Ellis E, Harries M, Tilford N, Wardle K, Benham C. Rank-order inhibition by omega-conotoxins in human and animal autonomic nerve preparations. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;388:89-95 pubmed
  6. Hoyle C, Ralevic V, Lincoln J, Knight G, Goss Sampson M, Milla P, et al. Effects of vitamin E deficiency on autonomic neuroeffector mechanisms in the rat caecum, vas deferens and urinary bladder. J Physiol. 1995;487 ( Pt 3):773-86 pubmed
  7. Colmers W, Klapstein G, Fournier A, St Pierre S, Treherne K. Presynaptic inhibition by neuropeptide Y in rat hippocampal slice in vitro is mediated by a Y2 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1991;102:41-4 pubmed
    ..5. The presynaptic NPY receptor in hippocampal CA1 therefore shares an identical agonist profile with the presynaptic Y2 receptor at the peripheral sympathetic neuroeffector junction.
  8. Joos G. The role of neuroeffector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2001;1:134-43 pubmed
    ..The complexity of the picture has increased further as it has become clear that classical neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and neuropeptides, are produced by nonneuronal cells. ..
  9. Shi Y, Liu X, Gebremedhin D, Falck J, Harder D, Koehler R. Interaction of mechanisms involving epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, adenosine receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors in neurovascular coupling in rat whisker barrel cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:111-25 pubmed
  10. Valenzuela R, Li C, Huidobro Toro J. Pharmacological characterization of the inhibitory activity of beta h-endorphin (beta h-EP), [Arg9,19,24,28,29]-beta h-EP, [Gln8,Gly31]-beta h-EP-Gly-Gly-NH2, in the neuroeffector junction of the mouse vas deferens. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1991;43:594-7 pubmed
    ..4; its potency as an antagonist of beta h-EP and related analogues was approximately one-tenth of this with pA2 values approximately 8.5. Norbinaltorphimine also antagonized the action of the opioid peptides with pA2 values close to 7.8. ..
  11. Takeda R, Momose Y, Haji A. Effects of acetaldehyde on electrical activity during neuroeffector transmission in guinea-pig vas deferens. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990;186:197-203 pubmed
    ..The slow depolarization, which is presumably mediated by endogenous noradrenaline, may cause the late facilitatory effect. ..
  12. Guimaraes S, Paiva M, Moura D, Vaz da Silva M, Albino Teixeira A. Long-term administration of 1,3-dipropyl-8-sulphophenylxanthine (DPSPX) alters alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects at the pre- but not at the postjunctional level. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1994;350:692-5 pubmed
    ..Yohimbine (10-1000 nmol.l-1) caused a concentration-dependent increase of tritium overflow evoked by electrical stimulation in both control and hypertensive animals (either DPSPX- or L-NAME-treated).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  13. Cox S, Ben A, Story D, Ziogas J. Evidence for the involvement of different receptor subtypes in the pre- and postjunctional actions of angiotensin II at rat sympathetic neuroeffector sites. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;114:1057-63 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the direct vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin II in the rat caudal artery involves activation of a receptor subtype sensitive only to losartan. ..
  14. Cederqvist B, Wiklund N, Persson M, Gustafsson L. Modulation of neuroeffector transmission in the guinea pig pulmonary artery by endogenous nitric oxide. Neurosci Lett. 1991;127:67-9 pubmed
    ..A concomitant pre- and/or postjunctional inhibition of NANC transmission is implicated. The neuromodulation by NO does not require an intact endothelium. ..
  15. Westfall T, Yang C, Rotto Perceley D, Macarthur H. Neuropeptide Y-ATP interactions and release at the vascular neuroeffector junction. J Auton Pharmacol. 1996;16:345-8 pubmed
    ..effect of ATP was examined using the perfused mesenteric arterial bed as a model of the vascular neuroeffector junction. 2...
  16. Brouns I, Adriaensen D, Burnstock G, Timmermans J. Intraepithelial vagal sensory nerve terminals in rat pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies express P2X(3) receptors. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;23:52-61 pubmed
    ..Further studies are necessary to determine whether the P2X(3) receptor-expressing neurons, specifically innervating NEBs in the rat lung, belong to a population of P2X(3) receptor-IR nociceptive vagal nodose neurons. ..
  17. Aizawa H, Miyazaki N, Inoue H, Ikeda T, Shigematsu N. Effect of endogenous tachykinins on neuro-effector transmission of vagal nerve in guinea-pig tracheal tissue. Respiration. 1990;57:338-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it is suggested that the excitatory effects of the tachykinins on the vagal neuro-effector transmission may be modulated by neutral endopeptidase in the guinea pig. ..
  18. Gustafsson B, Delbro D. Motor effects of indomethacin, morphine or vagal nerve stimulation on the feline small intestine in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;230:1-8 pubmed
    ..Hexamethonium antagonized these relaxations but did not attenuate the drug-induced jejunal hypermotility. ..
  19. Daly R, Goldberg P, Roberts J. Effects of age on neurotransmission at the cardiac sympathetic neuroeffector junction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;245:798-803 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in these age groups an increase in neuronal uptake appears to reduce further the quantity of NE made available to the heart. These changes seem to occur by middle age and persist to senescence. ..
  20. De Luca A, Li C, Rand M, Reid J, Thaina P, Wong Dusting H. Effects of omega-conotoxin GVIA on autonomic neuroeffector transmission in various tissues. Br J Pharmacol. 1990;101:437-47 pubmed
  21. Hashitani H, Suzuki H. Electrical and mechanical responses produced by nerve stimulation in detrusor smooth muscle of the guinea-pig. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;284:177-83 pubmed
    ..j.p. which triggers an action potential and thus elicits contractions. ..
  22. Szocik J, Gardner C, Webb R. Inhibitory effects of bupivacaine and lidocaine on adrenergic neuroeffector junctions in rat tail artery. Anesthesiology. 1993;78:911-7 pubmed
    ..Bupivacaine is a more potent inhibitor of adrenergic neurotransmission in the blood vessel wall than is lidocaine. ..
  23. Dexter F, Rudy Y, Saidel G. Mathematical model of acetylcholine kinetics in neuroeffector junctions. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:H298-309 pubmed
    ..We conclude that earlier studies showed that [ACh] follows first-order linear kinetics, because they predicted [ACh] only at pacemaker cells. ACh kinetics at other sites in the NEJ, such as at nerve endings, is different. ..
  24. Serone A, Wright C, Angus J. Heterogeneity of prejunctional NPY receptor-mediated inhibition of cardiac neurotransmission. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;127:99-108 pubmed
    ..Therefore it would be surprising if NPY plays a functional role in modulation of cardiac neurotransmission in the rabbit. ..
  25. Luff S, Young S, Anderson W. Extended angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition changes the innervation of renal glomerular afferent arterioles. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1999;77:114-24 pubmed
    ..This study has identified a form of neural plasticity in the kidney that has not previously been described...
  26. Burke S, Head G, Lambert G, Evans R. Renal sympathetic neuroeffector function in renovascular and angiotensin II-dependent hypertension in rabbits. Hypertension. 2007;49:932-8 pubmed
    ..This effect appears to be mediated postjunctionally, not through enhanced neural norepinephrine release, and may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of hypertension in these models. ..
  27. Hirst G, Bramich N, Edwards F, Klemm M. Transmission at autonomic neuroeffector junctions. Trends Neurosci. 1992;15:40-6 pubmed
  28. Maggi C, Patacchini R, Santicioli P, Lippe I, Giuliani S, Geppetti P, et al. The effect of omega conotoxin GVIA, a peptide modulator of the N-type voltage sensitive calcium channels, on motor responses produced by activation of efferent and sensory nerves in mammalian smooth muscle. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1988;338:107-13 pubmed
    ..5. In the rat isolated proximal duodenum, field stimulation in the presence of atropine and guanethidine produced a primary relaxation followed by a rebound contraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  29. Francis G. Modulation of peripheral sympathetic nerve transmission. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;12:250-4 pubmed
  30. Noll G, Elam M, Kunimoto M, Karlsson T, Wallin B. Skin sympathetic nerve activity and effector function during sleep in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. 1994;151:319-29 pubmed
  31. Hill C, Klemm M, Edwards F, Hirst G. Sympathetic transmission to the dilator muscle of the rat iris. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1993;45:107-23 pubmed
    ..and varicosity membrane were separated by less than 80 nm, with synaptic vesicles concentrated towards the neuroeffector junction. The synaptic vesicles in varicosities that failed to form junctions did not aggregate towards their ..
  32. Tanaka H, Jing L, Takahashi S, Ito Y. The possible role of nitric oxide in relaxations and excitatory neuroeffector transmission in the cat airway. J Physiol. 1996;493 ( Pt 3):785-91 pubmed
    ..6. These results indicate that NO. and NO-containing compounds are involved in the L-NAME-sensitive NANC relaxation in the cat airway, and that only NO. has a prejunctional action which inhibits excitatory neuroeffector transmission. ..
  33. Ziogas J, Cunnane T. An electrophysiological study of the actions of angiotensin II at the sympathetic neuroeffector junction in the guinea-pig vas deferens. Br J Pharmacol. 1991;103:1196-202 pubmed
  34. Cuprian Beltechi A, Solanki P, Teramoto N, Cunnane T. High spatial resolution studies of muscarinic neuroeffector junctions in mouse isolated vas deferens. Neuroscience. 2009;162:1366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These events are mediated by ACh acting at M(3) muscarinic receptors. This action stands in marked contrast to the lack of effect of neuronally-released NA on smooth muscle Ca(2+) dynamics in this tissue. ..
  35. Burnstock G. Autonomic neuroeffector mechanisms: recent developments. Funct Neurol. 1987;2:427-36 pubmed
    Peripheral autonomic control mechanisms are more sophisticated than formerly recognized. The autonomic neuroeffector junction is defined, with emphasis on 'en passage' release of transmitter from varicosities in extensive terminal ..
  36. Burnstock G. Non-synaptic transmission at autonomic neuroeffector junctions. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:14-25 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that autonomic neural control of immune, epithelial and endothelial cells also involves non-synaptic transmission. ..
  37. Sangsiri S, Dong H, Swain G, Galligan J, Xu H. Impaired function of prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors expressed by perivascular sympathetic nerves in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;345:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Sympathetic autoreceptor dysfunction is not specific to ?2ARs, but there is a more general disruption of prejunctional mechanisms controlling sympathetic neurotransmitter release in DOCA-salt hypertension. ..
  38. Kitazawa T, Kikui S, Taneike T, Ohaga A. Does motilin stimulate the gastrointestinal motility of the pig? In vitro study using smooth muscle strips and dispersed muscle cells. Gen Pharmacol. 1996;27:655-64 pubmed
  39. Bramich N, Brock J, Edwards F, Hirst G. Ionophoretically applied acetylcholine and vagal stimulation in the arrested sinus venosus of the toad, Bufo marinus. J Physiol. 1994;478 ( Pt 2):289-300 pubmed
    ..5. The responses to ionophoretically applied ACh were consistently slower than those to vagal stimulation. It is argued that the pathways activated by neural and applied ACh have different kinetics of activation. ..
  40. Jobling P. Electrophysiological events during neuroeffector transmission in the spleen of guinea-pigs and rats. J Physiol. 1994;476:153-65 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that sympathetic neuroeffector transmission from noradrenergic axons containing NPY to splenic arterial and capsular smooth muscle occur by different mechanisms. ..
  41. Karler R, Calder L, Bedingfield J. Cocaine behavioral sensitization and the excitatory amino acids. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994;115:305-10 pubmed
    ..The pharmacological data suggest that the mechanism of induction differs from that of expression, and that the mechanism of expression for cocaine sensitization differs from that for amphetamine. ..
  42. Todorov L, Clerkin R, Mihaylova Todorova S, Khoyi M, Westfall D. Beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated prejunctional facilitation and postjunctional inhibition of sympathetic neuroeffector transmission in the guinea pig vas deferens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;298:623-33 pubmed
  43. Li J, Schiffrin E. Resistance artery structure and neuroeffector mechanisms in hypertension induced by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7:996-1004 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  44. Bramich N, Hirst G. Sympathetic neuroeffector transmission in the rat anococcygeus muscle. J Physiol. 1999;516 ( Pt 1):101-15 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that Ca2+ released from stores more readily triggers contraction and membrane depolarization than does Ca2+ entry via CaL channels. ..
  45. Tabuchi Y, Nakamaru M, Rakugi H, Nagano M, Higashimori K, Mikami H, et al. Effects of endothelin on neuroeffector junction in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1990;15:739-43 pubmed
    The effect of endothelin, a novel vasoconstrictor peptide, on the adrenergic neuroeffector junction was investigated in isolated perfused mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
  46. Burnstock G. Physiology and pathophysiology of purinergic neurotransmission. Physiol Rev. 2007;87:659-797 pubmed
    ..Finally, the pathophysiology of purinergic neurotransmission in both peripheral and central nervous systems is reviewed, and speculations are made about future developments. ..
  47. Rorie D, Tyce G. Differences in norepinephrine dynamics in large and small pulmonary arteries of dog. Blood Vessels. 1988;25:265-72 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that NE dynamics are different at neuroeffector junctions in large and small pulmonary arteries. Several explanations to account for these differences are discussed. ..
  48. Wiklund N, Ohlen A, Wiklund C, Hedqvist P, Gustafsson L. Endothelin modulation of neuroeffector transmission in rat and guinea pig vas deferens. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990;185:25-33 pubmed
    ..The stimulant postjunctional effect seemed to predominate in our experiments. ..
  49. Corbett A, Lees G. Depressant effects of hypoxia and hypoglycaemia on neuro-effector transmission of guinea-pig intestine studied in vitro with a pharmacological model. Br J Pharmacol. 1997;120:107-15 pubmed
    ..6. It is concluded that a disruption of intestinal activity in pathological conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia may result from disturbances in the function of enteric neurones. ..
  50. Kitazawa T, Taneike T, Ohga A. Excitatory action of [Leu13]motilin on the gastrointestinal smooth muscle isolated from the chicken. Peptides. 1995;16:1243-52 pubmed
  51. Bao H, Daniels R, MacLeod G, Charlton M, Atwood H, Zhang B. AP180 maintains the distribution of synaptic and vesicle proteins in the nerve terminal and indirectly regulates the efficacy of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:1888-903 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AP180 is required for either recycling vesicle proteins and/or maintaining the distribution of both vesicle and synaptic proteins in the nerve terminal. ..
  52. Grundy D, Al Chaer E, Aziz Q, Collins S, Ke M, TACHE Y, et al. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: basic science. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1391-411 pubmed
  53. Astrand P, Brock J, Cunnane T. Time course of transmitter action at the sympathetic neuroeffector junction in rodent vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. J Physiol. 1988;401:657-70 pubmed
    ..The prolonged time course of the excitatory junction potential in different tissues can be accounted for by the passive membrane properties. ..