nerve endings


Summary: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.

Top Publications

  1. Blumer R, Konakci K, Pomikal C, Wieczorek G, Lukas J, Streicher J. Palisade endings: cholinergic sensory organs or effector organs?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to complement the authors' prior findings on palisade endings in extraocular muscles (EOMs) of monkeys, and to clarify whether palisade endings are cholinergic motor or cholinergic sensory...
  2. Angoa Perez M, Kane M, Francescutti D, Sykes K, Shah M, Mohammed A, et al. Mephedrone, an abused psychoactive component of 'bath salts' and methamphetamine congener, does not cause neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. J Neurochem. 2012;120:1097-107 pubmed publisher
    ..particularly important to know if mephedrone shares with these agents an ability to cause damage to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum...
  3. Bigliardi Qi M, Gaveriaux Ruff C, Pfaltz K, Bady P, Baumann T, Rufli T, et al. Deletion of mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in mice changes epidermal hypertrophy, density of peripheral nerve endings, and itch behavior. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1479-88 pubmed
    ..Neither mast cells nor CD4 T(h)-lymphocytes are involved in the changes of epidermal nerve endings and epidermal homeostasis...
  4. Konakci K, Streicher J, Hoetzenecker W, Blumer M, Lukas J, Blumer R. Molecular characteristics suggest an effector function of palisade endings in extraocular muscles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:155-65 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence that palisade endings in cat EOMs have effector function. The findings may be of significance for strabismus surgery because palisade endings are also found in human EOMs. ..
  5. Kovacs I, Ludány A, Koszegi T, Feher J, Kovacs B, Szolcsanyi J, et al. Substance P released from sensory nerve endings influences tear secretion and goblet cell function in the rat. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:395-402 pubmed
    ..functional evidence to evaluate whether tear secretion is influenced by neuropeptides released from sensory nerve endings of the conjunctiva...
  6. Goswami C, Schmidt H, Hucho F. TRPV1 at nerve endings regulates growth cone morphology and movement through cytoskeleton reorganization. FEBS J. 2007;274:760-72 pubmed
    ..We postulate that TRPV1 activation plays an inhibitory role in sensory neuronal extension and motility by regulating the disassembly of microtubules. This might have a role in the chronification of pain. ..
  7. Zhu J, Koelle D, Cao J, Vazquez J, Huang M, Hladik F, et al. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells accumulate near sensory nerve endings in genital skin during subclinical HSV-2 reactivation. J Exp Med. 2007;204:595-603 pubmed
    ..CD8(+) T cells persisted for more than two months at the dermal-epidermal junction, adjacent to peripheral nerve endings. In two out of the six sequentially studied individuals, HSV-2 DNA reappeared in clinically and histologically ..
  8. Rungaldier S, Heiligenbrunner S, Mayer R, Hanefl Krivanek C, Lipowec M, Streicher J, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular biologic comparison of classic proprioceptors and palisade endings in sheep extraocular muscles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze and compare the structural and molecular features of classic proprioceptors like muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) and putative proprioceptors (palisade endings) in sheep extraocular muscle (EOMs)...
  9. Moraes M, Cavalcante M, Leite J, Ferreira F, Castro A, Santana M. Histomorphometric evaluation of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings in human lateral ankle ligaments. Foot Ankle Int. 2008;29:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Histologically mechanoreceptors (Ruffini, Pacini and Golgi) and free nerve endings were identified, and classified...

More Information


  1. Zhang L, Gavin T, Barber D, LoPachin R. Role of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in acrylamide neurotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2011;205:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because a cytoprotective response was not induced in any fraction, nerve terminal vulnerability to ACR cannot be ascribed to the absence of transcription-based defense mechanisms in this neuronal region...
  2. Li Y, Lee Y, Thompson W. Changes in aging mouse neuromuscular junctions are explained by degeneration and regeneration of muscle fiber segments at the synapse. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14910-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the changes are permanent and accumulate over time. Interventions to reduce the neuromuscular changes during aging should likely focus on making muscle fibers resistant to injury. ..
  3. Aldana B, Sitges M. Sertraline inhibits pre-synaptic Na? channel-mediated responses in hippocampus-isolated nerve endings. J Neurochem. 2012;121:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..opener, veratridine, namely the increase in Na(+) and in neurotransmitter release in hippocampus-isolated nerve endings was investigated. Results show that sertraline in the low ?M range (1...
  4. Parodi M, Patti L, Grilli M, Raiteri M, Marchi M. Nicotine has a permissive role on the activation of metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors coexisting with nicotinic receptors on rat hippocampal noradrenergic nerve terminals. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:138-43 pubmed
  5. Takahashi Iwanaga H, Nio Kobayashi J, Habara Y, Furuya K. A dual system of intercellular calcium signaling in glial nets associated with lanceolate sensory endings in rat vibrissae. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:68-78 pubmed publisher
  6. Cavalcante M, Rodrigues C, Mattar R. Mechanoreceptors and nerve endings of the triangular fibrocartilage in the human wrist. J Hand Surg Am. 2004;29:432-5; discussion 436-8 pubmed
    ..The distribution and density of the nerve endings were investigated in 34 TFC specimens obtained from human cadavers...
  7. Bewick G, Reid B, Richardson C, Banks R. Autogenic modulation of mechanoreceptor excitability by glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles: evidence from the rat muscle spindle primary sensory ending. J Physiol. 2005;562:381-94 pubmed
    ..The blockade with DHPG and PCCG-13 suggests that endogenous glutamate release acts, at least in part, through the recently described phospholipase D-linked metabotropic Glu receptor to maintain the excitability of the sensory endings. ..
  8. Thomas D, Angoa Perez M, Francescutti Verbeem D, Shah M, Kuhn D. The role of endogenous serotonin in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. J Neurochem. 2010;115:595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..The striatum is also extensively innervated by serotonin (5HT) nerve endings and this neurochemical system is modified by METH in much the same manner as seen in DA nerve endings (i.e...
  9. Grilli M, Patti L, Robino F, Zappettini S, Raiteri M, Marchi M. Release-enhancing pre-synaptic muscarinic and nicotinic receptors co-exist and interact on dopaminergic nerve endings of rat nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem. 2008;105:2205-13 pubmed publisher
    Dopaminergic nerve endings in the corpus striatum possess nicotinic (nAChRs) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) mediating release of dopamine (DA)...
  10. Eberhorn A, Horn A, Eberhorn N, Fischer P, Boergen K, Büttner Ennever J. Palisade endings in extraocular eye muscles revealed by SNAP-25 immunoreactivity. J Anat. 2005;206:307-15 pubmed
    ..They seem to be a general feature of all vertebrate eye muscles, unlike the other two extraocular proprioceptors, muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, the presence of which varies widely between species. ..
  11. Umbach J, Saitoe M, Kidokoro Y, Gundersen C. Attenuated influx of calcium ions at nerve endings of csp and shibire mutant Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1998;18:3233-40 pubmed
    ..We show that this TS inhibition of neuromuscular transmission is correlated with a block of Ca ion entry at nerve endings of csp mutants...
  12. Thunberg J, Hellstrom F, Sjölander P, Bergenheim M, Wenngren B, Johansson H. Influences on the fusimotor-muscle spindle system from chemosensitive nerve endings in cervical facet joints in the cat: possible implications for whiplash induced disorders. Pain. 2001;91:15-22 pubmed
  13. Shuang R, Zhang L, Fletcher A, Groblewski G, Pevsner J, Stuenkel E. Regulation of Munc-18/syntaxin 1A interaction by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in nerve endings. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4957-66 pubmed
  14. Yamamoto Y, Atoji Y, Kuramoto H, Suzuki Y. Calretinin-immunoreactive laminar nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa of the rat. Cell Tissue Res. 1998;292:613-7 pubmed
    The distribution of laminar nerve endings that contained immunoreactive calretinin was examined in the laryngeal mucosa of the adult rat...
  15. Black J, Renganathan M, Waxman S. Sodium channel Na(v)1.6 is expressed along nonmyelinated axons and it contributes to conduction. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;105:19-28 pubmed
    ..Na(v)1.6 is also present in the nerve endings of corneal C-fibers...
  16. Suchak S, Baloyianni N, Perkinton M, Williams R, Meldrum B, Rattray M. The 'glial' glutamate transporter, EAAT2 (Glt-1) accounts for high affinity glutamate uptake into adult rodent nerve endings. J Neurochem. 2003;84:522-32 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this study indicate that EAAT2 is the predominant nerve terminal glutamate transporter in the adult rodent CNS. ..
  17. Blunk J, Seifert F, Schmelz M, Reeh P, Koppert W. Injection pain of rocuronium and vecuronium is evoked by direct activation of nociceptive nerve endings. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2003;20:245-53 pubmed
    ..The algogenic effect of aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking drugs can be attributed to a direct activation of C-nociceptors. ..
  18. Magalhães Cardoso M, Pereira M, Oliveira L, Ribeiro J, Cunha R, Correia de Sá P. Ecto-AMP deaminase blunts the ATP-derived adenosine A2A receptor facilitation of acetylcholine release at rat motor nerve endings. J Physiol. 2003;549:399-408 pubmed
  19. Ouyang W, Wang G, Hemmings H. Isoflurane and propofol inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels in isolated rat neurohypophysial nerve terminals. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:373-81 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ channels may contribute to the presynaptic effects of general anesthetics on nerve terminal excitability and neurotransmitter release. ..
  20. Searl T, Silinsky E. Phorbol esters and adenosine affect the readily releasable neurotransmitter pool by different mechanisms at amphibian motor nerve endings. J Physiol. 2003;553:445-56 pubmed
    ..and adenosine have been proposed to interact at common sites downstream of calcium entry at amphibian motor nerve endings. We thus studied the actions and interactions of phorbol esters and adenosine using electrophysiological ..
  21. Tschachler E, Reinisch C, Mayer C, Paiha K, Lassmann H, Weninger W. Sheet preparations expose the dermal nerve plexus of human skin and render the dermal nerve end organ accessible to extensive analysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:177-82 pubmed
    ..Its further application will give new impetus in the investigation of alterations of this skin compartment under pathological conditions. ..
  22. Ebara S, Kumamoto K, Matsuura T, Mazurkiewicz J, Rice F. Similarities and differences in the innervation of mystacial vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes in the rat and cat: a confocal microscopic study. J Comp Neurol. 2002;449:103-19 pubmed
  23. van Houwelingen A, Kool M, de Jager S, Redegeld F, van Heuven Nolsen D, Kraneveld A, et al. Mast cell-derived TNF-alpha primes sensory nerve endings in a pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction. J Immunol. 2002;168:5297-302 pubmed
  24. Takahashi Iwanaga H. Three-dimensional microanatomy of longitudinal lanceolate endings in rat vibrissae. J Comp Neurol. 2000;426:259-69 pubmed
    ..To analyze how the nerve endings detect hair movements, the present study re-examined their fine structure and relationships with surrounding ..
  25. Roos J, Hummel T, Ng N, Klämbt C, Davis G. Drosophila Futsch regulates synaptic microtubule organization and is necessary for synaptic growth. Neuron. 2000;26:371-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a common microtubule-based growth mechanism at the synapse and growth cone. ..
  26. Brock J, McLachlan E, Belmonte C. Tetrodotoxin-resistant impulses in single nociceptor nerve terminals in guinea-pig cornea. J Physiol. 1998;512 ( Pt 1):211-7 pubmed
    ..Lignocaine (lidocaine; 1 mM) blocked all electrical activity. 5. TTX-resistant sodium channels therefore play a major role in generating the action potentials that signal pain to the brain. ..
  27. Chung M, Jue S, Dong X. Projection of non-peptidergic afferents to mouse tooth pulp. J Dent Res. 2012;91:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide convincing evidence that non-peptidergic nociceptors are projected into the tooth pulp and suggest a potential role for these afferents in tooth pain. ..
  28. Ortiz Miranda S, Dayanithi G, Custer E, Treistman S, Lemos J. Micro-opioid receptor preferentially inhibits oxytocin release from neurohypophysial terminals by blocking R-type Ca2+ channels. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:583-90 pubmed
    ..Modulation of Ca2+ channel subtypes could be a general mechanism for drugs of abuse to regulate the release of specific neurotransmitters at central nervous system synapses. ..
  29. Oztay F, Brouns I, Pintelon I, Raab M, Neuhuber W, Timmermans J, et al. Neurotrophin-4 dependency of intraepithelial vagal sensory nerve terminals that selectively contact pulmonary NEBs in mice. Histol Histopathol. 2010;25:975-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the growing evidence for the involvement of NTs in neuronal plasticity associated with airway diseases, pulmonary NEBs innervated by NT-sensitive vagal afferents may play a significant role. ..
  30. Mahoney C, Smith A, Marshall A, Reid F. Pelvic floor dysfunction and sensory impairment: Current evidence. Neurourol Urodyn. 2017;36:550-556 pubmed publisher
    ..Women with painful bladder syndrome may have more sensitive nerve endings which are unable to ignore repeated stimuli...
  31. Crotty T. Ageing is a process where the growth effect of neuronal noradrenaline changes progressively in favour of the flow mediated, neurodegenerative and inflammatory effect of plasma noradrenaline. Med Hypotheses. 2016;93:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal noradrenaline stimulates tissues by diffusion from their sympathetic nerve endings, plasma noradrenaline does so by diffusion from their microcirculations...
  32. Pierozan P, Colín González A, Biasibetti H, da Silva J, Wyse A, Wajner M, et al. Toxic Synergism Between Quinolinic Acid and Glutaric Acid in Neuronal Cells Is Mediated by Oxidative Stress: Insights to a New Toxic Model. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:5362-5376 pubmed publisher
    ..been shown that synergistic toxic effects of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and glutaric acid (GA), both in isolated nerve endings and in vivo conditions, suggest the contribution of these metabolites to neurodegeneration...
  33. Korkmaz Y, Bloch W, Schneider K, Zimmer S, Addicks K, Raab W. Time-dependent activation of ERK1/2 in nerve terminals of the dentin-pulp complex following bradykinin treatment. J Dent Res. 2008;87:1149-54 pubmed
    ..of BK on the non-transcriptional modulation of the ERK1/2 in the peripheral nociceptor terminals, including in nerve endings of the dentin-pulp complex, are unknown...
  34. Achat Mendes C, Ali S, Itzhak Y. Differential effects of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:1128-37 pubmed
    ..Modulation of Pavlovian conditioning by amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity may be relevant to compulsive drug-seeking behavior in METH and MDMA abusers. ..
  35. Zakir M, Dickman J. Regeneration of vestibular otolith afferents after ototoxic damage. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2881-93 pubmed
    ..If true, adaptive plasticity in the central neural processing of motion information would be necessitated, because it is known that many vestibular-related behaviors fully recover during regeneration...
  36. De Crescenzo V, Fogarty K, Zhuge R, Tuft R, Lifshitz L, Carmichael J, et al. Dihydropyridine receptors and type 1 ryanodine receptors constitute the molecular machinery for voltage-induced Ca2+ release in nerve terminals. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7565-74 pubmed
    ..VICaR may constitute a new link between neuronal activity, as signaled by depolarization, and a rise in intraterminal Ca2+. ..
  37. Epsztein J, Milh M, Bihi R, Jorquera I, Ben Ari Y, Represa A, et al. Ongoing epileptiform activity in the post-ischemic hippocampus is associated with a permanent shift of the excitatory-inhibitory synaptic balance in CA3 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7082-92 pubmed
  38. Tedesco E, Rigoni M, Caccin P, Grishin E, Rossetto O, Montecucco C. Calcium overload in nerve terminals of cultured neurons intoxicated by alpha-latrotoxin and snake PLA2 neurotoxins. Toxicon. 2009;54:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that Ca(2+) overloading plays a major role in the degeneration of nerve terminals induced by the snake presynaptic neurotoxins. ..
  39. Sitges M, Galindo C. Omega-agatoxin-TK is a useful tool to study P-type Ca2+ channel-mediated changes in internal Ca2+ and glutamate release in depolarised brain nerve terminals. Neurochem Int. 2005;46:53-60 pubmed
    ..Ca(2+) (Ca(i), as determined with fura-2) dose dependently in cerebral (striatal and hippocampal) isolated nerve endings, with calculated IC(50)'s of about 60nM...
  40. Albrecht P, Davar G, Eisenberg E, Pare M, Rice F. Response to editorial on Albrecht et al. (2006). Pain. 2006;123:217 pubmed
  41. Kristen A, Kreusser M, Lehmann L, Kinscherf R, Katus H, Haass M, et al. Preserved norepinephrine reuptake but reduced sympathetic nerve endings in hypertrophic volume-overloaded rat hearts. J Card Fail. 2006;12:577-83 pubmed
    ..In volume-overloaded hypertrophic hearts, depletion of cardiac NE stores is caused by a reduction of the sympathetic nerve density, whereas cardiac NE reuptake is preserved. ..
  42. Sarban S, Baba F, Kocabey Y, Cengiz M, Isikan U. Free nerve endings and morphological features of the ligamentum capitis femoris in developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2007;16:351-6 pubmed
    ..004). We found type IVa, free nerve endings in 16 of 24 samples of ligamentum capitis femoris. The 66...
  43. Pandolfo P, Silveirinha V, dos Santos Rodrigues A, Venance L, Ledent C, Takahashi R, et al. Cannabinoids inhibit the synaptic uptake of adenosine and dopamine in the rat and mouse striatum. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;655:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are not mediated by cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, and should be an additional mechanism to consider when interpreting synaptic effects of cannabinoids. ..
  44. Munoz A, Rey P, Guerra M, Mendez Alvarez E, Soto Otero R, Labandeira Garcia J. Reduction of dopaminergic degeneration and oxidative stress by inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in a MPTP model of parkinsonism. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:112-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be useful for treatment of Parkinson's disease, and that further investigation should focus on the neuroprotective capacity of these compounds. ..
  45. Soda Y, Yamamoto Y. Morphology and chemical characteristics of subepithelial laminar nerve endings in the rat epiglottic mucosa. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:25-39 pubmed publisher
    The laminar nerve endings are distributed in the laryngeal mucosa, and described as sensory receptors evoked by laryngeal pressure changes...
  46. Davies J, Hainsworth A, Guerin C, Lambert D. Pharmacology of capsaicin-, anandamide-, and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine-evoked cell death in a homogeneous transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 receptor population. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a primary pain-sensing relay at peripheral sensory nerve endings and is also widespread in the brain, where it is implicated in neurodegeneration...
  47. Chang H, Nathans J. Responses of hair follicle-associated structures to loss of planar cell polarity signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..and a series of associated structures: sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles, Merkel cells, and sensory nerve endings. The architecture of this multicellular structure is highly polarized with respect to the body axes...
  48. Asan E, Yilmazer Hanke D, Eliava M, Hantsch M, Lesch K, Schmitt A. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-system and monoaminergic afferents in the central amygdala: investigations in different mouse strains and comparison with the rat. Neuroscience. 2005;131:953-67 pubmed
    ..The observed interspecies and interstrain differences in CRF input and CRF/monoaminergic interactions may influence the interpretation of findings concerning Ce functions in stress and fear in mouse models. ..
  49. Dason J, Romero Pozuelo J, Marin L, Iyengar B, Klose M, Ferrús A, et al. Frequenin/NCS-1 and the Ca2+-channel alpha1-subunit co-regulate synaptic transmission and nerve-terminal growth. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, Frq modulates Ca(2+) entry through a functional interaction with the alpha(1) voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel subunit; this interaction regulates neurotransmission and nerve-terminal growth. ..
  50. Ritter R. A tale of two endings: modulation of satiation by NMDA receptors on or near central and peripheral vagal afferent terminals. Physiol Behav. 2011;105:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, NMDA receptor expression on central and perhaps peripheral vagal afferent endings could provide a parsimonious mechanism for modulation of satiation signals by endogenously released glutamate. ..
  51. Eyzaguirre C. Chemical and electric transmission in the carotid body chemoreceptor complex. Biol Res. 2005;38:341-5 pubmed
    ..There are chemical and electric connections between glomus cells (GC/GC) and between glomus cells and carotid nerve endings (GC/NE). Chemical secretion of glomus cells is accompanied by GC/GC uncoupling...
  52. Yu X, Hu Y, Ru F, Kollarik M, Undem B, Yu S. TRPM8 function and expression in vagal sensory neurons and afferent nerves innervating guinea pig esophagus. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..were performed in nodose and jugular C fiber neurons using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus...
  53. Ferrero J, Ramírez Franco J, Martín R, Bartolomé Martín D, Torres M, Sánchez Prieto J. Cross-talk between metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 and beta adrenergic receptor signaling at cerebrocortical nerve terminals. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:412-25 pubmed publisher