vasomotor system


Summary: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.

Top Publications

  1. Gast G, Grobbee D, Pop V, Keyzer J, Wijnands van Gent C, Samsioe G, et al. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with a lower bone mineral density. Menopause. 2009;16:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to extend these findings to other estrogen-sensitive end organs. ..
  2. Chang K, Wu C, Wang T, Hsiao M, Yeh T, Chen W. Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography for the assessment of peripheral vasomotor response in an elderly population. J Clin Ultrasound. 2011;39:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The older group exhibited reduced vasomotor reactivity of the radial artery after sympathetic stimulus. Peripheral vasomotor response should be interpreted with caution in elderly populations. ..
  3. Pal L, Norian J, Zeitlian G, Bevilacqua K, Freeman R, Santoro N. Vasomotor symptoms in infertile premenopausal women: a hitherto unappreciated risk for low bone mineral density. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1626-34 pubmed
    ..Declining ovarian reserve may be the common pathophysiological mechanism underlying VMS and low BMD in the symptomatic population and merits further investigation. ..
  4. Hahalis G, Kremastinos D, Terzis G, Kalogeropoulos A, Chrysanthopoulou A, Karakantza M, et al. Global vasomotor dysfunction and accelerated vascular aging in beta-thalassemia major. Atherosclerosis. 2008;198:448-57 pubmed
    ..A procoagulant/proinflammatory state in these transfusion-dependent patients may overwhelm atheroprotective mechanisms, including an optimal chelation regimen, and promote vascular injury and atherogenesis. ..
  5. Bagher P, Segal S. Regulation of blood flow in the microcirculation: role of conducted vasodilation. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011;202:271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Impairment of conduction during ageing and in diseased states can limit physical work capacity by restricting muscle blood flow. ..
  6. Blumel J, Chedraui P, Baron G, Belzares E, Bencosme A, Calle A, et al. A large multinational study of vasomotor symptom prevalence, duration, and impact on quality of life in middle-aged women. Menopause. 2011;18:778-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine vasomotor symptom (VMS) prevalence, duration, and impact on quality of life in middle-aged women using a validated menopausal tool...
  7. Zamir M, Goswami R, Salzer D, Shoemaker J. Role of vascular bed compliance in vasomotor control in human skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol. 2007;92:841-8 pubmed
    ..05). It was concluded that vascular bed compliance is an independent variable which should be considered along with vascular bed resistance in the mechanics of vasomotor regulation in skeletal muscle. ..
  8. Fugate S, Church C. Nonestrogen treatment modalities for vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:1482-99 pubmed
    ..Initial, small reports are suggestive for efficacy in menopausal vasomotor symptoms with megestrol acetate and venlafaxine. ..
  9. Metea M, Newman E. Glial cells dilate and constrict blood vessels: a mechanism of neurovascular coupling. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2862-70 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that glial cells contribute to neurovascular coupling and suggest that regulation of blood flow may involve both vasodilating and vasoconstricting components. ..

More Information


  1. Zhang C, Hein T, Wang W, Kuo L. Divergent roles of angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors in modulating coronary microvascular function. Circ Res. 2003;92:322-9 pubmed
    ..These data may partly explain the impaired coronary flow regulation in heart diseases associated with an upregulated renin-angiotensin system. ..
  2. Young T, Asahina M, Nicotra A, Mathias C. Skin vasomotor reflex responses in two contrasting groups of autonomic failure: multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. J Neurol. 2006;253:846-50 pubmed
    ..The decreased responses in PAF may reflect the extensive postganglionic sympathetic denervation seen in this group. The measurement of SkVR may therefore provide a non-invasive aid to the differentiation of MSA and PAF. ..
  3. Lewis V. Undertreatment of menopausal symptoms and novel options for comprehensive management. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:2689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations of this review include the narrow search criteria and limited search period. ..
  4. Dacks P, Rance N. Effects of estradiol on the thermoneutral zone and core temperature in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen withdrawal increases the sensitivity of thermoregulatory neural pathways and modifies the activation of heat loss mechanisms. ..
  5. Wang H, Menezes N, Zhu M, Ay H, Koroshetz W, Aronen H, et al. Physiological noise in MR images: an indicator of the tissue response to ischemia?. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;27:866-71 pubmed publisher
  6. Vicenzini E, Altieri M, Michetti P, Ricciardi M, Ciccariello M, Shahabadi H, et al. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity is reduced in patients with erectile dysfunction. Eur Neurol. 2008;60:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and a slower VMR/CO(2) rate of change (p < 0.001) compared to ED-. The reduced reactivity in patients with isolated ED may represent a marker of early cerebral vasomotor dysfunction due to subclinical endothelial damage. ..
  7. Hodges G, Jackson D, Mattar L, Johnson J, Shoemaker J. Neuropeptide Y and neurovascular control in skeletal muscle and skin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R546-55 pubmed publisher
  8. Chertok V, Kotsyuba A. NO-positive neurons in some nuclei of human bulbar vasomotor center in arterial hypertension. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147:639-43 pubmed
    ..More pronounced changes in this parameter were detected in the solitary tract nuclei in comparison with the reticular formation nuclei, which had efferent relationships with the intermediate lateral spinal nucleus. ..
  9. Tsai P, Mateo C, Field J, Schaffer C, Anderson M, Kleinfeld D. Ultra-large field-of-view two-photon microscopy. Opt Express. 2015;23:13833-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the special utility of the microscope by recording resting-state vasomotion across both hemispheres of the murine brain through a transcranial window and by imaging histological sections without the need to stitch. ..
  10. Bar I, Guns P, Metallo J, Cammarata D, Wilkin F, Boeynams J, et al. Knockout mice reveal a role for P2Y6 receptor in macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations might be relevant to several physiopathological conditions such as atherosclerosis or hypertension. ..
  11. Archer D, Sturdee D, Baber R, de Villiers T, Pines A, Freedman R, et al. Menopausal hot flushes and night sweats: where are we now?. Climacteric. 2011;14:515-28 pubmed publisher
    ..An overview of the current knowledge on the etiology and treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women...
  12. Krueger J. Alternative treatments of vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:346; author reply 347 pubmed
  13. Liguori A, D Armiento F, Palagiano A, Balestrieri M, Williams Ignarro S, de Nigris F, et al. Effect of gestational hypercholesterolaemia on omental vasoreactivity, placental enzyme activity and transplacental passage of normal and oxidised fatty acids. BJOG. 2007;114:1547-56 pubmed
    ..The placenta plays an important role in both transmitting and enhancing pathogenic effects of gestational hypercholesterolaemia. ..
  14. Winn N, Grunewald Z, Gastecki M, Woodford M, Welly R, Clookey S, et al. Deletion of UCP1 enhances ex vivo aortic vasomotor function in female but not male mice despite similar susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E402-E412 pubmed publisher
  15. Steinback C, Salmanpour A, Breskovic T, Dujic Z, Shoemaker J. Sympathetic neural activation: an ordered affair. J Physiol. 2010;588:4825-36 pubmed publisher
  16. Maghbooli M, Chiti H, Taheri S, Asadi Khiavi M. Clinical evaluation of vasomotor system functionality in type 2 diabetic Patients. Caspian J Intern Med. 2017;8:183-189 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the presented study was designed to evaluate the vasomotor system in healthy people and type 2 DM cases for determining any functionality differences between the mentioned ..
  17. Nakajima R, Kato J, Iwasaki K, Ogawa Y, Gokan D, Ogawa S. [Effects of the induction of anesthesia with propofol on hemodynamics in patients with Parkinson's disease]. Masui. 2011;60:1135-43 pubmed
    ..No abnormal responses to the induction of anesthesia with propofol were found in the patients with Parkinson's disease. ..
  18. Grigoriou V, Augoulea A, Armeni E, Rizos D, Alexandrou A, Dendrinos S, et al. Prevalence of vasomotor, psychological, psychosomatic and sexual symptoms in perimenopausal and recently postmenopausal Greek women: association with demographic, life-style and hormonal factors. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the prevalence of climacteric symptoms and their association with demographic, life-style and hormonal parameters in Greek peri- and recently postmenopausal women...
  19. Manzano E Silva M, Singh R, Haldar C, Vigh B, Szel A. Peripheral autonomic nerves of human pineal organ terminate on vessels, their supposed role in the periodic secretion of pineal melatonin. APMIS. 2012;120:628-34 pubmed publisher
  20. Bachmann G, Schaefers M, Uddin A, Utian W. Lowest effective transdermal 17beta-estradiol dose for relief of hot flushes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:771-9 pubmed,, NCT00206622 ..
  21. Matchkov V. Mechanisms of cellular synchronization in the vascular wall. Mechanisms of vasomotion. Dan Med Bull. 2010;57:B4191 pubmed
    ..This dissertation is based on nine scientific publications where I have suggested the model for generation of vasomotion and characterized the essential elements of this model. ..
  22. Cruden N, Lang N, MacGillivray T, Uren N, Fox K, Newby D. Vasomotor and fibrinolytic responses to kinin receptor agonists in the atherosclerotic human lower limb. Heart Vessels. 2012;27:179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In keeping with previous data, bradykinin-mediated tissue plasminogen activator release was augmented in the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition consistent with its putative vascular protective effect. ..
  23. Kemp W, Roberts S, Komesaroff P, Zomer E, Krum H. Urotensin II in chronic liver disease: in vivo effect on vascular tone. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:103-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that UII has pathophysiological relevance in the portal hypertensive population through its vasoactive properties. Further studies of UII and UII-antagonists are warranted in this patient population. ..
  24. Welsh D, Tran C, Plane F, Sandow S. Letter to the editor: "Are voltage-dependent ion channels involved in the endothelial cell control of vasomotor tone?". Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2007; author reply H2008 pubmed
  25. Ances B, Greenberg J, Detre J. Interaction between nitric oxide synthase inhibitor induced oscillations and the activation flow coupling response. Brain Res. 2010;1309:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Nitric oxide may therefore modulate the effects of other vasodilators involved in vasomotion oscillations and the AFC response. ..
  26. Zervas I, Lambrinoudaki I, Spyropoulou A, Koundi K, Voussoura E, Tzavara C, et al. Additive effect of depressed mood and vasomotor symptoms on postmenopausal insomnia. Menopause. 2009;16:837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Mood symptoms seem to affect sleep independently of vasomotor symptoms, suggesting that depression should be carefully assessed and treated in postmenopausal women with insomnia. ..
  27. Nietlispach F, Julius B, Schindler R, Bernheim A, Binkert C, Kiowski W, et al. Influence of acute and chronic mineralocorticoid excess on endothelial function in healthy men. Hypertension. 2007;50:82-8 pubmed
  28. Menon D, Wang Z, Fadel P, Arbique D, Leonard D, Li J, et al. Central sympatholysis as a novel countermeasure for cocaine-induced sympathetic activation and vasoconstriction in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:626-33 pubmed
    ..Study to Improve Scientific Understanding of the Cardiovascular Actions of Cocaine;; NCT00338546). ..
  29. Tribukait A, Nobel G, Mekjavic I, Eiken O. Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, thermal discomfort was reduced in the SCOP condition. Findings are thoroughly discussed in the context of animal studies on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of thermoregulation and motion sickness...
  30. Shih C, Kuo D, Huang C, Gu Y, Chen F. Autonomic nervous system mediates the cardiovascular effects of Rhodiola sacra radix in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;119:284-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of WtF may result from a direct vagal inhibition on the heart. ..
  31. Hemminki E, Regushevskaya E, Luoto R, Veerus P. Variability of bothersome menopausal symptoms over time--a longitudinal analysis using the Estonian postmenopausal hormone therapy trial (EPHT). BMC Womens Health. 2012;12:44 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a notable variability in the development of disturbing vasomotor symptoms over time in a selected group of women aged 50-59. Population-based follow-up studies of untreated women would be useful to estimate the symptom burden. ..
  32. Naya M, Morita K, Yoshinaga K, Manabe O, Goto D, Hirata K, et al. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;38:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. ..
  33. Whelan A, Jurgens T, Trinacty M. Bioidentical progesterone cream for menopause-related vasomotor symptoms: is it effective?. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Available evidence from RCTs does not support the efficacy of bioidentical progesterone cream for the management of menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. Adverse effects appear to be mild and self-limiting. ..
  34. Kravitz H, Avery E, Sowers M, Bromberger J, Owens J, Matthews K, et al. Relationships between menopausal and mood symptoms and EEG sleep measures in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women: the SWAN sleep study. Sleep. 2011;34:1221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Vasomotor symptoms moderated associations of anxiety with EEG sleep measures of sleep latency and sleep efficiency and was associated with longer sleep duration in this multi-ethnic sample of midlife women. ..
  35. Li D, Pan H. Increased group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activity in paraventricular nucleus supports elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of NMDA receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory effect of group I mGluRs in the PVN. ..
  36. MIRIEL V, Chen Y, Rivers R. The involvement of CGRP, adrenomedullin, and sensory nerves in remote vasomotor responses within the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Microvasc Res. 2009;77:192-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Perivascular neurons containing adrenomedullin can be detected with immunohistochemistry. The results, combined with previous work, suggest that adrenomedullin, and not CGRP, is involved in remote dilations to methacholine. ..
  37. Katon J, Gray K, Gerber M, Harrington L, Woods N, Weitlauf J, et al. Vasomotor Symptoms and Quality of Life Among Veteran and Non-Veteran Postmenopausal Women. Gerontologist. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S40-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Multicondition care models for postmenopausal Veteran and non-Veteran women are needed that incorporate management strategies for VMS, weight, and depression. ..
  38. Yuan Z, Hein T, Rosa R, Kuo L. Sildenafil (Viagra) evokes retinal arteriolar dilation: dual pathways via NOS activation and phosphodiesterase inhibition. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the elevated cGMP, from endogenous or exogenous NO, plays a permissive role for sildenafil to exert vasodilation through inhibition of the PDE5 pathway independent of ERK signaling. ..
  39. Nadalin S, Buretic Tomljanovic A, Rubesa G, Tomljanović D, Gudelj L. Niacin skin flush test: a research tool for studying schizophrenia. Psychiatr Danub. 2010;22:14-27 pubmed
    ..New studies, controlling adequately for age, sex, drug abuse, diet, as well as genetic factors that may influence the intensity and reaction time, are necessary to clarify the usefulness of niacin testing in psychiatry. ..
  40. Hassa H, Tanir H, Oge T. Is placebo as effective as estrogen regimens on vasomotor symptoms in women with surgical menopause?. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010;37:135-7 pubmed
    ..Additional larger prospective randomized studies need to be conducted in an aim to look at not only short-term but also long-term effects on climacteric symptoms, in comparison to both placebo arms and different dose and mode of HT use. ..
  41. Secomb T. Theoretical models for regulation of blood flow. Microcirculation. 2008;15:765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, a review is presented of previous and current theoretical approaches for investigating the regulation of blood flow in the microcirculation. ..
  42. Martin J, Padilla J, Jenkins N, Crissey J, Bender S, Rector R, et al. Functional adaptations in the skeletal muscle microvasculature to endurance and interval sprint training in the type 2 diabetic OLETF rat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:1223-32 pubmed publisher
  43. Gur A, Auriel E, Korczyn A, Gadoth A, Shopin L, Giladi N, et al. Vasomotor reactivity as a predictor for syncope in patients with orthostatism. Acta Neurol Scand. 2012;126:32-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of VMR among patients with OH may predict those who are at higher risk to faint and fall and to support more aggressive intervention. ..
  44. Li D, Yang P, Xiong Q, Song X, Yang X, Liu L, et al. MicroRNA-125a/b-5p inhibits endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding demonstrated that endothelial miR-125a/b-5p inhibits ET-1 expression in VECs, which revealed a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism in vasomotor homeostasis. ..
  45. Cianci A, Cicero A, Colacurci N, Matarazzo M, De Leo V. Activity of isoflavones and berberine on vasomotor symptoms and lipid profile in menopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:699-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of berberine and isoflavones was effective in lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in menopausal women with moderate dyslipidaemia and in improving their quality of life. ..
  46. Inagaki T, Sonobe T, Poole D, Kano Y. Progressive arteriolar vasoconstriction and fatigue during tetanic contractions of rat skeletal muscle are inhibited by ?-receptor blockade. J Physiol Sci. 2011;61:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..control). We conclude that sequential bouts of contractions induce a progressively greater degree of ?-adrenergic receptor-induced arteriolar (but not venular) vasoconstriction which contributes significantly to fatigue in this model. ..
  47. Chen Z, Rubin J, Tzima E. Role of PECAM-1 in arteriogenesis and specification of preexisting collaterals. Circ Res. 2010;107:1355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work showed that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 is a component of a mechanosensory complex that mediates endothelial cell responses to shear stress...
  48. Buster J. Low-dose estradiol spray: a novel treatment for vasomotor instability in postmenopausal women. Womens Health (Lond). 2009;5:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The spray is a well-tolerated, cosmetically attractive and convenient method of delivering low-dose, transdermal estradiol. ..
  49. Vallais F, Baselli G, Lucini D, Pagani M. Heart rate and vasomotor control during exercise. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:578-81 pubmed
    ..These results may suggest that reflex mechanisms controlling HR may also participate in controlling peripheral circulation or, viceversa, BRS is influenced by vascular tone. ..
  50. Shah D, Agrawal S. Vasomotor symptoms: viewpoint from the Indian subcontinent and management of a common menopausal problem. Semin Reprod Med. 2010;28:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the symptoms and relates that VMS are of significant concern for the aging Asian women. ..
  51. Kim C, Jung S, Naqvi A, Hoffman T, Dericco J, Yamamori T, et al. p53 impairs endothelium-dependent vasomotor function through transcriptional upregulation of p66shc. Circ Res. 2008;103:1441-50 pubmed publisher
  52. LeMaistre J, Anderson C. Custom astrocyte-mediated vasomotor responses to neuronal energy demand. Genome Biol. 2009;10:209 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocytes mediate either constriction or dilation of local brain arterioles in response to synaptic activity. Recent work indicates that the directionality of this response may be dictated by ambient oxygen levels. ..
  53. Fritz M, Rinaldi G. Blood pressure measurement with the tail-cuff method in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats: influence of adrenergic- and nitric oxide-mediated vasomotion. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008;58:215-21 pubmed publisher