glossopharyngeal nerve


Summary: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.

Top Publications

  1. Qiu Y, Pereira F, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Tsai S, Tsai M. Null mutation of mCOUP-TFI results in defects in morphogenesis of the glossopharyngeal ganglion, axonal projection, and arborization. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1925-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mCOUP-TFI possesses vital physiological functions that are distinct from mCOUP-TFII despite of their high degree of homology and extensive overlapping expression patterns. ..
  2. Manley N, Capecchi M. Hox group 3 paralogous genes act synergistically in the formation of somitic and neural crest-derived structures. Dev Biol. 1997;192:274-88 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the identity of the specific Hox genes that are functional in a given region may not be as critical as the total number of Hox genes operating in that region. ..
  3. Inoue M, Beauchamp G, Bachmanov A. Gustatory neural responses to umami taste stimuli in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Chem Senses. 2004;29:789-95 pubmed
    ..Responses to umami stimuli in the glossopharyngeal nerve did not differ between the B6 and 129 strains...
  4. Kondo T, Toyooka H, Arita H. Hiccup reflex is mediated by pharyngeal branch of glossopharyngeal nerve in cats. Neurosci Res. 2003;47:317-21 pubmed
    ..To identify the afferent pathway of the hiccup-like response, the pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (PB-GPN) which distributed to the dorsal epipharyngeal area was electrically stimulated in anesthetized, ..
  5. Watari N, Kameda Y, Takeichi M, Chisaka O. Hoxa3 regulates integration of glossopharyngeal nerve precursor cells. Dev Biol. 2001;240:15-31 pubmed
    ..In summary, the Hoxa3 gene has crucial roles in ensuring the correct axon projection pattern of all three components of the IXth nerve, i.e., motor neurons and sensory neurons of the proximal and distal ganglia. ..
  6. Inoue M, Li X, McCaughey S, Beauchamp G, Bachmanov A. Soa genotype selectively affects mouse gustatory neural responses to sucrose octaacetate. Physiol Genomics. 2001;5:181-6 pubmed
    ..Thus the effect of the Soa genotype on SOA avoidance is mediated by peripheral taste responsiveness to SOA, involving taste receptor cells innervated by both the CT and GL nerves...
  7. Romeo H, Tio D, Rahman S, Chiappelli F, Taylor A. The glossopharyngeal nerve as a novel pathway in immune-to-brain communication: relevance to neuroimmune surveillance of the oral cavity. J Neuroimmunol. 2001;115:91-100 pubmed
    ..These results provide experimental evidence for a novel neural pathway for immune-to-brain communication. ..
  8. Finger T, Danilova V, Barrows J, Bartel D, Vigers A, Stone L, et al. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 2005;310:1495-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, stimulation of taste buds in vitro evokes release of ATP. Thus, ATP fulfils the criteria for a neurotransmitter linking taste buds to the nervous system. ..
  9. Shiwa N, Kimitsuki K, Manalo D, Inoue S, Park C. A pathological study of the tongues of rabid dogs in the Philippines. Arch Virol. 2018;163:1615-1621 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that rabies virus descends in the tongue along the glossopharyngeal nerve after proliferation in the brain, and von Ebner's glands and taste buds are one of the portals of virus ..

More Information


  1. Gravel J, Brocard F, Gariépy J, Lund J, Dubuc R. Modulation of respiratory activity by locomotion in lampreys. Neuroscience. 2007;144:1120-32 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the results suggest that respiratory changes are programmed to adjust ventilation prior to motor activity, and that a central rhombencephalic mechanism is involved. ..
  2. Wade J. Sexual dimorphisms in the brainstem of the green anole lizard. Brain Behav Evol. 1998;52:46-54 pubmed
    ..Cells in both areas were larger in males than in females. These parallels between structure and function provide the opportunity to study mechanisms of sexual differentiation of brain and behavior. ..
  3. Schneider Maunoury S, Seitanidou T, Charnay P, Lumsden A. Segmental and neuronal architecture of the hindbrain of Krox-20 mouse mutants. Development. 1997;124:1215-26 pubmed
    ..particular on axonal navigation: (i) a population of r6 motoneurons, presumably normally fated to join the glossopharyngeal nerve, has its axons misrouted toward the facial exit point in r4; (ii) the trigeminal motor axons are also ..
  4. Naja M, El Rajab M, Sidani H, Kabalan W, Ziade M, Al Tannir M. Modified infiltration technique in tonsillectomy: expanded case report of 25 children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;69:35-41 pubmed
    ..soft palate and uvula when the needle is mainly in the middle part of the peritonsillar area where the glossopharyngeal nerve branches predominate...
  5. Campanucci V, Nurse C. Autonomic innervation of the carotid body: role in efferent inhibition. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:83-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss recent data linking the action of hypoxia and a key CB neurotransmitter, i.e. ATP, to potential mechanisms for activating this efferent pathway. ..
  6. Thompson H, Blentic A, Watson S, Begbie J, Graham A. The formation of the superior and jugular ganglia: insights into the generation of sensory neurons by the neural crest. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather our results suggest that sensory neuronal differentiation in the S/JG is the result of localised spatiotemporal cues. ..
  7. Stathas T, Mallis A, Naxakis S, Mastronikolis N, Gkiogkis G, Xenoudakis D, et al. Taste function evaluation after tonsillectomy: a prospective study of 60 patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding should be attributed to direct or indirect intraoperative damage of the glossopharyngeal nerve or unintentional extension of the lingual nerve by application of the tongue retractor...
  8. Gupta V, Kumar S, Singh A, Tatke M. Glossopharyngeal schwannoma : a case report and review of literature. Neurol India. 2002;50:190-3 pubmed
    ..The clinical presentation, radiological features and surgical findings of the glossopharyngeal schwannoma are presented along with the review of literature. ..
  9. Corson S, Hill D. Chorda tympani nerve terminal field maturation and maintenance is severely altered following changes to gustatory nerve input to the nucleus of the solitary tract. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7591-603 pubmed publisher
  10. Swiatek P, Gridley T. Perinatal lethality and defects in hindbrain development in mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the zinc finger gene Krox20. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2071-84 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Krox20 plays an essential role during development of the hindbrain and associated cranial sensory ganglia in mice. ..
  11. Momose Sato Y, Nakamori T, Sato K. Functional development of the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerve-related nuclei in the embryonic rat brainstem: optical mapping with a voltage-sensitive dye. Neuroscience. 2011;192:781-92 pubmed publisher
    We investigated functional organization of the vagus nerve (N. X)- and glossopharyngeal nerve (N...
  12. Myrcha P, Ciostek P, Szopinski P, Noszczyk W. [Damage to cranial and peripheral nerves following patency restoration of the internal carotid artery]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001;35:415-21 pubmed
    ..damage to the cranial nerves during operation for carotid patency restoration are frequent but mostly they are not connected with any health risks and often they regress spontaneously. ..
  13. Ganchrow D, Ganchrow J, Verdin Alcazar M, Whitehead M. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-, neurotrophin-3-, and tyrosine kinase receptor-like immunoreactivity in lingual taste bud fields of mature hamster after sensory denervation. J Comp Neurol. 2003;455:25-39 pubmed compared with the nerve-dependent, posterior tongue foliate and circumvallate bud fields after glossopharyngeal nerve resection...
  14. Jonsson M, Lindahl S, Eriksson L. Effect of propofol on carotid body chemosensitivity and cholinergic chemotransduction. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:110-6 pubmed
  15. Hayakawa T, Maeda S, Tanaka K, Seki M. Fine structural survey of the intermediate subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii and its glossopharyngeal afferent terminals. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2005;210:235-44 pubmed
    ..The large glossopharyngeal afferent terminals and the neurons containing stigmoid bodies characterized the imNTS neurons that received pharyngeal afferents. ..
  16. Ikeda N, Toda H, Yamamoto M, Kanemaru S, Ishikawa M, Iwasaki K. A Perforating Artery Compressing the Nerve Rootlet and Causing Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2015;11 Suppl 3:382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Eleven patients had neurovascular compression of the glossopharyngeal nerve. In 2 of the patients, a perforating artery compressed the rootlet, thereby generating an indentation and ..
  17. Mulazimoglu S, Flury R, Kapila S, Linder T. Effects of a sensory branch to the posterior external ear canal: coughing, pain, Ramsay Hunt's syndrome and Hitselberger's sign. J Laryngol Otol. 2017;131:329-333 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that this nerve is predominantly a continuation of Arnold's nerve, also receiving fibres from the glossopharyngeal nerve and facial nerve. Histologically, the communicating branch from the facial nerve was confirmed...
  18. Walker S, McCarron M, Flynn P, Watt M. Left internal carotid artery dissection presenting with headache, Collet-Sicard syndrome and sustained hypertension. Eur J Neurol. 2003;10:731-2 pubmed
    ..We hypothesise that interruption of the left IX nerve caused hypertension in this patient. ..
  19. Ohrui T. Preventive strategies for aspiration pneumonia in elderly disabled persons. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005;207:3-12 pubmed
    ..The main theme of this review is to discuss how pneumonia develops in disabled older people and to suggest preventive strategies that may reduce the incidence of pneumonia among these subjects. ..
  20. Logjes R, Bleys R, Breugem C. The innervation of the soft palate muscles involved in cleft palate: a review of the literature. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20:895-901 pubmed publisher
    ..palatopharyngeus muscles receive motor fibres from the accessory nerve (through the vagus nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve) and also the lesser palatine nerve...
  21. Reyes E, Alcayaga J, Zapata P. Are there interactions between acetylcholine- and ATP-induced responses at the level of a visceral sensory ganglion?. Brain Res. 2006;1107:97-103 pubmed
    ..ATP)-induced responses of petrosal ganglion, where the perikarya of most sensory neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve are located...
  22. Okada Y, Imendra K, Miyazaki T, Hotokezaka H, Fujiyama R, Zeredo J, et al. A calcium-receptor agonist induces gustatory neural responses in bullfrogs. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2007;27:771-81 pubmed
    The effect of calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) agonists on frog gustatory responses was studied using glossopharyngeal nerve recording and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of isolated taste disc cells...
  23. Wang Z, Keith I, Beckman M, Brownfield M, Vidruk E, Bisgard G. 5-HT5a receptors in the carotid body chemoreception pathway of rat. Neurosci Lett. 2000;278:9-12 pubmed
    ..The present study provides direct evidence that 5-HT5a receptors are expressed in the CB, PG and SCG, which all likely play fundamental roles in arterial chemoreception. ..
  24. Dalessio D. Relief of cluster headache and cranial neuralgias. Promising prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Postgrad Med. 2001;109:69-72, 75-8 pubmed
    ..Several effective treatments are available for these conditions. Oxygen, drug therapy, or surgery may be indicated depending on the course of the disease. ..
  25. Sato K, Mochida H, Sasaki S, Momose Sato Y. Developmental organization of the glossopharyngeal nucleus in the embryonic chick brainstem slice as revealed by optical sectioning recording. Neurosci Lett. 2002;327:157-60 pubmed
    We traced developmental changes in the ventro-dorsal distribution pattern of glossopharyngeal nerve (N. IX) responses by applying an optical sectioning method to thick slice preparations dissected from E4 to E8 chick embryos...
  26. Beretta F, Hemida S, Andaluz N, Zuccarello M, Keller J. Exposure of the cervical internal carotid artery: surgical steps to the cranial base and morphometric study. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:ONS25-34; discussion ONS25-34 pubmed
    ..The number of steps required varies depending on the level of lesion. Complete understanding of the surgical anatomy is essential to minimize surgical morbidity and to develop surgical expertise. ..
  27. Hayakawa T, Kuwahara S, Maeda S, Tanaka K, Seki M. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive neurons innervating the soft palate, the root of tongue, and the pharynx in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion of the rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 2010;39:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that nociceptive sensory information from the soft palate, the root of tongue, and the pharynx might be conveyed by the neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion to the nucleus tractus solitarii. ..
  28. Saviolo R, Fiasconaro G. Treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia by carbamazepine. Br Heart J. 1987;58:291-2 pubmed
    ..Carbamazepine (600 mg/day) abolished the pharyngeal pain and associated cardiovascular manifestations in this patient for at least ten months. ..
  29. Säglitz S, Gaab M. Investigations using magnetic resonance imaging: is neurovascular compression present in patients with essential hypertension?. J Neurosurg. 2002;96:1006-12 pubmed
    ..For further clarification, however, prospective MR imaging studies should be considered in young patients with essential hypertension in whom the history of high blood pressure is short. ..
  30. Akabas M. Mechanisms of chemosensory transduction in taste cells. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1990;32:241-79 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  31. Heir G, Masterson M. Bilateral glossopharyngeal neuropathy following chemo and radiation therapy for a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. J Oral Rehabil. 2016;43:154-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sudden onset, persistent bilateral and deep ear pain that was consistent with a neuropathy of the glossopharyngeal nerve occurring 17 years after the completion of therapy for PNET...
  32. Kuna S. Effects of pharyngeal muscle activation on airway size and configuration. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1236-41 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the mechanical effects of pharyngeal muscle contraction depend on the airway level and the specific muscles that are activated. ..
  33. Chen J, He L, Dinger B, Stensaas L, Fidone S. Chronic hypoxia upregulates connexin43 expression in rat carotid body and petrosal ganglion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;92:1480-6 pubmed
    ..Increased Cx43 expression and gap junction formation in type I cells and sensory neurons may contribute to carotid body adaptation during sustained stimulation in extreme physiological conditions. ..
  34. Fukuda T, Ichikawa H, Terayama R, Yamaai T, Kuboki T, Sugimoto T. ASIC3-immunoreactive neurons in the rat vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory ganglia. Brain Res. 2006;1081:150-5 pubmed
    ..5%) and nodose ganglia (3.8%). These findings may suggest that ASIC3-containing neurons have a wide variety of sensory modalities in the vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory ganglia. ..
  35. Treesukosol Y, Ishizuka T, Yamamoto C, Senda K, Tsutsumi S, Yamatodani A, et al. Hypothalamic histamine release by taste stimuli in freely moving rats: possible implication of palatability. Behav Brain Res. 2005;164:67-72 pubmed
  36. Hill C, Thimmappa V, Smith M, Chen E. Incidence of Visualization of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve after Pediatric Tonsillectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:532-4 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to determine the incidence of exposure of the lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve during tonsillectomy with a retrospective review of surgical findings in 138 children who underwent total tonsillectomy at a ..
  37. Colbert C, Garcea M, Spector A. Effects of selective lingual gustatory deafferentation on suprathreshold taste intensity discrimination of NaCl in rats. Behav Neurosci. 2004;118:1409-17 pubmed
    ..b>Glossopharyngeal nerve transection (GLX), which has no reported effect on salt sensibility, also did not affect performance...
  38. Sarikaya Seiwert S, Klenzner T, Schipper J, Steiger H, Haenggi D. Giant dumbbell-shaped intra- and extracranial nerve schwannoma in a child presenting with glossopharyngeal neuralgia syncope syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2013;74:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor was confirmed during surgery to originate from the glossopharyngeal nerve. The histological examination revealed the characteristic features of a schwannoma...
  39. Ford L, Cruz R. Bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve paralysis after tonsillectomy: case report and anatomic study. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:2196-9 pubmed
    ..for a rare complication of tonsillectomy, severe dysphagia caused by bilateral paralysis of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Retrospective case review and prospective cadaveric dissection...
  40. Huang Y, Lu K. TUNEL staining and electron microscopy studies of apoptotic changes in the guinea pig vallate taste cells after unilateral glossopharyngeal denervation. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2001;204:493-501 pubmed
  41. Suzuki Y, Takeda M, Obara N. Effect of denervation on lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the rat circumvallate and foliate papillae. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1997;196:447-55 pubmed
    ..The finding suggests that gammadelta T lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the rat circumvallate and foliate papillae interact with each other to respond to changes such as the presence or absence of taste buds in the epithelium. ..
  42. McCarron M, Bone I. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia referred from a pontine lesion. Cephalalgia. 1999;19:115-7 pubmed
  43. Geran L, Garcea M, Spector A. Nerve regeneration-induced recovery of quinine avoidance after complete gustatory deafferentation of the tongue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R1235-43 pubmed
    ..This represents the first reported instance to our knowledge in which the capacity of a regenerated nerve to maintain taste-guided behavior was distinctly different from that of an intact nerve in a rodent model. ..
  44. Patel A, Kassam A, Horowitz M, Chang Y. Microvascular decompression in the management of glossopharyngeal neuralgia: analysis of 217 cases. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:705-10; discussion 710-1 pubmed
    ..MVD is a safe, effective form of therapy for GPN. It may be most beneficial for patients with typical GPN, especially when symptoms are restricted to deep throat pain only. ..
  45. Slavin K. Eagle syndrome: entrapment of the glossopharyngeal nerve? Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:216-8 pubmed
    ..Eagle syndrome, which is caused by compression of the glossopharyngeal nerve as it passes the elongated styloid process, may be classified as an entrapment syndrome deserving of ..
  46. Corson J, Erisir A. Monosynaptic convergence of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal afferents onto ascending relay neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract: a high-resolution confocal and correlative electron microscopy approach. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:2907-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for orosensory processing in the rNTS, and the techniques presented here have applications in investigations of neural microcircuitry with an emphasis on innervation patterning. ..
  47. Danilova V, Danilov Y, Roberts T, Tinti J, Nofre C, Hellekant G. Sense of taste in a new world monkey, the common marmoset: recordings from the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:579-94 pubmed
    ..Comparison of marmoset data with those of other nonhuman primates studied, rhesus and chimpanzee, demonstrates phylogenetic trends in the organization of taste system. This can help to uncover pathways of primate evolution. ..
  48. Shimokawa T, Yi S, Tanaka S. Nerve supply to the soft palate muscles with special reference to the distribution of the lesser palatine nerve. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2005;42:495-500 pubmed
    ..This may be why controversies exist in previous studies about the innervation of the soft palate muscles. ..
  49. Ryan S, McNicholas W, O Regan R, Nolan P. Upper airway muscle paralysis reduces reflex upper airway motor response to negative transmural pressure in rat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:1307-16 pubmed
    ..groups on the UA motor response to UANP and to asphyxia, recording from the pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (n = 11)...
  50. El Sharaby A, Ueda K, Wakisaka S. Immunohistochemical distribution of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) in developing rat nasoincisor papilla. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004;277:370-83 pubmed
    ..The present study reveals that gustatory nerves preceded the development of taste buds. However, further investigations are required to examine such a characteristic model for the neurogenic theory of taste induction. ..
  51. Hiraishi T, Matsushima T, Kawashima M, Nakahara Y, Takahashi Y, Ito H, et al. 3D Computer graphics simulation to obtain optimal surgical exposure during microvascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Neurosurg Rev. 2013;36:629-35; discussion 635 pubmed publisher
    ..with opening of the lateral cerebellomedullary fissure, to visualize better the root entry zone of the glossopharyngeal nerve and to obtain a wide working space in the cerebellomedullary cistern, for rostral transposition of AICA...
  52. Koehler P. [Causes of otalgia from outside the ear]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:2304; author reply 2304 pubmed
  53. May O, Erisir A, Hill D. Ultrastructure of primary afferent terminals and synapses in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract: comparison among the greater superficial petrosal, chorda tympani, and glossopharyngeal nerves. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:1066-78 pubmed
    ..These normative data form the basis for future studies of developmentally and environmentally induced plasticity in the rodent brainstem. ..