chorda tympani nerve


Summary: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.

Top Publications

  1. Jin Z, Danilova V, Assadi Porter F, Markley J, Hellekant G. Monkey electrophysiological and human psychophysical responses to mutants of the sweet protein brazzein: delineating brazzein sweetness. Chem Senses. 2003;28:491-8 pubmed
    ..We also found that the N- and C-termini are important for the sweetness of brazzein. The close correlation (r = 0.78) between the results of the above two methods corroborates our hypothesis that S fibers convey sweet taste in primates. ..
  2. Lyall V, Alam R, Phan T, Phan D, Heck G, DeSimone J. Excitation and adaptation in the detection of hydrogen ions by taste receptor cells: a role for cAMP and Ca(2+). J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:399-408 pubmed
    ..However, an increase in [Ca(2+)]i stimulates pH(i) recovery, which, in turn, increases sensory adaptation to acids...
  3. Corson S, Hill D. Chorda tympani nerve terminal field maturation and maintenance is severely altered following changes to gustatory nerve input to the nucleus of the solitary tract. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7591-603 pubmed publisher
    ..petrosal and glossopharyngeal nerves at postnatal day 15 (P15), P25, or at adulthood, while leaving the chorda tympani nerve intact...
  4. Finger T, Danilova V, Barrows J, Bartel D, Vigers A, Stone L, et al. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 2005;310:1495-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, stimulation of taste buds in vitro evokes release of ATP. Thus, ATP fulfils the criteria for a neurotransmitter linking taste buds to the nervous system. ..
  5. Hellekant G, Danilova V, Roberts T, Ninomiya Y. The taste of ethanol in a primate model: I. Chorda tympani nerve response in Macaca mulatta. Alcohol. 1997;14:473-84 pubmed
    The chorda tympani nerve (CT) mediates taste from the anterior part of the tongue. Here we studied the effects of ethanol on the tongue in recordings from both the whole CT nerve and individual taste fibers of the rhesus monkey, M...
  6. Danilova V, Danilov Y, Roberts T, Tinti J, Nofre C, Hellekant G. Sense of taste in a new world monkey, the common marmoset: recordings from the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:579-94 pubmed
    ..Comparison of marmoset data with those of other nonhuman primates studied, rhesus and chimpanzee, demonstrates phylogenetic trends in the organization of taste system. This can help to uncover pathways of primate evolution. ..
  7. Lundy R, Contreras R. Temperature and amiloride alter taste nerve responses to Na+, K+, and NH+4 salts in rats. Brain Res. 1997;744:309-17 pubmed
    ..We measured the integrated responses of the chorda tympani nerve to 500 mM concentrations of NaCl, Na2SO4, sodium acetate (NaAc), KCl, K2SO4, potassium acetate (KAc), NH4Cl,..
  8. Lyall V, Heck G, Phan T, Mummalaneni S, Malik S, Vinnikova A, et al. Ethanol modulates the VR-1 variant amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor. I. Effect on TRC volume and Na+ flux. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:569-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in the presence of mineral salts, ethanol modulates the Bz-insensitive VR-1 variant salt taste receptor. ..
  9. St John S, Boughter J. The contribution of taste bud populations to bitter avoidance in mouse strains differentially sensitive to sucrose octa-acetate and quinine. Chem Senses. 2004;29:775-87 pubmed
    ..for responses to SOA and quinine hydrochloride, before and after transection of the glossopharyngeal or chorda tympani nerve, or sham surgery. Prior to surgery, congenic SOA tasters (C3...

More Information


  1. Shigemura N, Islam A, Sadamitsu C, Yoshida R, Yasumatsu K, Ninomiya Y. Expression of amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels in mouse taste cells after chorda tympani nerve crush. Chem Senses. 2005;30:531-8 pubmed
    ..These results support the view that differentiation of taste cells into AS or AI cells is initiated prior to synapse formation. ..
  2. Lyall V, Alam R, Phan T, Russell O, Malik S, Heck G, et al. Modulation of rat chorda tympani NaCl responses and intracellular Na+ activity in polarized taste receptor cells by pH. J Gen Physiol. 2002;120:793-815 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TRC pH(i) regulates Na(+)-influx through amiloride-sensitive apical ENaCs and hence modulates NaCl CT responses in acid/salt mixtures. ..
  3. Danilova V, Hellekant G. Comparison of the responses of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to taste stimuli in C57BL/6J mice. BMC Neurosci. 2003;4:5 pubmed
    ..These data provide a comprehensive survey and comparison of the taste sensitivity of the normal C57BL/6J mouse against which the effects of manipulations of its gustatory system can be better assessed. ..
  4. Damak S, Rong M, Yasumatsu K, Kokrashvili Z, Varadarajan V, Zou S, et al. Detection of sweet and umami taste in the absence of taste receptor T1r3. Science. 2003;301:850-3 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that T1r3-independent sweet- and umami-responsive receptors and/or pathways exist in taste cells. ..
  5. Sollars S, Walker B, Thaw A, Hill D. Age-related decrease of the chorda tympani nerve terminal field in the nucleus of the solitary tract is prevented by dietary sodium restriction during development. Neuroscience. 2006;137:1229-36 pubmed
    ..To determine when these effects are expressed postnatally, the terminal field of the chorda tympani nerve was compared between sodium-restricted and sodium-replete rats at postnatal days 15-17, postnatal days 25-..
  6. Inoue M, Li X, McCaughey S, Beauchamp G, Bachmanov A. Soa genotype selectively affects mouse gustatory neural responses to sucrose octaacetate. Physiol Genomics. 2001;5:181-6 pubmed
    ..Thus the effect of the Soa genotype on SOA avoidance is mediated by peripheral taste responsiveness to SOA, involving taste receptor cells innervated by both the CT and GL nerves...
  7. Treesukosol Y, Lyall V, Heck G, DeSimone J, Spector A. A psychophysical and electrophysiological analysis of salt taste in Trpv1 null mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1799-809 pubmed
    ..In addition, a more detailed analysis of chorda tympani nerve (CT) responses to NaCl, with and without benzamil (Bz, an amiloride analog) treatment revealed that the ..
  8. Guagliardo N, Hill D. Fungiform taste bud degeneration in C57BL/6J mice following chorda-lingual nerve transection. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:206-16 pubmed
    ..Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils...
  9. Kiverniti E, Watters G. Taste disturbance after mastoid surgery: immediate and long-term effects of chorda tympani nerve sacrifice. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:34-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the immediate and long-term taste effects of chorda tympani nerve sacrifice in patients undergoing open cavity mastoidectomy.
  10. Cavallin M, McCluskey L. Lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of activated macrophages in the degenerating taste system. J Neurosci Res. 2005;80:75-84 pubmed
    ..These novel findings suggest that LPS overcomes the immunosuppression induced by the sodium-restricted diet and also indicate that the immune system plays a role in regulating taste function after neural injury. ..
  11. Ruf I, Maier W. Topography of the chorda tympani nerve and the tensor tympani muscle in carnivores provides a new synapomorphy for Herpestidae (Carnivora, Mammalia). J Morphol. 2010;271:612-20 pubmed publisher
    The topographical relationship of the chorda tympani nerve (chorda tympani) to the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear of carnivores provides new phylogenetic information...
  12. DeSimone J, Lyall V, Heck G, Phan T, Alam R, Feldman G, et al. A novel pharmacological probe links the amiloride-insensitive NaCl, KCl, and NH(4)Cl chorda tympani taste responses. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:2638-41 pubmed
    ..CPC (2 mM) inhibited intracellular acidification of TRCs due to apically presented NH(4)Cl, suggesting that CPC acts on an apical membrane nonselective cation pathway...
  13. Hellekant G, Ninomiya Y, Danilova V. Taste in chimpanzees. III: Labeled-line coding in sweet taste. Physiol Behav. 1998;65:191-200 pubmed
    ..Thus the S-cluster fibers satisfy the definition of the labeled-line theory: "that activity in a particular fiber type represents a specific taste quality." ..
  14. Ohkuri T, Yasumatsu K, Horio N, Jyotaki M, Margolskee R, Ninomiya Y. Multiple sweet receptors and transduction pathways revealed in knockout mice by temperature dependence and gurmarin sensitivity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R960-71 pubmed publisher
  15. Lyall V, Heck G, DeSimone J, Feldman G. Effects of osmolarity on taste receptor cell size and function. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:C800-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the osmolyte-induced increase in the CT response to NaCl involves a sustained decrease in TRC volume and the activation of amiloride-sensitive apical Na(+) channels. ..
  16. Shimizu Y, Yamazaki M, Nakanishi K, Sakurai M, Sanada A, Takewaki T, et al. Enhanced responses of the chorda tympani nerve to sugars in the ventromedial hypothalamic obese rat. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:128-33 pubmed
    ..sensitivity in obese rats with lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was studied by examining chorda tympani nerve responses to various taste stimuli including sugars...
  17. Karatayli Ozgursoy S, Ozgursoy O, Muz E, Kesici G, Akiner M. Evaluation of taste after underlay technique myringoplasty using whole-mouth gustatory test: smokers versus non-smokers. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1025-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this study will supply some additional aspects in the scope of taste disturbances due to ear surgery and smoking. ..
  18. Perez R, Fuoco G, Dorion J, Ho P, Chen J. Does the chorda tympani nerve confer general sensation from the tongue?. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:368-73 pubmed
    ..The results of this study support the notion that the chorda tympani nerve confers general sensation from the tongue. A-1b.
  19. Lyall V, Heck G, Phan T, Mummalaneni S, Malik S, Vinnikova A, et al. Ethanol modulates the VR-1 variant amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor. II. Effect on chorda tympani salt responses. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:587-600 pubmed
    ..VR-1 KO mice demonstrated no Bz-insensitive CT response to NaCl and no sensitivity to ethanol. We conclude that ethanol increases salt taste sensitivity by its direct action on the Bz-insensitive VR-1 variant salt taste receptor. ..
  20. Lyall V, Alam R, Malik S, Phan T, Vinnikova A, Heck G, et al. Basolateral Na+-H+ exchanger-1 in rat taste receptor cells is involved in neural adaptation to acidic stimuli. J Physiol. 2004;556:159-73 pubmed
    ..While cAMP enhances TRC apical H(+) entry and CT responses to strong acid, an increase in Ca(2+) activates NHE-1, and increases neural adaptation to all acidic stimuli. ..
  21. Danilova V, Hellekant G. Elucidating coding of taste qualities with the taste modifier miraculin in the common marmoset. Brain Res Bull. 2006;68:315-21 pubmed
    ..These results further support our hypothesis that the activity in S fibers is translated into a hedonically positive behavioral response. ..
  22. Yasumatsu K, Kusuhara Y, Shigemura N, Ninomiya Y. Recovery of two independent sweet taste systems during regeneration of the mouse chorda tympani nerve after nerve crush. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:1521-9 pubmed
    ..These two sweet-reception systems may be reconstituted independently during regeneration of the mouse CT nerve. ..
  23. Frank M, Blizard D. Chorda tympani responses in two inbred strains of mice with different taste preferences. Physiol Behav. 1999;67:287-97 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, genes involved in the structuring of taste receptors and/or the chordae tympani, which transduce taste stimuli having diverse perceptual qualities, differ for the two mouse strains. ..
  24. Inoue M, Beauchamp G, Bachmanov A. Gustatory neural responses to umami taste stimuli in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Chem Senses. 2004;29:789-95 pubmed
    ..Strain differences in gustatory neural responses to nucleotides but not glutamate suggest that these compounds may activate distinct taste transduction mechanisms. ..
  25. Simon S, de Araujo I. The salty and burning taste of capsaicin. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:531-4 pubmed
  26. Just T, Pau H, Witt M, Hummel T. Contact endoscopic comparison of morphology of human fungiform papillae of healthy subjects and patients with transected chorda tympani nerve. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1216-22 pubmed
    The chorda tympani nerve (CTN) carries gustatory fibers from taste buds of fungiform papillae (fPap) of the anterior portion of the tongue. Accordingly, middle ear surgery with transection of the CTN may result in gustatory impairment...
  27. Hellekant G, Ninomiya Y, Danilova V. Taste in chimpanzees II: single chorda tympani fibers. Physiol Behav. 1997;61:829-41 pubmed
    ..The response to NaCl was suppressed by amiloride in the fibers of the Na-subcluster, but not in the fibers of the Na-K subcluster. Umami compounds elicited the strongest responses in the M-subcluster. ..
  28. Sanematsu K, Yasumatsu K, Yoshida R, Shigemura N, Ninomiya Y. Mouse strain differences in Gurmarin-sensitivity of sweet taste responses are not associated with polymorphisms of the sweet receptor gene, Tas1r3. Chem Senses. 2005;30:491-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the mouse strain difference in the Gur inhibition of sweet responses of the CT nerve may not be associated with polymorphisms of Tas1r3. ..
  29. Yasumatsu K, Katsukawa H, Sasamoto K, Ninomiya Y. Recovery of amiloride-sensitive neural coding during regeneration of the gustatory nerve: behavioral-neural correlation of salt taste discrimination. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4362-8 pubmed
    ..It may also explain stable sensory coding for taste quality during the continuous turnover of receptor cells in the healthy animal. ..
  30. Nelson G, Chandrashekar J, Hoon M, Feng L, Zhao G, Ryba N, et al. An amino-acid taste receptor. Nature. 2002;416:199-202 pubmed
    ..We also show that sequence differences in T1R receptors within and between species (human and mouse) can significantly influence the selectivity and specificity of taste responses. ..
  31. Golden G, Voznesenskaya A, Tordoff M. Chorda tympani nerve modulates the rat's avoidance of calcium chloride. Physiol Behav. 2012;105:1214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..better understand how information about oral calcium is conveyed to the brain, we examined the effects of chorda tympani nerve transection on calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) taste preferences and thresholds in male Wistar rats...
  32. Inoue M, McCaughey S, Bachmanov A, Beauchamp G. Whole nerve chorda tympani responses to sweeteners in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Chem Senses. 2001;26:915-23 pubmed
    ..We measured gustatory afferent responses of the whole chorda tympani nerve in these two strains using a broad array of sweeteners and other taste stimuli...
  33. Lyall V, Alam R, Phan D, Ereso G, Phan T, Malik S, et al. Decrease in rat taste receptor cell intracellular pH is the proximate stimulus in sour taste transduction. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C1005-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a decrease in TRC pH(i) is the proximate stimulus in rat sour taste transduction...
  34. Smith K, Treesukosol Y, Paedae A, Contreras R, Spector A. Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R1195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of ..
  35. Lyall V, Phan T, Mummalaneni S, Mansouri M, Heck G, Kobal G, et al. Effect of nicotine on chorda tympani responses to salty and sour stimuli. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:1662-74 pubmed
    ..At pH(o) >8, nicotine also inhibited the phasic component of the HCl CT response. We conclude that the effects of nicotine on ENaC and the phasic HCl CT response arise from increases in TRC pH(i) and volume. ..
  36. Danilova V, Hellekant G. Sense of taste in a New World monkey, the common marmoset. II. Link between behavior and nerve activity. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:1067-76 pubmed
    ..85. This study supports our hypothesis that intake is influenced by S and Q fibers, where S fibers serve as a hedonically positive input and Q fibers as a hedonically negative input. ..
  37. Steen P, Shi L, He L, McCluskey L. Neutrophil responses to injury or inflammation impair peripheral gustatory function. Neuroscience. 2010;167:894-908 pubmed publisher
    ..We also suggest that balanced neutrophil and macrophage responses enable normal neural responses after neural injury...
  38. Simon S, Liu L, Erickson R. Neuropeptides modulate rat chorda tympani responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1494-505 pubmed
    ..Peptide-induced CT responses to quinine HCl or sucrose were too small to accurately detect. These data suggest that at short latencies, after local infusion via the LA, neuropeptides can alter CT responses in a peptide-specific manner. ..
  39. Clark M, O Malley S. Chorda tympani nerve function after middle ear surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:335-40 pubmed
    To assess chorda tympani nerve function before and after different types of middle ear surgery...
  40. Ohkuri T, Yasumatsu K, Shigemura N, Yoshida R, Ninomiya Y. Amiloride inhibition on NaCl responses of the chorda tympani nerve in two 129 substrains of mice, 129P3/J and 129X1/SvJ. Chem Senses. 2006;31:565-72 pubmed
  41. Lyall V, Heck G, Vinnikova A, Ghosh S, Phan T, Alam R, et al. The mammalian amiloride-insensitive non-specific salt taste receptor is a vanilloid receptor-1 variant. J Physiol. 2004;558:147-59 pubmed
    ..VR-1 knockout mice demonstrate no functional amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor and no salt taste sensitivity to vanilloids and temperature. We conclude that the mammalian non-specific salt taste receptor is a VR-1 variant. ..
  42. Wang H, Iguchi N, Rong Q, Zhou M, Ogunkorode M, Inoue M, et al. Expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 in mammalian taste bud cells and the effect of its null-mutation on taste preferences. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:384-98 pubmed publisher
  43. Nin T, Sakagami M, Sone Okunaka M, Muto T, Mishiro Y, Fukazawa K. Taste function after section of chorda tympani nerve in middle ear surgery. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2006;33:13-7 pubmed
    ..investigate prospectively the clinical manifestations and the functional recovery of taste after section of chorda tympani nerve (CTN) during middle ear surgery, the subjective and objective study on the patients was performed...
  44. Spector A, Blonde G, Garcea M, Jiang E. Rewiring the gustatory system: specificity between nerve and taste bud field is critical for normal salt discrimination. Brain Res. 2010;1310:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested whether histologically confirmed cross-regeneration of the chorda tympani nerve (CT) into the posterior tongue in the absence of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) (CT-PostTongue) or cross-..
  45. Tobin G, Ryberg A, Gentle S, Edwards A. Distribution and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the ovine submandibular gland. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:1215-23 pubmed
    ..Increased transmitter release caused by blockade of neuronal inhibitory receptors of the M4 subtype would explain the increase in protein output...
  46. Martin L, Sollars S. Contributory role of sex differences in the variations of gustatory function. J Neurosci Res. 2017;95:594-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Among ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment decreases activity in the chorda tympani nerve during NaCl stimulation...
  47. Inui Yamamoto C, Furudono Y, Yamamoto T. Hedonics of taste influence the gastric emptying in rats. Physiol Behav. 2009;96:717-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that hedonically positive tastes increase, but hedonically negative tastes decrease gastric function in terms of gastric emptying. ..
  48. DeSimone J, Ren Z, Phan T, Heck G, Mummalaneni S, Lyall V. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to salty and sour taste stimuli. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:3206-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA, are associated with neurotransmitter release. ..
  49. May O, Hill D. Gustatory terminal field organization and developmental plasticity in the nucleus of the solitary tract revealed through triple-fluorescence labeling. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:658-69 pubmed
  50. Hong Y, Ma Y, Zhuang P, Xu X. [The effect of hyalinized chorda tympani nerve canal in protection of mastoid segment of facial nerve in middle ear surgery]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013;27:487-90 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of hyalinized chorda tympani nerve canal in mastoid segment to landmark facial nerve in middle ear surgery by means of observing the location relationship between hyalinized chorda tympani nerve canal and facial ..
  51. Mbiene J. Taste placodes are primary targets of geniculate but not trigeminal sensory axons in mouse developing tongue. J Neurocytol. 2004;33:617-29 pubmed
    ..At E11.5, we confirmed that the chorda tympani nerve provided for most of the nerve branching in the tongue swellings. At E12...
  52. McCluskey L, Hill D. Sensitive periods for the effect of dietary sodium restriction on intact and denervated taste receptor cells. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R1275-84 pubmed
    Unilateral chorda tympani nerve (CT) section combined with dietary sodium restriction leads to striking alterations in sodium taste function...
  53. Spector A. The functional consequences of gustatory nerve regeneration as assessed behaviorally in a rat model. Chem Senses. 2005;30 Suppl 1:i66-7 pubmed