facial nerve

Summary

Summary: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.

Top Publications

  1. Serpe C, Coers S, Sanders V, Jones K. CD4+ T, but not CD8+ or B, lymphocytes mediate facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve transection. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17:393-402 pubmed
    ..All mice were subjected to a right facial nerve axotomy, with the left (uncut) side serving as an internal control...
  2. Schwarz Q, Gu C, Fujisawa H, Sabelko K, Gertsenstein M, Nagy A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor controls neuronal migration and cooperates with Sema3A to pattern distinct compartments of the facial nerve. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2822-34 pubmed
    ..of genetically engineered mouse mutants, we now demonstrate that the behavior of somata and axons of the facial nerve is regulated independently by two secreted ligands for the transmembrane receptor neuropilin 1 (Nrp1), the ..
  3. Scheller K, Scheller C. Nimodipine promotes regeneration of peripheral facial nerve function after traumatic injury following maxillofacial surgery: an off label pilot-study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Encouraged by these positive results a pilot-study of nimodipine treatment in patients with a peripheral facial nerve (FN) paresis following maxillofacial surgery was performed...
  4. Hato N, Kohno H, Yamada H, Takahashi H, Gyo K. Role of nitric oxide in the onset of facial nerve palsy by HSV-1 infection. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;139:1339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study elucidated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the incidence of facial nerve paralysis caused by HSV-1 in mice and to evaluate the possible role of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, in ..
  5. Ying T, Li S, Zhong J, Li X, Wang X, Zhu J. The value of abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression surgery for hemifacial spasm. Int J Surg. 2011;9:347-51 pubmed publisher
    Abnormal muscle response (AMR) to the electrical stimulation of a branch of facial nerve is a specific electrophysiological feature of primary hemifacial spasm (HFS)...
  6. Mantsopoulos K, Psillas G, Psychogios G, Brase C, Iro H, Constantinidis J. Predicting the long-term outcome after idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:848-51 pubmed publisher
    ..024 and p = 0.000, respectively). The initial severity of facial weakness and the electroneurographically detected facial nerve degeneration were found to be important factors in predicting the long-term prognosis of Bell's palsy.
  7. Sun F, Zhou K, Mi W, Qiu J. Combined use of decellularized allogeneic artery conduits with autologous transdifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells for facial nerve regeneration in rats. Biomaterials. 2011;32:8118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..artery conduit containing autologous transdifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dADSCs) on an 8-mm facial nerve branch lesion in a rat model...
  8. Ahmadi N, Newkirk K, Kim H. Facial nerve hemangioma: a rare case involving the vertical segment. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:499-502 pubmed publisher
    This case report and literature review reports on a rare case of facial nerve hemangioma (FNH) involving the vertical facial nerve (FN) segment, and discusses the clinical presentation, imaging, pathogenesis, and management of these rare ..
  9. Künzel J, Zenk J, Koch M, Hornung J, Iro H. Paraganglioma of the facial nerve, a rare differential diagnosis for facial nerve paralysis: case report and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A 39-year-old male patient presented with total peripheral facial nerve paralysis...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hu A, Zuo B, Zhang F, Zhang H, Lan Q. Evaluation of electronspun silk fibroin-based transplants used for facial nerve repair. Otol Neurotol. 2013;34:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers as nerve conduits could improve nerve regeneration microenvironment and induce the facial nerve regeneration of Sprague-Dawley rats...
  2. Biglioli F, Frigerio A, Colombo V, Colletti G, Rabbiosi D, Mortini P, et al. Masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis for early facial reanimation. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:149-55 pubmed publisher
    Early repair of facial nerve paralysis when cortical neural input cannot be provided by the facial nerve nucleus, is generally accomplished anastomozing the extracranial stump of the facial nerve to a motor donor nerve...
  3. Foecking E, Fargo K, Coughlin L, Kim J, Marzo S, Jones K. Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:451-8 pubmed
    ..ways to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves using daily electrical stimulation (ES) following a facial nerve crush injury. In our previous studies, ES was not initiated until 24 h after injury...
  4. Gomez O, Ballester Lurbe B, Mesonero J, Terrado J. Glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT8 are upregulated after facial nerve axotomy in adult mice. J Anat. 2011;219:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose transporters GLUT3, GLUT4 and GLUT8 in the facial nucleus of adult mice during the first days after facial nerve axotomy...
  5. Fukuda M, Oishi M, Hiraishi T, Saito A, Fujii Y. Intraoperative facial nerve motor evoked potential monitoring during skull base surgery predicts long-term facial nerve function outcomes. Neurol Res. 2011;33:578-82 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to clarify whether facial nerve motor evoked potentials (FNMEPs) elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation during skull base surgery are useful for predicting long-term facial nerve function...
  6. Salomone R, Bento R, Costa H, Azzi Nogueira D, Ovando P, Da Silva C, et al. Bone marrow stem cells in facial nerve regeneration from isolated stumps. Muscle Nerve. 2013;48:423-9 pubmed publisher
    Severe lesions in the facial nerve may have extensive axonal loss and leave isolated stumps that impose technical difficulties for nerve grafting.
  7. De Ceulaer J, Decat M, Reychler H. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: case report and literature review. B-ENT. 2012;8:225-8 pubmed
    A 68-year-old female presented with a right parotid mass and partial frontal peripheral facial nerve palsy. Pre-operatively, the mass was thought to be benign...
  8. Tanaka H, Maeda R, Shoji W, Wada H, Masai I, Shiraki T, et al. Novel mutations affecting axon guidance in zebrafish and a role for plexin signalling in the guidance of trigeminal and facial nerve axons. Development. 2007;134:3259-69 pubmed
  9. Grosheva M, Guntinas Lichius O, Angelova S, Kuerten S, Alvanou A, Streppel M, et al. Local stabilization of microtubule assembly improves recovery of facial nerve function after repair. Exp Neurol. 2008;209:131-44 pubmed
    Within a recent study on the recovery of vibrissae motor performance after facial nerve repair in blind (strain SD/RCS) and sighted (strain SD) rats, we found that, despite persisting myotopic disorganization in the facial nucleus, the ..
  10. Hao H, Doh ura K, Nakanishi H. Impairment of microglial responses to facial nerve axotomy in cathepsin S-deficient mice. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:2196-206 pubmed
    ..To better understand the role of CS in microglia, we investigated microglial responses after a facial nerve axotomy in CS-deficient (CS-/-) and wild-type mice...
  11. Khosravani N, Sandberg M, Ekstrom J. The otic ganglion in rats and its parotid connection: cholinergic pathways, reflex secretion and a secretory role for the facial nerve. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:239-47 pubmed
    ..The facial nerve contributed to the acetylcholine synthesizing capacity of the gland...
  12. Gaillard C, Perie S, Susini B, St Guily J. Facial nerve dysfunction after parotidectomy: the role of local factors. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:287-91 pubmed
    The objective was to analyze the incidence and factors associated with facial nerve dysfunction after conservative parotidectomy with facial nerve dissection...
  13. Rebol J, Milojković V, Didanovic V. Side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis via transposition of the intratemporal facial nerve. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:653-7; discussion 657 pubmed
    The technique of facial nerve repair with side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is presented and evaluated in five patients who were operated on for facial nerve paralysis after acoustic schwannoma surgery, or had cranial base trauma...
  14. Huang B, Chang C, Hsu J. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to determine the reliability of (i) intraoperative monitoring by stimulated electromyography (EMG) of the facial nerve to predict the completeness of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS), and (ii) brainstem ..
  15. Cushing S, Papsin B, Gordon K. Incidence and characteristics of facial nerve stimulation in children with cochlear implants. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1787-91 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to accurately measure facial nerve stimulation in pediatric implant users and to determine the characteristics and incidence of this unwanted ..
  16. Guntinas Lichius O, Hundeshagen G, Paling T, Streppel M, Grosheva M, Irintchev A, et al. Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;28:101-12 pubmed
    The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial-facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e...
  17. Grosheva M, Guntinas Lichius O, Arnhold S, Skouras E, Kuerten S, Streppel M, et al. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation does not improve quality of muscle reinnervation or recovery of motor function after facial nerve transection in rats. Biol Chem. 2008;389:873-88 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we devised and validated a novel strategy in rats to improve the outcome of facial nerve reconstruction by daily manual stimulation of the target muscles...
  18. Strauss C, Romstock J, Fahlbusch R, Rampp S, Scheller C. Preservation of facial nerve function after postoperative vasoactive treatment in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:577-84; discussion 577-84 pubmed
    b>Facial nerve paresis and hearing loss are common complications after vestibular schwannoma surgery...
  19. Garcia Losarcos N, Gonzalez Hidalgo M, Franco Carcedo C, Poch Broto J. [Electrical stimulation of the facial nerve with a prognostic function in parotid surgery]. Rev Neurol. 2009;49:119-22 pubmed
    Continuous electromyography during parotidectomies and direct stimulation of the facial nerve as an intraoperative identification technique significantly lower the rate of post-operative morbidity...
  20. Hwang K, Han J, Battuvshin D, Kim D, Chung I. Communication of infraorbital nerve and facial nerve: anatomic and histologic study. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:88-91 pubmed
    ..anatomy of the infraorbital plexus, consisting of the superior labial branch of the infraorbital nerve and facial nerve in the cheek. The authors dissected infraorbital nerves and facial nerves in 16 cadavers...
  21. Wada H, Iwasaki M, Sato T, Masai I, Nishiwaki Y, Tanaka H, et al. Dual roles of zygotic and maternal Scribble1 in neural migration and convergent extension movements in zebrafish embryos. Development. 2005;132:2273-85 pubmed
    ..The dual roles of the scrb1 gene in both neuronal migration and CE provide a novel insight into the underlying mechanisms of cell movement in vertebrate development. ..
  22. Fukuda M, Oishi M, Takao T, Saito A, Fujii Y. Facial nerve motor-evoked potential monitoring during skull base surgery predicts facial nerve outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:1066-70 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether monitoring facial nerve motor-evoked potentials (FNMEPs) elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation during skull base tumour surgery is useful for predicting facial nerve outcome...
  23. Huang Z, Ha G, Petitto J. IL-15 and IL-15R alpha gene deletion: effects on T lymphocyte trafficking and the microglial and neuronal responses to facial nerve axotomy. Neurosci Lett. 2007;417:160-4 pubmed
    ..b>Facial nerve axotomy in mice leads to T cell migration across an intact blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and under certain ..
  24. Pather N, Osman M. Landmarks of the facial nerve: implications for parotidectomy. Surg Radiol Anat. 2006;28:170-5 pubmed
    b>Facial nerve paralysis is a daunting potential complication of parotid surgery and is widely reported...
  25. Kimura H, Kawatani M, Ito E, Ishikawa K. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on facial nerve recovery in the Guinea pig. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1000-6 pubmed
    ..The presence and distribution of PACAP receptors following facial nerve transection were also investigated. Animal experiment...
  26. Tong F, Chow S, Chan P, Wong A, Wan S, Ng R, et al. A prospective randomised controlled study on efficacies of acupuncture and steroid in treatment of idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. Acupunct Med. 2009;27:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A randomised controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture in comparison with steroid in treatment of idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy)...
  27. Tsutsumi T, Nakajima N, Hirose T, Watanabe K. Total-length invasion of the facial nerve by parotid carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:618-22 pubmed publisher
    A case of parotid carcinoma extending along the facial nerve up to the internal auditory canal is presented...
  28. Song M, Shirasaki R, Cai C, Ruiz E, Evans S, Lee S, et al. T-Box transcription factor Tbx20 regulates a genetic program for cranial motor neuron cell body migration. Development. 2006;133:4945-55 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that Tbx20 programs a variety of hindbrain motor neurons for migration, independent of directionality, and in facial neurons is a positive regulator of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  29. Kim J, Moon I, Lee J, Shim D, Lee W. Useful surgical techniques for facial nerve preservation in tumorous intra-temporal lesions. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:33-41 pubmed publisher
    The management of the facial nerve in tumorous temporal lesions is particularly challenging due to its complex anatomic location and potential postoperative complications, including permanent facial paralysis...
  30. Pereira J, Merí A, Potau J, Prats Galino A, Sancho J, Sitges Serra A. A simple method for safe identification of the facial nerve using palpable landmarks. Arch Surg. 2004;139:745-7; discussion 748 pubmed
    External palpable landmarks can be used to identify the facial nerve trunk quickly and safely. Prospective anatomical dissection study. University department of human anatomy and university hospital...
  31. Chua C, Quhill F, Jones E, Voon L, Ahad M, Rowson N. Treatment of aberrant facial nerve regeneration with botulinum toxin A. Orbit. 2004;23:213-8 pubmed
    ..the effect and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) at reducing and maintaining eyelid synkinesia in aberrant facial nerve regeneration, while concurrently observing for the presence of side effects to differing treatment doses.
  32. Mehta R, Deschler D. Intraoperative diagnosis of facial nerve schwannoma at parotidectomy. Am J Otolaryngol. 2008;29:126-9 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to provide a diagnostic algorithm for facial nerve schwannomas presenting as a parotid mass. The study is a case report and literature review...
  33. Martins R, Socolovsky M, Siqueira M, Campero A. Hemihypoglossal-facial neurorrhaphy after mastoid dissection of the facial nerve: results in 24 patients and comparison with the classic technique. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:310-6; discussion 317 pubmed publisher
    ..has been widely used for reanimation of paralyzed facial muscles after irreversible proximal injury of the facial nerve. However, complete section of the hypoglossal nerve occasionally results in hemiglossal dysfunction and ..
  34. Byram S, Serpe C, Pruett S, Sanders V, Jones K. Natural killer cells do not mediate facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve transection. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17:417-25 pubmed
    ..activating gene-2 knockout (pfp/RAG-2 KO), and common gamma-chain (gammac)/RAG-2 KO mice received a right facial nerve axotomy. In WT mice, FMN survival was 86+/-1.0% relative to the contralateral control side...
  35. Bodenez C, Bernat I, Willer J, Barre P, Lamas G, Tankere F. Facial nerve decompression for idiopathic Bell's palsy: report of 13 cases and literature review. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients would probably benefit from facial nerve decompression...
  36. Berg T, Jonsson L, Engstrom M. Agreement between the Sunnybrook, House-Brackmann, and Yanagihara facial nerve grading systems in Bell's palsy. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:1020-6 pubmed
    To assess the agreement between the Sunnybrook facial nerve grading system and the House-Brackmann and Yanagihara systems. Prospective clinical facial nerve grading. Tertiary referral center...
  37. Hadlock T, Lindsay R, Edwards C, Smitson C, Weinberg J, Knox C, et al. The effect of electrical and mechanical stimulation on the regenerating rodent facial nerve. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1094-102 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the degree to which manual target muscle manipulation and brief electrical stimulation of the facial nerve, alone or in combination, affects recovery following rat facial nerve injury...
  38. Witt R, Weinstein G, Rejto L. Tympanomastoid suture and digastric muscle in cadaver and live parotidectomy. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:574-7 pubmed
    To prove that the tympanomastoid suture (TMS) is a significantly closer and less variable anatomic landmark to the facial nerve than the posterior-superior margin of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle (PBD) in parotid surgery.
  39. Vanopdenbosch L, Verhoeven K, Casselman J. Bell's palsy with ipsilateral numbness. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:1017-8 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging showed had contrast enhancement in the greater petrosal nerve. Viral spread through anatomical connections could be an explanation for the association of facial palsy with numbness...
  40. Guillot S, Azzouz M, Déglon N, Zurn A, Aebischer P. Local GDNF expression mediated by lentiviral vector protects facial nerve motoneurons but not spinal motoneurons in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2004;16:139-49 pubmed
    ..The differential effect of GDNF on facial nucleus versus spinal motoneurons suggests different vulnerability of motoneurons in ALS. ..
  41. Nowak D, Linder S, Topka H. Diagnostic relevance of transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the facial nerve in the management of facial palsy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:2051-7 pubmed
    Earlier investigations have suggested that isolated conduction block of the facial nerve to transcranial magnetic stimulation early in the disorder represents a very sensitive and potentially specific finding in Bell's palsy ..
  42. Potgieter W, Meiring J, Boon J, Pretorius E, Pretorius J, Becker P. Mandibular landmarks as an aid in minimizing injury to the marginal mandibular branch: A metric and geometric anatomical study. Clin Anat. 2005;18:171-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that these mandibular landmarks may assist surgeons in minimizing marginal mandibular branch injury and patient discomfort. ..
  43. Kashiwa K, Kobayashi S, Nasu W, Kuroda T, Higuchi H. Facial nerve reconstruction using a vascularized lateral femoral cutaneous nerve graft based on the superficial circumflex iliac artery system: an application of the inferolateral extension of the groin flap. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2010;26:577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used this technique involving a vascularized LFCN combined with a groin flap to reconstruct a facial nerve defect. The patient was a 58-year-old man with a salivary duct carcinoma in the left parotid gland...
  44. Agarwal C, Mendenhall S, Foreman K, Owsley J. The course of the frontal branch of the facial nerve in relation to fascial planes: an anatomic study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125:532-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the anatomy of the temporal region, controversy still exists over the depth of the frontal branch of the facial nerve as it travels over the zygomatic arch...
  45. Cronin G, Steenerson R. The effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining combined with electromyography in facial paralysis rehabilitation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;128:534-8 pubmed
    ..facial function were as follows: acoustic neuromas, 93%; Bell's palsy/Ramsay Hunt syndrome, 80%; and facial nerve anastomosis, 71%. Synkinesis was reduced by at least 2 levels in patients who initially demonstrated synkinesis...
  46. Madura T, Yamashita T, Kubo T, Tsuji L, Hosokawa K, Tohyama M. Changes in mRNA of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 2 following facial nerve transection. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;123:76-80 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of facial nerve transection on srGAP2 mRNA expression in the facial nerve nuclei by in situ hybridization...
  47. Miyashita T, Hoshikawa H, Kagawa M, Mori N. A case report of facial nerve hemangioma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:519-22 pubmed
    b>Facial nerve hemangioma is a rare benign tumor that originates from the venous plexus surrounding the facial nerve. A case of facial nerve hemangioma in the geniculate ganglion was reported...
  48. Coulson S, Croxson G, Adams R, O Dwyer N. Reliability of the "Sydney," "Sunnybrook," and "House Brackmann" facial grading systems to assess voluntary movement and synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:543-9 pubmed
    ..and between-system correlation for the "Sydney" and "Sunnybrook" systems of grading facial nerve paralysis, and to examine the interobserver reliability and agreement of the "House Brackmann" ..
  49. Dannenbaum M, Lega B, Suki D, Harper R, Yoshor D. Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: long-term results from 114 operations performed without neurophysiological monitoring. J Neurosurg. 2008;109:410-5 pubmed publisher
    Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve is an effective treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS), but the procedure is associated with a significant risk of complications such as hearing loss and facial weakness...
  50. Chen J, Saito S, Kobayashi N, Sato K, Terashita T, Shimokawa T, et al. Expression patterns in alternative splicing forms of prosaposin mRNA in the rat facial nerve nucleus after facial nerve transection. Neurosci Res. 2008;60:82-94 pubmed
    ..We examined the expression patterns of the alternative splicing forms of prosaposin mRNA in the rat facial nerve nucleus for 52 days following facial nerve transection...
  51. Greyling L, Glanvill R, Boon J, Schabort D, Meiring J, Pretorius J, et al. Bony landmarks as an aid for intraoperative facial nerve identification. Clin Anat. 2007;20:739-44 pubmed
    Identification of the facial nerve trunk is essential during surgery of the parotid gland. Numerous landmarks have been researched and used...
  52. Ankeny D, Popovich P. Central nervous system and non-central nervous system antigen vaccines exacerbate neuropathology caused by nerve injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:2053-64 pubmed
    ..Conversely, independent studies have shown T cell-mediated neuroprotection after spinal cord injury or facial nerve axotomy (FNAx). The antigen specificity of the neuroprotective T cells has not been investigated after FNAx...
  53. VanSwearingen J, Brach J. Changes in facial movement and synkinesis with facial neuromuscular reeducation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:2370-5 pubmed