myenteric plexus

Summary

Summary: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)

Top Publications

  1. van Helden D, Laver D, Holdsworth J, Imtiaz M. Generation and propagation of gastric slow waves. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:516-24 pubmed publisher
    ..What has been less clear is the relative role of primary types of ICC, including the network in the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY) and the intramuscular network (ICC-IM)...
  2. Chaumette T, Lebouvier T, Aubert P, Lardeux B, Qin C, Li Q, et al. Neurochemical plasticity in the enteric nervous system of a primate animal model of experimental Parkinsonism. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In the myenteric plexus, there was a significant increase in the number of neurons per ganglia (identified with Hu), especially ..
  3. Arciszewski M, Sand E, Ekblad E. Vasoactive intestinal peptide rescues cultured rat myenteric neurons from lipopolysaccharide induced cell death. Regul Pept. 2008;146:218-23 pubmed
    ..LPS recognition by myenteric neurons is mediated via TLR4 and causes neuronal cell death. Presence of VIP rescues the neurons from LPS-induced neurodegeneration. ..
  4. Vincent K, Sharp J, Raybould H. Intestinal glucose-induced calcium-calmodulin kinase signaling in the gut-brain axis in awake rats. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:e282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The precise mechanisms involved in luminal glucose-sensing are not clear; studying gut endocrine cells is difficult due to their sparse and irregular localization within the epithelium...
  5. Gulbransen B, Sharkey K. Purinergic neuron-to-glia signaling in the enteric nervous system. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..activity was elicited in enteric neurons by electrically stimulating interganglionic connectives in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig colon...
  6. Wang H, Zhang Y, Liu W, Wu R, Chen X, Gu L, et al. Interstitial cells of Cajal reduce in number in recto-sigmoid Hirschsprung's disease and total colonic aganglionosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;451:208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the control colon, c-Kit positive ICCs formed a dense network surrounding the myenteric plexus (IC-MY), along the submucosal surface of the circular muscle layer (IC-SM) and in the circular and ..
  7. Sand E, Themner Persson A, Ekblad E. Corticotropin releasing factor-distribution in rat intestine and role in neuroprotection. Regul Pept. 2011;166:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-culturing neurons and mast cells resulted in a marked reduction in neuronal survival, not executed via CRF signaling pathways. CRF is present in enteric neurons and counteracts the neuroprotective effect of VIP in vitro. ..
  8. Foong J, Parry L, Gwynne R, Bornstein J. 5-HT(1A), SST(1), and SST(2) receptors mediate inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the submucous plexus of the guinea pig ileum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus provides the tools to identify functions of enteric neural pathways that inhibit secretomotor reflexes. ..
  9. Nakayama S, Ohishi R, Sawamura K, Watanabe K, Hirose K. Microelectrode array evaluation of gut pacemaker activity in wild-type and W/W(v) mice. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;25:61-7 pubmed publisher
    Interstitial cells of Cajal in the myenteric plexus region (ICC-MyP) form a network and generate basal pacemaking electrical activity...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Qu Z, Thacker M, Castelucci P, Bagyánszki M, Epstein M, Furness J. Immunohistochemical analysis of neuron types in the mouse small intestine. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;334:147-61 pubmed publisher
    The definition of the nerve cell types of the myenteric plexus of the mouse small intestine has become important, as more researchers turn to the use of mice with genetic mutations to analyze roles of specific genes and their products in ..
  2. Albanese V, Lawson V, Hill A, Cappai R, di Guardo G, Staikopoulos V, et al. Evidence for prion protein expression in enteroglial cells of the myenteric plexus of mouse intestine. Auton Neurosci. 2008;140:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings clearly indicate that EGCs of the mouse intestine constitutively express PrP(C); thus they could be a potential target for infectious prions. ..
  3. Du P, O Grady G, Gibbons S, Yassi R, Lees Green R, Farrugia G, et al. Tissue-specific mathematical models of slow wave entrainment in wild-type and 5-HT(2B) knockout mice with altered interstitial cells of Cajal networks. Biophys J. 2010;98:1772-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a framework for evaluating how ICC network degradation may impair slow wave propagation and ultimately motility and transit. ..
  4. Antonioli L, Fornai M, Colucci R, Ghisu N, Tuccori M, Awwad O, et al. Control of enteric neuromuscular functions by purinergic A(3) receptors in normal rat distal colon and experimental bowel inflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:856-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Normally, adenosine modulated colonic cholinergic motility via activation of A(3) receptors in the myenteric plexus. A(3) receptor-mediated tonic inhibitory control by adenosine was impaired in inflamed bowel, despite ..
  5. Phillips R, Walter G, Ringer B, Higgs K, Powley T. Alpha-synuclein immunopositive aggregates in the myenteric plexus of the aging Fischer 344 rat. Exp Neurol. 2009;220:109-19 pubmed publisher
    Dystrophic axons and terminals are common in the myenteric plexus and smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of aged rats...
  6. Zhou H, Liu L, Bai Y, Wu W, Li G, Li J, et al. Damage of the interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric neurons causing ileus in acute necrotizing pancreatitis rats. Surgery. 2011;149:262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..032). Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of the small intestinal paralysis in ANP may be related to the deficiencies in ICC and nNOS neurons. ..
  7. de Vries P, Soret R, Suply E, Heloury Y, Neunlist M. Postnatal development of myenteric neurochemical phenotype and impact on neuromuscular transmission in the rat colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G539-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole mounts of colonic myenteric plexus were stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), ..
  8. Wedel T, Büsing V, Heinrichs G, Nohroudi K, Bruch H, Roblick U, et al. Diverticular disease is associated with an enteric neuropathy as revealed by morphometric analysis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:407-14, e93-4 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced neuronal density in all enteric nerve plexus, (ii) decrease of ganglionic nerve cell content in the myenteric plexus, (iii) decreased ganglionic density in the internal submucosal plexus, (iv) reduced glial cell density in the ..
  9. Sand E, Themner Persson A, Ekblad E. Mast cells reduce survival of myenteric neurons in culture. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Mast cell-induced neuronal cell death is suggested to be mediated via PAR(2) activation, IL6 and prostaglandin D(2). Corticosteroid and VIP are neuroprotective and able to prevent cell death of myenteric neurons in co-culture. ..
  10. Bódi N, Battonyai I, Talapka P, Fekete E, Bagyánszki M. Spatial pattern analysis of nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum of different mammalian species. Acta Biol Hung. 2009;60:347-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, the density and the spatial organization of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum were investigated in 7 mammalian species...
  11. Gulbransen B, Bains J, Sharkey K. Enteric glia are targets of the sympathetic innervation of the myenteric plexus in the guinea pig distal colon. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, enteric glia discern activity in adjacent synaptic pathways and selectively respond to sympathetic activation. ..
  12. Junquera Escribano C, Cantarero Carmona I, Luesma Bartolomé M, Soriano Navarro M, Martínez Ciriano C, Castiella Muruzábal T, et al. The primary cilium: A relevant characteristic in interstitial cells of rat duodenum enteric plexus. Histol Histopathol. 2011;26:461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We have located three interstitial cellular types around the rat duodenum myenteric plexus. Type I cells have been identified as Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICCs)...
  13. Krauter E, Strong D, Brooks E, Linden D, Sharkey K, Mawe G. Changes in colonic motility and the electrophysiological properties of myenteric neurons persist following recovery from trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in the guinea pig. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007;19:990-1000 pubmed
  14. Tsuchida Y, Hatao F, Fujisawa M, Murata T, Kaminishi M, Seto Y, et al. Neuronal stimulation with 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor induces anti-inflammatory actions via ?7nACh receptors on muscularis macrophages associated with postoperative ileus. Gut. 2011;60:638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Prokinetic 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (5-HT?R) agonists and dopamine receptor antagonists are potential therapeutic agents for directly ameliorating the motility disorder associated with POI...
  15. Facco M, Brun P, Baesso I, Costantini M, Rizzetto C, Berto A, et al. T cells in the myenteric plexus of achalasia patients show a skewed TCR repertoire and react to HSV-1 antigens. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1598-609 pubmed publisher
  16. Ippolito C, Segnani C, De Giorgio R, Blandizzi C, Mattii L, Castagna M, et al. Quantitative evaluation of myenteric ganglion cells in normal human left colon: implications for histopathological analysis. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;336:191-201 pubmed publisher
  17. Giaroni C, Zanetti E, Giuliani D, Oldrini R, Marchet S, Moro E, et al. Protein kinase C modulates NMDA receptors in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum during in vitro ischemia and reperfusion. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:e91-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancement of glutamate overflow and the consequent activation of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors may participate to such changes by modulating different enteric neurotransmitter systems, including cholinergic motor pathways...
  18. Junquera C, Martínez Ciriano C, Castiella T, Serrano P, Azanza M, Junquera S. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of interstitial cells of Cajal in the rabbit duodenum. Presence of a single cilium. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:776-87 pubmed
    Santiago Ramón y Cajal discovered a new type of cell related to the myenteric plexus and also to the smooth muscle cells of the circular muscle layer of the intestine...
  19. Wolf M, Schrödl F, Neuhuber W, Brehmer A. Calcitonin gene-related peptide: a marker for putative primary afferent neurons in the pig small intestinal myenteric plexus?. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:1273-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CGRP-antibodies can be used as markers for type II neurons in the pig small intestinal myenteric plexus in quantitative studies but it should be kept in mind that up to one-tenth of CGRP-reactive neurons may be ..
  20. Aulí M, Nasser Y, Ho W, Burgueño J, Keenan C, Romero C, et al. Neuromuscular changes in a rat model of colitis. Auton Neurosci. 2008;141:10-21 pubmed publisher
    ..T. spiralis-induced colitis causes profound neuromuscular adaptations. The reduction in NOS neurons appears to underlie changes in motility. ..
  21. Rumessen J, Vanderwinden J, Rasmussen H, Hansen A, Horn T. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in myenteric plexus of human colon. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;337:197-212 pubmed publisher
    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear...
  22. Tharayil V, Wouters M, Stanich J, Roeder J, Lei S, Beyder A, et al. Lack of serotonin 5-HT2B receptor alters proliferation and network volume of interstitial cells of Cajal in vivo. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:462-9, e109-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult ICC do proliferate. The number of proliferating ICC was lower in the myenteric plexus region of Htr2b(-/-) compared to Htr2b(+/+) mice...
  23. Mazzuoli G, Schemann M. Multifunctional rapidly adapting mechanosensitive enteric neurons (RAMEN) in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum. J Physiol. 2009;587:4681-94 pubmed publisher
    ..imaging we identified rapidly adapting mechanosensitive enteric neurons (RAMEN, 25% of all neurons) in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum...
  24. Gwynne R, Bornstein J. Electrical stimulation of the mucosa evokes slow EPSPs mediated by NK1 tachykinin receptors and by P2Y1 purinoceptors in different myenteric neurons. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Segments of ileum or jejunum were dissected to allow access to the myenteric plexus adjacent to intact mucosa, in vitro. AH and S neurons were impaled with conventional intracellular electrodes...
  25. Hagl C, Rauch U, Klotz M, Heumüller S, Grundmann D, Ehnert S, et al. The microenvironment in the Hirschsprung's disease gut supports myenteric plexus growth. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27:817-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Influences of HSCR-smooth-muscle-protein extracts upon isolated myenteric plexus cells, dissociated dorsal root ganglia and NCSC were studied in vitro to investigate the quality of this ..
  26. Voukali E, Shotton H, Lincoln J. Selective responses of myenteric neurons to oxidative stress and diabetic stimuli. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:964-e411 pubmed publisher
    ..and calbindin relative to the pan-neuronal marker HuC/D were quantified in wholemount preparations of the myenteric plexus of adult rat ileum using double labeling immunohistochemistry...
  27. Hori M, Nobe H, Horiguchi K, Ozaki H. MCP-1 targeting inhibits muscularis macrophage recruitment and intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction in colonic inflammation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C391-401 pubmed
    ..These macrophages express MCP-1 for further recruitment of monocytes. MCP-1 may be one potential therapeutic target for inhibiting intestinal motility disorders in gut inflammation. ..
  28. Kang M, Maguma H, Smith T, Ross G, Dewey W, Akbarali H. The role of ?-arrestin2 in the mechanism of morphine tolerance in the mouse and guinea pig gastrointestinal tract. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;340:567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..for morphine-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation contraction of guinea pig longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus shifted rightward in the ileum from 5.7 ± 0.08 (n = 9) to 5.45 ± 0.09 (n = 6) (p < 0...
  29. Tan L, Bornstein J, Anderson C. The neurochemistry and innervation patterns of extrinsic sensory and sympathetic nerves in the myenteric plexus of the C57Bl6 mouse jejunum. Neuroscience. 2010;166:564-79 pubmed publisher
    ..with immunohistochemical labelling was used to characterize the extrinsic nerve projections in the myenteric plexus of the mouse jejunum...
  30. Furlan M, Molinari S, Miranda Neto M. Morphoquantitative effects of acute diabetes on the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002;60:576-81 pubmed
    ..These observations were discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of the diabetes and the experimental protocol. ..
  31. Ganns D, Schrodl F, Neuhuber W, Brehmer A. Investigation of general and cytoskeletal markers to estimate numbers and proportions of neurons in the human intestine. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:41-51 pubmed publisher
  32. Zanoni J, De Freitas P, Pereira R, Dos Santos Pereira M, de Miranda Neto M. Effects of supplementation with ascorbic acid for a period of 120 days on the myosin-V and NADPHd positive myenteric neurons of the ileum of rats. Anat Histol Embryol. 2005;34:149-53 pubmed
    ..05). There were no significant differences when we compared the area of myosin-V stained neurons between groups C and CA. However, we verified an area reduction of 7.5% in NADPHd neurons when comparing group C to group CA (P < 0.05). ..
  33. Sandgren K, Lin Z, Fex Svenningsen A, Ekblad E. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture. J Neurosci Res. 2003;72:595-602 pubmed
    ..VIP and NO significantly promoted neuronal survival. Corroborating this was the finding of an enhanced neuronal cell loss when cultures were grown in the presence of VIP antiserum or NOS inhibitor. ..
  34. Sigurdson C, Spraker T, Miller M, Oesch B, Hoover E. PrP(CWD) in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2327-34 pubmed
    ..PrP(CWD) was detected in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk, nodose ganglion, pituitary, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets...
  35. Thrasivoulou C, Soubeyre V, Ridha H, Giuliani D, Giaroni C, Michael G, et al. Reactive oxygen species, dietary restriction and neurotrophic factors in age-related loss of myenteric neurons. Aging Cell. 2006;5:247-57 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that CR enhances antioxidant defence through neurotrophic factor signalling, thereby reducing age-related increases in neuronal ROS levels and in ROS-induced cell death. ..
  36. Pfannkuche H, Schemann M, Gäbel G. Ruminal muscle of sheep is innervated by non-polarized pathways of cholinergic and nitrergic myenteric neurones. Cell Tissue Res. 2002;309:347-54 pubmed
    ..Cell bodies within the myenteric plexus projecting to the longitudinal or circular muscle layer were retrogradely labelled by direct application of ..
  37. Neunlist M, Aubert P, Toquet C, Oreshkova T, Barouk J, Lehur P, et al. Changes in chemical coding of myenteric neurones in ulcerative colitis. Gut. 2003;52:84-90 pubmed
    ..peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected by immunohistochemical methods in whole mounts of colonic myenteric plexus of UC patients (n=10) and controls (n=8)...
  38. Bian X, Ren J, DeVries M, Schnegelsberg B, Cockayne D, Ford A, et al. Peristalsis is impaired in the small intestine of mice lacking the P2X3 subunit. J Physiol. 2003;551:309-22 pubmed
    ..P2X3 subunits are localized to AH (sensory) but not S neurons. P2X3 receptors may contribute to detection of distention or intraluminal pressure increases and initiation of reflex contractions. ..
  39. Xiang Z, Burnstock G. Development of nerves expressing P2X3 receptors in the myenteric plexus of rat stomach. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:111-9 pubmed
    Development of neurones and fibres expressing P2X3 receptors in the myenteric plexus of rat stomach and coexistence of the P2X3 receptor with calbindin, calretinin and NOS during postnatal development, were investigated with ..
  40. Tashima C, Tronchini E, Pereira R, Bazotte R, Zanoni J. Diabetic rats supplemented with L-glutamine: a study of immunoreactive myosin-V myenteric neurons and the proximal colonic mucosa. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:1233-41 pubmed
    ..05). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) when the data relative to the area of the myenteric neuron cell bodies, metaphasic index, and crypt depth in the proximal colon were compared among experimental groups. ..
  41. Bar Shai A, Maayan C, Vromen A, Udassin R, Nissan A, Freund H, et al. Decreased density of ganglia and neurons in the myenteric plexus of familial dysautonomia patients. J Neurol Sci. 2004;220:89-94 pubmed
    ..Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a hereditary disease of the autonomic and sensory nervous system. A prominent manifestation of FD is gastrointestinal dyscoordination, which contributes to the morbidity and mortality in FD...
  42. Zarate N, Wang X, Tougas G, Anvari M, Birch D, Mearin F, et al. Intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal associated with mast cells survive nitrergic nerves in achalasia. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:556-68 pubmed
    ..MC are prominent and form close functional contact with ICC-IM which may be responsible for their relatively long survival. ..
  43. Poole D, Van Nguyen T, Kawai M, Furness J. Protein kinases expressed by interstitial cells of Cajal. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;121:21-30 pubmed
    ..Double labelling studies were conducted on longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus and external muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of the oesophagus, stomach (fundus, corpus and antrum), ..
  44. Fujita A, Takeuchi T, Jun H, Hata F. Localization of Ca2+-activated K+ channel, SK3, in fibroblast-like cells forming gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in the mouse small intestine. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003;92:35-42 pubmed
    ..The gap junctions were smaller than those between ICC and smooth muscle cells. These results indicate expression of SK3 in fibroblast-like cells, but not in ICC, and suggest participation of the cells in the intestinal motility. ..
  45. Hu H, Gao N, Zhu M, Liu S, Ren J, Gao C, et al. Slow excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by P2Y1 receptors in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system. J Physiol. 2003;550:493-504 pubmed
    ..input to the submucosal neurones came from neighbouring neurones in the same plexus, from neurones in the myenteric plexus and from sympathetic postganglionic neurones...
  46. Rumio C, Besusso D, Arnaboldi F, Palazzo M, Selleri S, Gariboldi S, et al. Activation of smooth muscle and myenteric plexus cells of jejunum via Toll-like receptor 4. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:47-54 pubmed
    ..Smooth muscle and myenteric plexus cells but not enterocytes revealed receptor expression...
  47. Lin Z, Gao N, Hu H, Liu S, Gao C, Kim G, et al. Immunoreactivity of Hu proteins facilitates identification of myenteric neurones in guinea-pig small intestine. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2002;14:197-204 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemically as neuronal markers in whole-mount preparations and cultures obtained from the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig small intestine...
  48. Kinoshita K, Horiguchi K, Fujisawa M, Kobirumaki F, Yamato S, Hori M, et al. Possible involvement of muscularis resident macrophages in impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric nerve systems in rat models of TNBS-induced colitis. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;127:41-53 pubmed
    ..are distributed in the network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the myenteric nerve within the myenteric plexus. We evaluated changes in chemoattractant protein mRNA expression in macrophages and neutrophils, the ICC, ..
  49. De Giorgio R, Bovara M, Barbara G, Canossa M, Sarnelli G, De Ponti F, et al. Anti-HuD-induced neuronal apoptosis underlying paraneoplastic gut dysmotility. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:70-9 pubmed
    ..Anti-HuD antibodies evoked neuronal apoptosis that may contribute to enteric nervous system impairment underlying paraneoplastic gut dysmotility. Apaf-1 activation suggests participation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. ..
  50. Vannucchi M, Zizzo M, Zardo C, Pieri L, Serio R, Mulè F, et al. Ultrastructural changes in the interstitial cells of Cajal and gastric dysrhythmias in mice lacking full-length dystrophin (mdx mice). J Cell Physiol. 2004;199:293-309 pubmed
    ..populations of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) lie in the gastric wall, one located at the myenteric plexus level has a pace-making function and the other located intramuscularly is intermediary in the ..
  51. Abalo R, José Rivera A, Vera G, Isabel Martín M. Ileal myenteric plexus in aged guinea-pigs: loss of structure and calretinin-immunoreactive neurones. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2005;17:123-32 pubmed
    b>Myenteric plexus controls gastrointestinal motility by means of well organized circuits which are comprised of sensory neurones, interneurones and motor neurones to the muscular layers...
  52. Brehmer A, Schrodl F, Neuhuber W. Morphology of VIP/nNOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the human gut. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;125:557-65 pubmed
    ..Of the axons which could be followed from the ganglion of origin within primary strands of the myenteric plexus beyond the next ganglion (70 out of 140 traced neurons), 94.3% run anally and 5.7% orally...
  53. Hu H, Gao N, Lin Z, Gao C, Liu S, Ren J, et al. Chemical coding and electrophysiology of enteric neurons expressing neurofilament 145 in guinea pig gastrointestinal tract. J Comp Neurol. 2002;442:189-203 pubmed
    ..NF145 immunoreactivity (-IR) was present in ganglion cells with Dogiel type I morphology in the myenteric plexus of the stomach and small and large intestine...